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  • Public defence: 2019-12-09 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Valencia, Luis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cellulose Nanofibril-based Hybrid Materials: Eco-friendly design towards separation and packaging applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose has been lately considered as the “Holy-Grail” in the design of sustainable materials due to its bio-origin and an unprecedented combination of prominent features, including good mechanical properties, anisotropy and versatile surface chemistry. In addition, nanocellulose in the form of cellulose nanofibrils, can adopt variable structures and morphologies depending on the processing technique, such as aerogels, films and monoliths.

    However, there are limitations that hinder the implementation of cellulose nanofibrils in “real-life applications”, such as inherent interaction with bacteria and proteins, thus leading to surface-fouling; and loss of integrity due to water-induced swelling. A way to overcome these challenges, and provide further functionality, is through hybridization strategies, at which the multiple components act synergistically towards specific properties and applications. In this thesis, the aim is to present multiple strategies for the synthesis of novel cellulose nanofibril-based hybrid materials, in the form of 2D-films and 3D-foams, towards their employment for separation applications or active food packaging.

    A novel strategy to surface-functionalize cellulose nanofibril-membranes is proposed via grafting zwitterionic polymer brushes of poly (cysteine methacrylate). The modification can suppress the absorption of proteins in an 85%, as well as decreasing the adhesion of bacteria in an 87%, while introducing antimicrobial properties, as demonstrated against S. aureus.

    The spontaneous formation of functional metal oxide nanoparticles occurring in situ on cellulose nanofibrils-films during the adsorption of metal ions from water is investigated, which occurs without the additional use of chemicals or temperature. Notably, this process not only enables the upcycling of materials through multi-stage applications, but also provides a cost-effective method to prepare multifunctional hybrid materials with enhanced dye-removal/antimicrobial activity.

    The processing of functional composite films from cellulose nanofibril-stabilized Pickering emulsions and their suitability to be used as active edible barriers was demonstrated. The presence of oil in the films fine-tuned the properties of the films, as well as acted as the medium to encapsulate bio-active hydrophobic compounds, providing further functionality such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Anisotropic porous hybrid foams with ultra-high loading capacity of sorbents (e.g., zeolites and metal-organic frameworks) were produced via unidirectional freeze-casting method using cellulose nanofibrils/gelatin as template material. The foams indeed exhibited ultra-high loading capacity of sorbent nanomaterials, a linear relationship between sorbent content and CO2 adsorption capacity, and high CO2/N2 selectivity.

  • Ruesta Tirado, Gianluca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Transspråkande på SFI: En kvalitativ studie om lärares och elevers användning av sina språkliga repertoarer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) is a study program provided by Swedish municipalities to those who are resident in the country, above the age of 16 and in need to acquire basic skills in the Swedish language. Through this course, students are expected to develop their language knowledge to a level that allows them to participate actively in society as well as communicate freely at work or in other educational environments.

    The aim of this study is to analyse how teachers and students in two different SFI classrooms use their linguistic repertoires to make meaning in oral interaction with each other. Moreover, the study intends to investigate the study participants’ stance of the use of different languages at SFI.

    This has been done with translanguaging as the main theoretical framework. Translanguaging is an approach to multilingualism which takes into consideration multilingual individuals’ lived experiences and language practices as ways for them to make meaning. Through this approach, every language that is represented in the classroom and other semiotic resources are valued as a part of a multilingual person’s linguistic repertoire and can therefore be used in interaction. Because translanguaging has been mainly used in research about primary school and in contexts where English is the target language, this thesis wanted to further explore how translanguaging is used as a pedagogical approach in a Swedish as a second language course where the students are adults.

    Designed as a qualitative research, the study has employed classroom observations and semi- structured interviews as the research methods. First, classroom observations were conducted in the two studied classrooms and were documented by means of field notes and audio recordings. After an initial analysis of all the data collected through the observations, the study participants were interviewed about their stance on the use of multiple languages as a mean of instruction and about their recollections of some critical moments using the stimulated recall technique.

    The study results showed that the teacher in one classroom only used Swedish as the language of instruction, while the teachers in the second classroom drew upon both their and their students’ linguistic repertoires in their teaching. The interview with one of these teachers showed a positive stance towards the use of the different resources from both teachers’ and students’ linguistic repertoires. Students in both classrooms were observed using different languages, such as Swedish, English and their mother tongues, as well as body language and other resources as a way to make meaning in interaction with others and solve tasks. Interviews with students showed though different attitudes towards the use of different languages in SFI-instruction: while some students see positive sides in the possibility of using their other languages during classes, other students expressed an opposition to this

    practice and a preference for the use of Swedish only.

  • Vidal, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Lärarna, låtarna och lusten: Om didaktiska musikaktiviteter i spanskundervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En undersökning av hur lärare i spanska, åk 6-9 och gymnasiet, använder musik i sin undervisning, vilka dessa aktiviteter är och syftet med dem. Studien visar att musik och sång bl.a är gynnsam för att undervisa kultur och att musikaktiviteter har motiverande effekter. 

  • Karlsson, Anna Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Man kan ju inte ha allt i huvudet: Sfi-lärares beskrivningar av bedömningsgrunder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska skolsystemet och det bedömningsarbete som utförs inom dess verksamheter ska präglas av likvärdighet. Resultaten av senare års bedömningsforskning visar dock på brister. Syftet med denna uppsats är att i relation till tidigare forskning undersöka hur Sfi-lärare beskriver sitt förfarande vid bedömningen av en elevtext. Uppsatsens frågeställningar är 1. Vilka aspekter lyfts fram i lärarnas beskrivningar och hur speglas kunskapskraven i beskrivningarna? och 2. Vilka strategier och stöd för bedömningen uppger lärarna att de använder?

    För att besvara frågeställningarna och uppnå det uppsatsen syftar till har 8 Sfi-lärare bedömt en och samma elevtext och vid personliga intervjuer beskrivit de tolkningar och avvägningar som ingått i bedömningsprocessen.

    Resultatet överensstämmer med tidigare forskningsresultat, då lärarnas beskrivningar av sina tillvägagångssätt och resonemang visar variationer gällande såväl vilka grunder lärarna baserar sin bedömning på, vilka strategier och bedömningsstöd som används, samt i betygssättningen av elevtexten.

  • Vollbrecht, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    ”Känslan att inte bli bedömd": En studie om tre svenska som andraspråkslärares arbete med formativ bedömning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur tre svenska som andraspråkslärare tolkar och beskriver att det använder formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråk. Forskningsfrågorna som ställts upp lyder: "Hur tolkas formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråksundervisningen och vilken inställning har lärarna till arbetssättet?" och "Hur beskriver lärarna sitt arbete med formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråk?". Vidare ska studien bidra till ökad kunskap kring hur implementering av formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråkundervisning kan gå till. Slutsatser som kunnat dras är att formativ bedömning ur ett svenska som andraspråksperspektiv är ett relativt glest beforskat område. Däremot finns en hel del forskning av formativ bedömning som generellt begrepp och  andraspråksundervisning separat av tillgå vilket legat som grund för denna studie.

    Materialet har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer vilket är en rekommenderad metod att använda när målet är att få en bild av människors individuella tankar och  erfarenheter. Med hjälp av transkribering och en tematisk analysmetod har resultatet framställts med utdrag från respektive respondenters intervjuer Resultatet visar att respondenterna i denna studie ställer sig positiva till användning av formativ bedömning och att de ser ett behov av att tydliggöra mål och kriterier för andraspråkselever. Vidare visar resultatet att respondenterna anser sig undervisa enligt ett formativt arbetssätt men att de alla gånger inte följer strategierna som finns för arbetssättet till punkt och pricka. Kamratbedömning lyfts av samtliga som ett effektiva sätt att arbeta formativt med elever för att dels utveckla självreglerat lärande, dels för att spara tid vid rättning. Vidare poängterar samtliga respondenter att bedömningen i svenska som andraspråk är lika komplex som i andra ämnen men att det är skillnad i vad man behöver fokusera på i SVA. Respondenterna önskar därför att kartläggning av elevernas kunskaper blir mer organiserat på skolorna de arbetar på.

  • Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories of effort-reward imbalance in Swedish workers: Differences in demographic and work-related factors and associations with health2019In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Dawitz, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mechanistic Insights in the Biogenesis and Function of the Respiratory Chain2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria fulfill a plethora of functions, including harboring metabolic pathways and converting energy stored in metabolites into ATP, the common energy source of the cell. This last function is performed by the oxidative phosphorylation system, consisting of the respiratory chain and the ATP synthase. Electrons are channeled through the complexes of the respiratory chain, while protons are translocated across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This process establishes an electrochemical gradient, which is used by the ATP synthase to generate ATP. The subunits of two of the respiratory chain complexes, the bc1 complex and the cytochrome c oxidase, are encoded by two genetic origins, the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. Therefore, the assembly of these complexes needs to be coordinated and highly regulated.

    Several proteins are involved in the biogenesis of the bc1 complex. Amongst these proteins, the Cbp3-Cbp6 complex was shown to regulate translation and assembly of the bc1 complex subunit cytochrome b. In this work, we established a homology model of yeast Cbp3. Using a site-specific crosslink approach, we identified binding sites of Cbp3 to its obligate binding partner Cbp6 and its client, cytochrome b, enabling a deeper insight in the molecular mechanisms of bc1 complex biogenesis. 

    The bc1 complex and the cytochrome c oxidase form macromolecular structures, called supercomplexes. The detailed assembly mechanisms and functions of these structures remain to be solved. Two proteins, Rcf1 and Rcf2, were identified associating with supercomplexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our studies demonstrate that, while Rcf1 has a minor effect on supercomplex assembly, its main function is to modulate cytochrome c oxidase activity. We show that cytochrome c oxidase is present in three structurally different populations. Rcf1 is needed to maintain the dominant population in a functionally active state. In absence of Rcf1, the abundance of a population with an altered active site is increased. We propose that Rcf1 is needed, especially under a high work load of the respiratory chain, to maintain the function of cytochrome c oxidase.

    This thesis aims to unravel molecular mechanisms of proteins involved in biogenesis and functionality of respiratory chain complexes to enable a deeper understanding. Dysfunctional respiratory chain complexes lead to severe disease, emphasizing the importance of this work.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Johansson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . SMHI - Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut.
    Improving the understanding of cloud radiative heating2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clouds play an essential role in regulating Earth’s radiation budget by reflecting and absorbing energy at different spectra. As they interact with radiation, they can radiatively heat or cool the adjacent atmosphere and the surface. This heating effect can have a strong implication for the circulation and can change the surface properties by, for example, melting sea ice. The lack of high-resolution global observations has previously been a limitation for our understanding of the vertical structure of cloud radiative heating, and for evaluating the cloud radiative effect in climate models. In this thesis, we will investigate and document cloud radiative heating derived from space-based observations. We will focus on two regions, the Arctic and the Tropics, where cloud radiative heating plays an important, but fundamentally different role.

    In the Tropics, radiative heating at high altitudes influences the large scale circulation. Stratiform, deep convective, and cirrus clouds have a strong radiative impact in the upper troposphere. We found while investigating the Indian monsoon, that thick stratiform clouds will radiatively heat the upper troposphere by more than 0.2 K/day when the monsoon is most intense during June, July and August. Deep convective clouds cause considerable heating in the middle troposphere and at the same time, cool the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). These two thick cloud types will also cool the surface during the monsoon, weakening the temperature gradient between land and ocean. During these months, cirrus clouds are frequently located inside the TTL. We further find that in the Tropics, the climate model, EC-Earth, can capture the seasonal variations in cloud radiative heating seen in the satellite observations. However, the model overestimates the radiative heating in the upper region  and underestimates them in the middle region of the troposphere. This dissimilarity is caused by unrealistic longwave heating and low cloud fraction in the upper and middle of the troposphere, respectively.

    Radiative heating from cirrus, located inside the TTL, is considered to play an important role in the mass transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere. This heating generates enough buoyancy so that the air can pass the barrier of zero net radiative heating. We find that high thin single-layer clouds can heat the upper troposphere by 0.07 K/day. If a thick cloud layer is present underneath, they will radiatively suppress the high cloud, causing it to cool the adjacent air instead. The optical depth and cloud top height of the underlying cloud are two crucial factors that radiatively impact the high cloud above.

    Warm moist air is regularly transported from the mid-latitudes into the Arctic by low- and high-pressure systems. As the moist air enters the Arctic, it increases the cloudiness and warms the surface. This surface heating has the potential to affect the ice cover months after the intrusion. We find that during extreme moist intrusions, the surface temperature in the Arctic can rise by more than 5 K during the winter months with an increase in cloudiness by up to 30% downstream from the intrusion. These extra clouds radiatively heat the lower part of the atmosphere and cool the middle part, affecting the stability of the Arctic atmosphere.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:00 Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Stockholm
    Forsman, Hilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Addressing poor educational outcomes among children with out-of-home care experience: Studies on impact, pathways, and interventions2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with out-of-home care (OHC; foster family/residential care) experience is a high-risk group for future adverse outcomes. With an ambition of supporting the design of effective preventive child welfare measures targeting children in OHC, the overall aim of this thesis is to examine education as a possible intervention path for improving their development and overall life chances.

    The thesis consists of four interrelated empirical studies that address different aspects of poor educational outcomes among children with OHC experience by means of analyses of longitudinal survey and register data, and evaluations of two interventions aimed at improving their basic academic skills.

    Study I examined the hypothesized causal effect of poor school performance on adverse outcomes in young adulthood among children with OHC experience. The results showed that poor school performance has an impact on later psychosocial problems net of observed and unobserved factors, suggesting that the estimated effects allow for causal interpretations.

    Study II explored educational outcomes at different stages in the educational career, and pathways to varied educational outcomes for children with OHC experience and their peers. The results showed that the OHC group had lower educational outcomes across the life course. Yet, by large, their educational pathways did not differ significantly from their peers – cognitive ability and previous school performance had the largest associations with the outcomes in both groups. However, the influence of these factors were weaker in the OHC group whilst the influence of the birth family’s attitude towards higher education was stronger.

    Study III aimed at furthering our understanding of the book-gifting program the Letterbox Club’s potential impact on foster family children’s reading skills. The results showed that participation in the program was associated with small improvements. In general, the program was well received by children and carers, and could result in increased reading. The study furthermore suggested that promotion of carer involvement may improve its potential impact.

    Study IV explored the process of conducting a structured paired reading intervention involving foster family children and their carers. Findings showed that it is possible to engage carers in interventions targeting the education of children in OHC, but that this is no automatic process – carers need a rationale for getting involved, and support in delivering the intervention.

    In sum, this thesis shows that improving the educational outcomes of children in OHC may be a viable intervention path in supporting their life course development, a path that historically has been overlooked. The thesis furthermore shows examples of promising interventions which may improve the basic academic skills of children in OHC. The results also point out that the child welfare system should provide early and continuous educational support, and highlight the importance of addressing adults’ attitudes, expectations, and involvement in these children’s education.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:00 Ahlmansalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Arvidsson, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    « C'est ça, en fait. » Développer l'idiomaticité dans une L2 pendant un séjour linguistique: Trois études sur le rôle des différences individuelles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the development of idiomaticity in French as a second language (L2). Idiomaticity in this context refers to knowledge and use of multiword expressions (MWEs), such as for example c'est ça and en fait. Developing idiomaticity is an important yet challenging aspect of L2 learning, and requires substantial exposure to the target language (TL). This makes the study abroad learning context ideal. However, research shows that learners vary considerably with respect to their linguistic development during their stay abroad. The aim of this thesis is to investigate what factors promote the development of idiomaticity in L2 French during a semester abroad. The thesis comprises three studies which are informed by usage-based approaches to language learning and individual difference research, and which include a total of 43 participants. Study I quantitatively investigates the role of quantity of TL contact for the learning of MWEs used in informal conversations. The results show that quantity of TL contact during the stay abroad did not predict the development of MWE knowledge. Study II qualitatively explores what kind of TL contact and what psychological orientation (a constellation of psychological factors) might promote MWE learning by focusing on contrasting cases of learners from Study I. The findings suggest that a relatively varied contact with the TL in combination with a favorable psychological orientation promoted MWE learning, including a self-reported tendency to notice language forms, a strong L2 motivation, a sense of self-efficacy and self-regulatory capabilities. Study III explores the role of social networks for the development of idiomaticity in spoken L2 French. It is found that the learner's repertoire of MWEs was promoted by a social network including several relationships sustained in the TL. Overall, the findings suggest that a relatively varied TL contact in combination with a favorable psychological orientation and/or a social network including TL speakers promote the development of L2 idiomaticity during the semester abroad. In other words, mere exposure to the TL does not seem to be enough to develop idiomaticity. This thesis contributes to SA research on L2 learning and can hopefully be of use to future SA participants who want to develop their knowledge and use of MWEs which are key to successful communication in an L2.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 13:00 hörsal 8, hus D, Stockholm
    Hermansson, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Symbols and emotions in Swedish crime policy discourse2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general public has assumed an increasingly prominent position in crime policy discourse, both in Sweden and internationally. Nowadays crime policy initiatives often acknowledge and respond to the presumed concerns of the general public, for instance through the promise of safety. This thesis analyses how political parties encourage the public to engage emotionally in crime policy matters. Since public involvement is crucial in elections, the election campaigns of political parties have served as the empirical basis of my studies. The three articles included in the thesis together examine the election campaigns in Sweden from 2006 to 2018.

    In this body of work, it is assumed that the emotional address of the political parties can be analysed by paying specific attention to the political use of symbols and the discursive organisation of emotions. The thesis illustrates how the welfare context influences the ways in which crime policy is communicated and legitimised in Sweden. Values and ideals associated with the welfare state and with the related notion of a ‘Nordic exceptionalism’ – such as equality, benevolence, social cohesion, trust and safety – permeate the Swedish crime policy discourse. By interpreting these values and ideals as a system of symbols, I stress the need to explore them in relation to the general public and with regards to the emotional appeal these symbols might have.

    In my work, I emphasise variation and contradiction regarding emotional tones and I explore the norms circumscribing emotional expressions in crime policy discourse. I have treated emotions as being present in all political communication. This suggests that emotions are not only being encouraged in the ‘hot’ emotional climate, but also in the more emotionally restrained discourse and when politicians allude to the utility of political measures. The results point towards the need to distinguish between emotions and to the exploration of the relationship between them since different emotions are associated with their distinct consequences and they influence how we are encouraged to perceive and feel for different crime policy measures.

    The thesis concludes that the political use of symbols and emotions should be understood as having a reassuring function. It is further suggested that symbols and emotions can be used politically both in order to limit and to promote change with regards to Swedish crime policy discourse.

  • Sourlamtas, Konstantinos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Soil Erosion estimation for the Göta Älv river using remote sensing, GIS and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous studies, the study area of Göta Älv river has high risk of landslides along the river banks due to the water flow. Soil erosion can affect the increase of the landslides in an area with unstable soils caused by the increase rainfall. The Swedish climate is getting more vulnerable thus there is a potential increased risk in erosion and landslides due to unpredictable rainfall intensity. This study aims to calculate soil erosion for the Göta Älv river using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) where a comparison of data from remote sensing and meteorological and geological agencies were completed. Two research questions will be addressed, first if the different calculation of the soil erodibility (K) factor affects RUSLE result, and second how much soil erosion occurs and will potentially occur in the future. Factors including rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), slope length and steepness (LS), land cover management (C) and conservation practices (P) were analyzed and used as inputs for the RUSLE model. Moreover, three scenarios were applied for the calculation of K factor in order to show how each one can affect the soil erosion result. The scenarios includes the K-scenario 1, 2 and 3, where the values were derived from a world soil database, a table with literature values and estimated field measurements, respectively. Also, three scenarios for R factor were applied for the periods 2000-2018, 2021-2050 and 2069-2098 (R-scenarios 1, 2 and 3) in order to show how future changes to rainfall patterns could affect soil erosion in the Göta Älv river and if it increases the risk of the landslides. The results suggest that the soil erosion varied between 0 – 0.5 t/ha for all the time periods with mean annual soil loss between 20 – 22 t/ha/yr and maximum soil loss between 2158- 5443 t/ha. The difference between the three K factor scenarios is almost 4%, which is pretty low thus, no influence on the soil erosion results. In conclusion, the different calculations of the K factor affected more the estimated maximum soil loss instead of the mean annual soil loss. The different calculations of R factor showed that more than 90% of the total area was not affected by the soil erosion when the soil loss will not be increased considerably in the future due to the rainfall increase.

  • Allègre, Xavier
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Different generation of controlled moraines in the glacier foreland of Midtdalsbreen, Norway2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small mounds (< 3m) were sampled in the foreland of Midtdalsbreen outlet glacier, southern Norway. These landforms were interesting, especially at site number 1 because they were located very close to a higher Little Ice Age (LIA) moraine (> 5 m), thereby informing the dynamic of the glacier after the LIA at this location. It was yet to determine if these specific mounds are controlled moraines. If they are controlled moraines, then this would have implication for the glacier dynamics and the geometry of the snout after the LIA. It could be determined, based on the landform record evidence, whether the ice at the snout of Midtdalsbreen was thin and cold shortly after the LIA. Furthermore, whether the landscape was deglaciated by downwasting and then by backwasting was the main question addressed in relation to the nature of the mound and the thickness of ice at the snout during and after the LIA. In order to better understand the nature of the landform record and the mounds near the LIA moraine, satellite imagery coupled with careful field investigations were used in the foreland of the Midtdalsbreen outlet glacier. A geomorphological map was produced, and it was useful to put the mounds in a geographical context. Further sedimentological investigation; including clast-shape analyze, produced more evidence about the inner nature of these landforms. Both few controlled moraines and other landforms throughout the glacier foreland indicate that the ice geometry for Midtdalsbreen, shortly after the LIA was such that the snout of the glacier was a thin sheet of ice flowing against the previously deposited LIA moraine. The sedimentology of the controlled moraine is such that the sediments are deposited in steeply dipping layers, and they could even be misinterpreted as permafrost terrains at first glimpse. However, other sedimentological evidences such as the presence of sorted sand and sometimes dipping beds of gravels in addition to the geomorphological mapping make it meaningful to interpret few of the mounds as controlled moraines. A modern analogue to these controlled moraines is dirt cones present on top of the glacier snout as well as controlled moraines a few hundred of meter from the snout. Observations both on the glacier snout and on the foreland involve that dirt-cones later evolve into these sedimentological hummocky units with steeply dipping layers within the paleo-landscape. These observations constrain the thickness of ice at the snout of Midtdalsbreen after the LIA as well as the glacier dynamic during its melt: for controlled moraines to be generated by glaciers, these accumulations of sediments would have to thaw by downwasting and then by backwasting, directly at the glacier snout. This process -comprising of different stages- allows enough time to deposit controlled moraine. It is then a thin, cold-based sheet of ice which is by the end responsible for the deposition of such a landform record. There was even dead-ice present on the landscape at that point. After deposition of dirt cones on top of the ice, important meltwater action is contributing to the glacifluvial origin of these hummocks which evolve from dirt-cones onto the glacier, to ice-cored moraines, and then to controlled moraines onto the foreland. Details about the multistage processes leading to the formation of controlled moraines is also at the center of the investigations.

  • Malmborg, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hästhållningens roll i det föränderliga peri-urbana landskapet: En kvalitativ fallstudie av Österåkers kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rural landscape surrounding the bigger cities are becoming increasingly fragmented due to pressures from urbanization and higher demands on conflicting usages of available buildable land. This has resulted in the natural and cultural landscapes in peri-urban areas being threatened. One usage of this land by equine sport is expanding where the horses need access to land and nature. A great majority of the horses in Sweden are kept in peri-urban areas, but horse keeping is also a factor that increases the risk for land use conflicts.

    The aim of this study is to better understand the role of horse keeping in the peri-urban landscape, by investigating these activities through the lens of ecosystem services. This study looked into the challenges and potential of horse keeping in physical planning, and how it is currently included by the local government of Österåker municipality in Stockholm county. This was achieved as a qualitative case study, consisting of interviews with local horse keepers, a web based survey for municipal residents and an analysis of available local government planning policies, reports and strategic documents.

    Horse keeping was found to be primarily associated with cultural ecosystem services, by its contribution to the equine sport sector and the preservation of the rural cultural and natural landscape with high recreational values. By preserving farmland and grazing pastures for horses, horse keeping can also be linked to supporting, regulating and provisioning ecosystem services.

    In addition, horse keeping in peri-urban areas was found to end in the periphery of the local physical planning. However, there is a need to integrate a long-term strategy and holistic perspective to achieve the full potential of the horse keeping, considering the contribution to the ecosystem services. There is a need for a more creative planning if horses should reach the potential as a resource and a planning tool for a sustainable development in the dynamic peri-urban landscape.

  • Frögren, Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Miljöproblem i Sverige: Definition och vanligt förekommande termer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems currently lack a definition in the Swedish language. Subjective definitions could lead to counterproductiveness and misunderstandings between parties, which is why the aim of this thesis is to construct a definition for environmental problems. Using quantitative methods, and a literature study, the most frequently used terms describing environmental problems were compiled. An analysis of the results gives us the following definition: ”Something that causes pollution, causes loss of biodiversity, or impairs production and functions.” This definition is broad enough, and yet specific enough, to encompass environmental problems in a practical and useful way in both everyday language, and when working in scientific or humanistic fields. Further research is required, since it is currently extremely sparse. The definition formulated in this thesis will not last forever, but rather it will continue to grow, evolve and develop alongside new discoveries, new knowledge and new environmental goals in this field.

  • Heinold Johansson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    På spaning efter interkulturell kompetens: En analys av representationer av mat i tre läromedel i sfi (svenska för invandrare)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker temat mat i övningsuppgifter i tre läromedel i svenska för invandrare (sfi) utifrån Skolverkets definition av interkulturell kompetens. I tidigare forskning om sfi-läromedel och interkulturell kompetens har temat mat inte varit det centrala studieobjektet. Syftet med undersökningen är att ta reda på huruvida de analyserade texterna främjar utvecklingen av interkulturell kompetens eller inte. De tre läromedlen Mål (2012), Rivstart (2014) och Framåt (2015) har granskats utifrån en kunskapskritisk analys med utgångspunkt i begreppen kulturoch interkulturell kompetens. Urvalet har gjorts med hänsyn till läromedlens utgivningsår utifrån det faktum att Skolverket 2012 införde en ny kursplan för sfi där interkulturell kompetens ingår som ett av utbildningsmålen. Studiens resultat och analys visar att de tre läromedlen varierar i sin samstämmighet med rådande styrdokument för sfi-undervisning. Ett av läromedlen har fler likheter med föregående kursplan än den nuvarande, medan övriga två läromedel har beröringspunkter från båda kursplanerna. Vidare uppvisar samtliga läromedel i olika grad tendenser till att förmedla en statisk syn på kultur, men två av läromedlen gör det i en liten utsträckning. Då dessa två läromedel har fler förtjänster än brister har de bedömts som undervisningsmaterial med potential att kunna utveckla interkulturell kompetens. Avslutningsvis presenteras några förslag för vidare forskning inom området och reflektioner över vad resultaten kan innebära utifrån ett didaktiskt perspektiv.

  • Heinold Johansson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Mötet med förfadern: En tematisk och komparativ analys av Tove Janssons Trollvinter och Sent i november2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att lyfta fram förfadern i Tove Janssons böcker Trollvinter (1957)

    och Sent i november (1970) via en i första hand tematisk och i andra hand komparativ analys.

    Via närläsning av texterna undersöks de utmärkande dragen för Mumintrollets respektive

    Onkelskruttets sökande efter och möte med förfadern samt den betydelse som förfadern har

    för dessa två romanfigurer. Texterna tolkas med hjälp av Sigmund Freuds teorier om

    fantiserande och lekande respektive det kusliga.

    Resultatet i studien visar bland annat att båda romanfigurerna styrs av önsketänkande och

    gör sig illusioner om vem förfadern är och vad han vill. De är båda nyfikna på förfadern, men

    deras drivkrafter till att söka efter honom skiljer sig åt. Deras respektive möte med honom har

    flera gemensamma nämnare såsom beundran och avståndstagande. Förfaderns betydelse för

    såväl Mumintrollet i Trollvinter som Onkelskruttet i Sent i november hänger samman med

    identifikation och behovet av att känna samhörighet.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-04 10:00 sal 14, hus 5, Stockholm
    Wahl, Felix
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Micro-level claims reserving in non-life insurance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuarial reserving deals with the problem of predicting outstanding claims payments on policies issued up to today to find an appropriate amount of capital, the claims reserve or technical provisions, to set aside in order to be able to meet obligations to policyholders. Historically, and commonly still today, this has been approached using purely algorithmic and deterministic methods, not based in any statistical models. This thesis contains five individual papers, mainly concerned with statistical models for use in the area of reserving in non-life insurance.

    Paper I sets out all the components needed for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on data in the form of claims triangles. The paper contains all necessary ingredients for use in practice, including the estimation of model parameters and a bias correction of the plug-in estimator of the valuation formula. The valuation framework that the paper takes as its starting point is compatible with the view of the Solvency IIdirective on how to compute the value of the technical provisions, i.e. that the value should equal the amount which a so-called reference undertaking would demand in order to take over and handle the run-off of the liability cash flow.

    Paper II deals with the problem of estimating the conditional mean squared error of prediction(MSEP), conditional on the observed data. The paper presents an approach that yields analytically computable estimators for a wide range of different models — otherwise readily computable using simple numerical methods — and, moreover, it shows that the approach reproduces the famous MSEP formula for the distribution-free chain ladder model given by Mack in 1993. The approach is particularly useful when considering run-off triangles since itis then not feasible to perform a prediction assessment based on out-of-sample performance.

    Paper III is concerned with properties of the variance of the variance parameter estimator ina general linear model, mainly in the form of finite sample size bounds that are independent of the covariates and that are such that, asymptotically, the lower and upper bounds are the same. As opposed to the other papers of this thesis, this paper is purely theoretical without an immediate insurance context — except for a small example.

    Paper IV introduces a discrete-time micro-model called the collective reserving model (CRM). The model is highly accessible since, even though it is a micro-model, it is modelled on the aggregate level using two triangles, one for the number of reported claims and one for the claims payments. The paper shows, among other things, how the model gives predictors of outstanding claims payments separately for incurred but not reported and reported but not settled claims, and, interestingly, shows that the chain ladder technique is a large exposure (e.g. the number of contracts) approximation of the CRM.

    Paper V is chiefly concerned with deriving closed-form expressions for moments in a class of continuous-time micro-models. It is the first paper to accomplish this task, hopefully making continuous-time micro-models accessible to a broader audience.

  • Granmar, Claes
    European University Institute.
    Trade Mark Paradoxes in European Brand Competition2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • BRAG, Gustava
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF INFLUENCER MARKETING: How Public Relations Experts perceive and measure the impacts of Influencer Marketing in their organizations. A Critical Study reflecting the discussions and future thinking of this particular phenomenon2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The body of marketing is drastically changing, pushing frontiers in numerous of domains, geographically, behaviourally and strategically with much enhanced technology in an increasingly globalized world. As this phenomenon pushes forward on many fronts, it is worthwhile to ask what will happen in the near future in this field. In today’s society ‘Influencer Marketing’ is known to be an incredibly popular and successful marketing tool, where one might be wondering: What is a plausible future in this area? What are the potential threats and challenges (if any) that we may encounter? What drives Influencer Marketing in organizations and what questions do they have about its impacts and measurements? I am hoping to fulfil this gap with the assistance of Critical Future Studies, Inayatullah (1990,1998) Luke Goode, Michael Godhe (2017,2018) in analysing the various facts and information that are being addressed and most importantly critically assess what is being missed. This Master thesis is a critical study, reflecting the future thinking and strategies relating to Emotional Branding, Danny Brown, Sam Fiorella (2013) made by experts in the fields of Public Relations, using a quantitative content analysis and semi-structured interviews. The chosen methods demonstrate two distinctive results, the content analysis showing a rather positive overview whereas the semi-structured interviews unpack the complexities and challenges in Influencer Marketing and has a negative stance towards its future. Future Studies, is a rigorous branch of study, where unfortunately no one can know for certain what the future holds, however I believe that it is important that we acknowledge values and invite scholars to join this critical dialogue about possible futures and the way we can imagine and discuss the future. The results in this thesis also further demonstrates the necessity in studying this branch of study due to the contradicting answers that are being addressed in the analysis. This thesis also intends to signify that it will not be closure but an encouragement to consider the impetus for a much larger conversation.

  • Allen, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Imagining intelligent artefacts: Myths and a digital sublime regarding artificial intelligence in Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has over the past years become a hot topic for discussion in Sweden, as the technology presents exciting unique possibilities and challenges for the country and its citizens. Coverage of AI in Swedish news media presents imagined scenarios with both current and future AI that contribute to myths about how the technology is able to radically transform life, that spring out of a central digital sublime. Through a mixed-method study of 55 newspaper items about AI from Svenska Dagbladet from 2017 to 2018, the thesis studies what evident AI myths occur in coverage and how such discourses spring out digital sublime regarding AI. A total of four AI myths are found in news media coverage that revolve around existing and future intelligent computers, robots, machines and perceptions with them. Myths and hopes and concerns with them point to digital sublime regarding AI as a force of intelligent digitization that promises to empower a sublime citizen, economy, and welfare state. Emotional values with sublime AI are understood to reflect a general Swedish techno-optimism as digital artefacts have allowed Sweden to become prosperous.   

  • Claésson, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Managerial representation: Are Women Better Off in the Public or the Private Sector?: A quantitative study of gender inequality in managerial authority in the Swedish welfare state service industries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, Sweden has seen a rapid increase in the share of health care, education and social care that is delivered by privately-owned companies. Such privatisation of welfare state services has by some of its advocators been viewed as a means to enhance gender equality in labour market outcomes; one of them being access to managerial positions. This thesis uses Swedish registry data to examine how the underrepresentation of female managers differs between public sector and private sector providers of welfare state services. Moreover, the analysis pays close attention to how employees’ family statuses – partnership and parenthood – influence careers in each of the sectors. The result shows that the gender gap in managerial authority is narrower in the public sector than in the private sector. However, family responsibilities are shown to have a smaller and more gender-equal influence on managerial authority among employees in the private sector. The thesis’ conclusion is, thus, that even though career opportunities might be more gender-equal in the public sector than in the private sector, the theoretical assumption that women’s careers are better off in the public sector because it is more “family-friendly” does not receive support. 

  • Public defence: 2019-12-02 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Dou, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Influenza A Virus: Spatial analysis of influenza genome trafficking and the evolution of the neuraminidase protein2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are a common infectious agent that seasonally circulates within the human population that causes mild to severe acute respiratory infections. The severity of the infection is often related to how the virus has evolved with respect to the pre-existing immunity in the population. For IAVs, the most common mechanisms to avoid the immune response are to vary the surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), by processes known as antigenic drift and shift.

    Antigenic drift refers to point mutations that accumulate in HA and NA as a result of the antibody-mediated selection pressure that exists in the population. The majority of the changes attributed to antigenic drift localize to HA and NA surface exposed regions, however this does not exclude that drift can also result in the selection of residues that are not exposed. One region where non-exposed residues have potentially been selected for is the NA transmembrane domain (TMD) of human H1N1 IAVs, where a temporal bias exists for the accumulation of polar residues. By examining these sequence changes in the NA TMD, we found that the polar residues contribute to the amphipathic characteristic of the NA TMD, which mediates the oligomerization of the N-terminus. As more polar residues became incorporated, the strength of the TMD-TMD interaction increased, presumably to benefit the NA head domain assembly into a functional tetramer. We determined that the amphiphilic drift in the NA TMD is able to bypass the strict hydrophobicity required for membrane insertion at the endoplasmic reticulum because it can utilize the co-translational translocation process to facilitate the insertion and inversion of its non-ideal TMD. The contribution of the TMD to proper NA assembly was traced to the formation of the Ca2+ binding pocket that is located at the center of the tetrameric assembly, as this pocket lies above the stalk linker regions and must be occupied for NA to function.

    In addition to antigenic drift, NA and HA can also undergo antigenic shift. Antigenic shift occurs when either of the gene segments encoding NA or HA are exchanged with ones from another IAV encoding another subtype of NA or HA. Different from antigenic drift, antigenic shift can only occur when a cell is co-infected and most investigations on the process of reassortment have been made at the protein level due to the methodological issues for labeling the RNA genome in situ. To overcome these technical limitations, we developed an in situ RNA labeling approach that provides highly specific spatial resolution of the IAV genome throughout the infection process. By applying this approach to temporally analyze the co-infection process, we found that the entry of a second IAV is stalled in the cytoplasm if another IAV has begun to replicate. Together, these results provide insight into the low frequency of antigenic shift in nature and provide evidence that non-exposed residues may make an underappreciated contribution to NA antigenic drift in human H1N1 viruses.

  • Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Asmala, Eero
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Dopson, Mark
    Distinct Coastal Microbiome Populations Associated With Autochthonous- and Allochthonous-Like Dissolved Organic Matter2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 2579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal zones are important transitional areas between the land and sea, where both terrestrial and phytoplankton supplied dissolved organic matter (DOM) are respired or transformed. As climate change is expected to increase river discharge and water temperatures, DOM from both allochthonous and autochthonous sources is projected to increase. As these transformations are largely regulated by bacteria, we analyzed microbial community structure data in relation to a 6-month long time-series dataset of DOM characteristics from Roskilde Fjord and adjacent streams, Denmark. The results showed that the microbial community composition in the outer estuary (closer to the sea) was largely associated with salinity and nutrients, while the inner estuary formed two clusters linked to either nutrients plus allochthonous DOM or autochthonous DOM characteristics. In contrast, the microbial community composition in the streams was found to be mainly associated with allochthonous DOM characteristics. A general pattern across the land-to-sea interface was that Betaproteobacteria were strongly associated with humic-like DOM [operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to family Comamonadaceae], while distinct populations were instead associated with nutrients or abiotic variables such as temperature (Cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus) and salinity (Actinobacteria family Microbacteriaceae). Furthermore, there was a stark shift in the relative abundance of OTUs between stream and marine stations. This indicates that as DOM travels through the land-to-sea interface, different bacterial guilds continuously degrade it.

  • Rutström, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Om andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksinläraren i debatten om Sfi: En kritisk diskursanalytisk studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och analysera de diskurser som manifesteras inom mediedebatten om Sfi 2018, samt synliggöra de underliggande budskapen inom dessa diskurser och förankra dem i rådande språkideologier. Studien ämnar besvara följande forskningsfrågor: Vilka diskurser kring Sfi kan identifieras i mediedebatten 2018? Vad sägs om andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksinläraren inom dessa diskurser? Vilka språkideologier framträder i debatten? Med teorier om språkideologi som bas och kritisk diskursanalys (CDA) som metod fokuserar studien på hur verkligheter konstrueras genom olika yttranden om Sfi. 17 tidningsartiklar från svensk media 2018 har analyserats. Resultaten visar att det finns fem framträdande diskurser i den mediala debatten om Sfi: bristdiskursen, driftformsdiskursen, strukturdiskursen, flerspråkighetsdiskursen och komplexitetsdiskursen. Trots de olika egenskaper varje diskurs besitter i sitt sätt att framställa och konstruera utbildningsformen Sfi, delar de alla, förutom komplexitetsdiskursen, en liknande syn på andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksinläraren. Andraspråksinlärning beskrivs allt som oftast i termer av effektivitet med arbete som slutgiltigt mål och andraspråksinläraren framställs främst som passiv och maktlös.  Resultaten visar vidare på hur att yttranden om Sfi inom samtliga diskurser bottnar i en enspråkig norm och i en språkideologisk idé om svenska språkets högre status. Trots ett på senare tid pluralistiskt skifte och en officiell betoning av språklig mångfald framträder i debatten om Sfi en puristisk språkideologi. 

  • Aceto, Giulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Att använda eller icke använda förstaspråket, det är frågan: En kvalitativ studie om användningen av engelska respektive svenska för att främja engelskinlärning i årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med globaliseringen har engelskans betydande roll och globala utbredning medfört en utmaning för elever att utveckla sina engelskkunskaper. Tidigare forskning visar att målspråksanvändning (L2) för att maximera L2-exponering är att föredra, men andraspråksforskare anser även att förstaspråket spelar en viktig kognitiv roll vid språkinlärning. Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur målspråk respektive förstaspråk används i engelskundervisning i årskurs 4–6, samt hur lärare upplever att de arbetar med båda språken för att främja engelskinlärningen. Studien utgår från Stephen Krashens monitormodell samt tvåspråkighet, och bygger dessutom på en intervju med en lärare. Resultatet visar att läraren ser målspråksanvändning som språkutvecklande men upplever att exklusiv användning kan vara svårt i de yngre åldrarna. För att stödja elevernas behov för individuella instruktioner växlar läraren mellan engelska och svenska så att engelskan byggs upp successivt och förståelsen ökar på sikt. 

  • Harkin, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    What's fotböja?: Translanguaging som pedagogiskt verktyg i kompletterande svensk undervisning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att öka kunskapen om translanguaging som pedagogiskt verktyg.  Mer specifikt syftade arbetet till att se i vilken utsträckning translanguaging förbättrade interaktionen mellan eleverna och hur eleverna upplevde translanguaging.

    Studien utfördes i ett engelsktalande land i en undervisningsform som kallas kompletterande undervisning i svenska som erbjuds svenska barn och ungdomar som bor utomlands.

    I studien användes strukturerade observationer med ljudinspelning under två arbetsmoment samt semistrukturerad fokusgruppintervju med sex elever om hur de upplevde det nya arbetssättet med translanguaging.

    Det framgick att eleverna använde sig av sina språkliga resurser, det vill säga både svenska och engelska, när de löste uppgifterna i klassrummet. Eleverna ansåg också att translanguaging underlättade arbetet: De hjälpte och fick hjälp av varandra i grupparbetena. Däremot ansåg eleverna inte att interaktionen dem emellan hade ökat till följd av translanguaging.

  • Eklöv Alander, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Innefattar undervisningen i redovisning etik?2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 43-54Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Sveriges högre lärosäten examineras varje år hundratals studenter med en kandidatexamen i företagsekonomi, inriktning redovisning. Under senare år har ett flertal företagsskandaler väckt uppmärksamhet, där finansiella rapporter visat sig innehålla missvisande information som företagsledningen avgivit till aktieägarna. Dessa felaktiga rapporter drabbar aktieägarna ekonomiskt, men angår också hela samhället. Här undersöks hur kursplanerna vid Sveriges sju största lärosäten med utbildning i företagsekonomi behandlar etik inom delämnesområdet redovisning. Resultatet visar att endast 19,5 procent av kurserna har etik i innehållsbeskrivningen och 37 procent har etik i lärandemålen. Etik hanteras i förekommande fall ytligt och främst inom ramen för principal-agentteorin och hållbarhet. 

  • Public defence: 2019-11-29 13:00 sal FB54, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Wallängen, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Performance Improvements for Particle Tracking Detectors in Extreme Rate and Radiation Environments2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is being transformed into a higher luminosity machine expected to be operational around 2026. The number of particle collisions will increase by a factor of 10 beyond the current design value, which means that the detectors installed around the LHC are facing various new challenges. The most demanding challenges include handling the enormous data quantities that will be transferred from the front-end readout modules at significantly higher rates than previously, as well as the radiation effects that arise as a consequence of the intense particle flow and that cause damage to sensor elements and electronics.

    At the ATLAS experiment, a multipurpose detector operating at the LHC, the impact of the luminosity increase is especially severe for the silicon pixel tracking detector, being the central subsystem located closest to the particle interaction point and therefore exposed to the highest radiation dose and hit density. The extreme radiation doses that the pixel modules will be subject to will cause deformation of the sensor material structure and thus loss of the signals, which after subsequent digitization by the pixel readout chip must be transferred over relatively long distances through a low-mass data link, causing further signal distortion.

    The work presented here addresses both major challenges described and outlines solutions for the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector system with regards to these. Firstly, it is demonstrated how improved accuracy of detector simulations and reconstruction of particle trajectories through the detector can be achieved as higher particle fluences are approached, by modeling radiation damage effects that occur in the pixel sensors. Secondly, it is shown how a receiver integrated circuit utilizing an industry standard technique novel within high-energy physics applications has been designed as an integral part of a high-speed transmission link to efficiently restore the signal quality in order to achieve adequate data readout rates.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-29 09:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Mata Forsberg, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bacterial Regulation of Peripheral Immunity: Mechanistic insights from lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a constant cross-talk between our immune system and the colonizing microbiota. The gut resident bacteria produce a broad range of molecules with regulatory activities in both local and distal tissues. Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a commensal bacterium with high pathogenic potential due to production of several potent virulence factors including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). These SEs are known to induce overwhelming T cell responses, which can result in a serious condition known as toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, several species of bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus exhibit probiotic features and promote beneficial physiological and immunological effects in its host. The underlying mechanisms behind bacterial activation and regulation of peripheral lymphocytes remain elusive. In this thesis, we explored how secreted factors present in the cell free supernatants (CFS) of cultured S. aureus and lactobacilli mechanistically impact the activation of different types of T cells and NK cells. In paper I, we investigated the influence of S. aureus-CFS and SEA on regulatory T cells and found that despite de novo induction of FOXP3 expression, TREG cells also produced pro-inflammatory cytokines, which associated with CD161-expression. In paper II, we could show that S. aureus-CFS and SEA induce proliferation, cytotoxicity and cytokine production in conventional and unconventional T- and NK cells. Moreover, we also showed that the lactobacilli-CFS were able to dampen immune cell activation, which was partly linked to lactobacilli-derived lactate. In paper III, we continued to investigate the mechanism behind Lactobacillus-mediated dampening of induced lymphocyte responses and identified extracellular membrane vesicles to be one of the main components involved in Lactobacillus-mediated regulation of cytokine responses. Other observations made in paper II brought about several questions regarding the ability of SEs to activate unconventional T- and NK cells, which lacks certain receptors known to be required for SE-mediated activation of conventional T cells. In paper IV, we therefore investigated the mechanism behind SE-mediated activation of γδ T-, MAIT- and NK cells and found that SEs indirectly activated γδ T- and NK cells, which required the presence of conventional αβ T cells. In summary, this thesis presents novel insights into how soluble components from bacteria modulate immune cell responses and extends the general understanding of bacterial influence on peripheral immunity. 

  • Public defence: 2019-11-29 10:00 Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Wang, Tongmei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Seasonality and variability of stratospheric water vapour2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratospheric water vapour (SWV) plays a critical role in the climate system by modulating the radiation budget and influencing the stratospheric chemistry. Studying changes of SWV on global scale is helpful for our understanding of climate change. This thesis aims to gain an improved understanding of the stratospheric processes and dynamic mechanisms that determine the seasonality and variability of SWV. 

    Water vapour is characterized by its compound, which leaves an isotopic fingerprint in relevant atmospheric and hydrologic processes. The thesis starts with analyzing the global features of three stable water isotopes (SWIs) in the stratosphere by using satellite retrievals from Odin/SMR. The spatial pattern of SWI indicates clear effects of methane oxidation in the upper stratosphere, dehydration at the tropopause and stratospheric transport via the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). In addition to the tropical tape recorder in the lower stratosphere, a pronounced downward propagation of the seasonal signal from the upper to the lower stratosphere is observed in high-latitudes. These observed features are further compared to model outputs to identify possible causes of model deficiencies in reproducing the distribution of SWV.

    The downward propagation signal of zonal wind has been demonstrated in the high-latitude stratosphere in spring seasonal transition in the Southern Hemisphere, but not in the Northern Hemisphere. This inter-hemispheric difference is due to the stronger stratospheric planetary wave activity in austral spring than in boreal spring. With strong wave activity in spring, the transition is inclined to occur first at the stratopause followed by a downward propagation to the lower stratosphere. In particular, the stronger the upward propagation of planetary waves in high-latitudes in spring the earlier the stratospheric seasonal transition. 

    The new generation reanalysis ERA5 represents climatological distribution and seasonal cycle of SWV better than its predecessor ERA-Interim by assimilating more satellite observations. The variability of SWV in ERA5 is highly consistent with SDI MIM observation. The interannual variability of water vapour in the lower stratosphere is found to be closely linked to the tropical Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and QBO-induced residual circulation. On decadal scale, the deficit of SWV in boreal winter is associated with a warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the North Atlantic, which leads to stronger upward propagation of planetary waves, resulting in a warmer pole in the lower stratosphere, colder tropical tropopause and stronger BDC, hence less water vapour enters the stratosphere through the tropopause and the anomaly extends to the entire stratosphere. 

    Sensitivity experiments for a CO2 doubling scenario are performed with the model WACCM to investigate the SWV response to climate change. The response of SWV is dominated by the warm SST, which is induced by CO2 doubling in a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The enhanced SST leads to a moist troposphere and warmer tropical and subtropical tropopause, resulting in more water vapour entering the stratosphere from below. A large increase of SWV in the lower stratosphere, in turn, affects stratospheric temperature. It results in a warming in the tropical and subtropical lower stratosphere, offsetting the cooling caused by CO2 doubling in general.

  • Hägerdal, Hans
    et al.
    Wellfelt, Emilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Tamalola; Transregional connectivities, Islam, and anti-colonialism on an Indonesian island2019In: Wacana: Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia, ISSN 1411-2272, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 430-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on a set of events in the Aru Islands, Maluku, in the late eighteenth century which are documented in some detail by Dutch records. A violent rebellion with Muslim and anti-European overtones baffled the Dutch colonialists (VOC) and led to a series of humiliations for the Company on Aru, before eventually being subdued. As one of the main catalysts of the conflict stands the chief Tamalola from the Muslim island Ujir. Interestingly, this persons also a central figure in local traditions from Ujir. Moreover, his story connects with wider cultural and economic networks in eastern Indonesia. Thus the article asks how the imprints of the Tamalola figure in textual and non-textual sources can add to our knowledge of how communities of Eastern Indonesia ordered their lives outside colonial control.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-28 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Hansson, Disa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Modelling Sexual Interactions: Sexual behaviour and the spread of sexually transmitted infections on dynamic networks2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we develop statistical and mathematical models to study different factors of relevance for the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two special interest groups for STI interventions are considered: sexually active youths and men who have sex with men (MSM). The statistical models developed make it possible to estimate individuals’ dispositions towards sexual behaviours related to the spread of STIs: condom use and anal sex. To study the spread of an infection in a population we use mathematical models. The mathematical models in this thesis give insights into the transmission process of HIV among MSM in Sweden—a population at high risk for HIV infection.

    The focus of the first paper is on mechanisms giving rise to observed sexual behaviour, such as condom use, among sexually active youths in Sweden. We study the sexual dispositions of individuals and how these interact and generate the observed sexual outcomes.

    The second paper concerns the sexual behaviour of MSM in Sweden and the transmission process of HIV within this population. The population is modelled by a stochastic dynamic network model that incorporates both steady partnerships and casual contacts. We model the spread of an infection where individuals are susceptible, infectious or diagnosed (unable to transmit) and derive the basic reproduction number R0, the probability of a major outbreak, and the endemic prevalence.

    The third paper further develops the dynamic network model of the second paper. The model now takes into account that individuals may be sexually high-active or sexually low-active. The division into two activity groups makes it possible to study a preventive intervention against HIV that is only targeted to sexually high-active. The intervention studied is pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP), i.e. that the antiviral drugs tenofovir-emtricitabine are taken by individuals with negative HIV serostatus to prevent getting infected by HIV. We study the PrEP coverage needed to reduce the observed HIV prevalence of 5% to a value close to 0%.

    In the fourth and final paper we focus on condom dispositions among MSM. The disposition models from the first paper are extended to better fit an MSM population and are additionally extended to be used for more types of sexual behaviour data.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-28 10:00 Vivi Täckholm-salen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Wassing, Gabriela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bacteria-host cell interactions: Studies on initial colonization, antimicrobial peptides, and biofilms2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The obligate human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis asymptomatically colonizes the upper respiratory tract, but crossing of the epithelial barrier can cause life-threatening meningitis and/or sepsis. N. meningitidis encounters numerous environmental challenges during colonization in the host, and has evolved different evasion strategies and virulence factors to ensure its survival. In contrast, Lactobacillus species are part of the human microbiota and their commensal colonization confers many benefits to the host, including the inhibition of pathogens.

    The first cell type encountered by invading bacteria are epithelial cells and immune cells, which can effectively sense and respond to the presence of bacteria by alerting the immune system or by release of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that are able to directly kill bacteria, but also play a role in modulation of immune responses.  

    This thesis focuses on the interaction between the human host and bacteria. Paper I shows that epithelial colonization by different bacterial species induces the transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). Induction of EGR1 is mediated primarily by signaling through EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway. In paper II the ability of N. meningitidis and Lactobacillus to modulate expression of antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) in epithelial cells is compared. Expression of hBD2 is upregulated by lactobacilli. In contrast, N. meningitidis dampens this effect, likely mediated by induction of the host molecule A20, a negative regulator of NF-κB. Since N. meningitidis is susceptible to hBD2-mediated killing, exploitation of A20 may be an immune evasion mechanism. In paper III we demonstrate that hBD2 is able to kill N. meningitidis without causing membrane permeabilization. N. meningitidis DNA can bind hBD2 and thereby inhibit hBD2-mediated killing, presenting a possible evasion mechanism. Finally, paper IV shows that the absence of D-lactate dehydrogenase LdhA in N. meningitidis promotes aggregation and biofilm formation through increased autolysis-mediated release of extracellular DNA.

  • Finnveden, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Finding case through personal names in parallel texts2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the ‘richness’ of the marking on personal names is an adequate indirect measure of a language’s case usage. The method uses parallel texts to identify, and group by lemma, names in over a thousand languages. These groupings are compared with data for case usage from a typological database for those languages for which it is available. This material is then used to test a method for assessing whether a language uses case or not. Results indicate that the maximum number of word types a proprial lemma is attested with in a text is a useful tool for inferring case usage. However, it only yielded clear results for a subset of the languages tested. It was not particularly useful for inferring the absence of case usage. Estimation of number of case categories was also performed. An entropy measure based on word types that a personal name lemma is attested with and the occurrences of these word types was used. It was found to be a fair indicator of number of case categories for languages, if somewhat inaccurate. Markings on languages which had no case were investigated. They were found to be of several types: pragmatic markers, non-case grammatical markers and case-like markers. Two languages with few markings on personal names and with case were investigated. They were found to not use any case marking on their personal names, but still use such markers on common nouns. This contrasts with a tentative generalization that this study is based on: ‘No languages have case marking exclusively in the domain of [personal names] or [common nouns].’ (Handschuh, 2017).

  • Public defence: 2019-11-22 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Protein and lipid interactions within the respiratory chain: Studies using membrane-mimetic systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy conversion from nutrients to ATP is a vital process in cells. The process, called oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is performed by a combination of membrane-bound proteins. These proteins have been studied in great detail in the past, however much is still unknown about how they interact with each other. Studying the OXPHOS proteins in their native environment can be difficult due to the complexity of living cells. By isolating parts of the OXPHOS system and inserting them into membrane-mimetic systems it is possible to investigate their functions in a controlled environment.

    In the work presented here, we co-reconstituted several of these proteins into liposomes made from synthetic lipids. We demonstrated production of ATP at steady-state conditions with the ATP synthase, driven by proton pumping by cytochrome bo3. Introduction of anionic lipids decreased the coupled activity and we could correlate this effect to weaker interactions between ATP synthase and cytochrome bo3 in the membrane. We also reconstituted cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1) into liposomes and submitochondrial particles (SMPs). Loss of Rcf1 has previously been found to result in a lower CytcO activity. We found that activity could be restored upon co-reconstitution of CytcO with Rcf1, but only after unfolding and re-folding of the latter, which shows that Rcf1 can adopt two configurations in the membrane.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-22 09:00 CCK Lecture Hall, Solna
    Ödén, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Relative biological effectiveness in proton therapy: accounting for variability and uncertainties2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation therapy is widely used for treatments of malignant diseases. The search for the optimal radiation treatment approach for a specific case is a complex task, ultimately seeking to maximise the tumour control probability (TCP) while minimising the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Conventionally, standard curative treatments have been delivered with photons in daily fractions of 2 Gy over a period of approximately three to eight weeks. However, the interest in hypofractionated treatments and proton therapy have rapidly increased during the last decades. Given the same TCP for a photon and a proton plan, the proton plan selection could be made purely based on the reduction in NTCP. Such a plan selection system is clean and elegant but is not flawless. The nominal plans are typically optimised on a single three-dimensional scan of the patient trying to account for the treatment related uncertainties such as particle ranges, patient setup, breathing and organ motion. The comparison also relies on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which relates the doses required by photons and protons to achieve the same biological effect. The clinical standard of using a constant proton RBE of 1.1 does not reflect the complex nature of the RBE, which varies with parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET), fractionation dose, tissue type and biological endpoint.

    These aspects of proton therapy planning have been investigated in this thesis through five individual studies. Paper I investigated the impact of including models accounting for the variability of the RBE into the plan comparison between proton and photon prostate plans for various fractionation schedules. In paper II, a method of incorporating RBE uncertainties into the robustness evaluation was proposed. Paper III evaluated the impact of variable RBE models and breathing motion for breast cancer treatments using photons and protons. In Paper IV, a novel optimisation method was proposed, where the number of protons stopping in critical structures is reduced in order to control the enhanced LET and the related RBE. Paper V presented a retrospective analysis with alternative treatment plans for intracranial cases with suspected radiation-induced toxicities.

    The results indicate that the inclusion of variable RBE models and their uncertainties into the proton plan evaluation could lead to differences from the nominal plans made under the assumption of a constant RBE of 1.1 for both target and normal tissue doses. The RBE-weighted dose (DRBE) for high α/β targets (e.g. head and neck (H&N) tumours) was predicted to be slightly lower, whereas the opposite was predicted for low α/β targets (e.g. breast and prostate) in comparison to the nominal DRBE. For most normal tissues, the predicted DRBE were often substantially higher, resulting in higher NTCP estimates for several organs and clinical endpoints. By combining uncertainties in patient setup, range and breathing motion with RBE uncertainties, comprehensive robustness evaluations could be performed. Such evaluations could be included in the plan selection process in order to mitigate potential adverse effects caused by an enhanced RBE. Furthermore, objectives penalising protons stopping in risk organ were proven able to reduce LET, RBE and NTCP for H&N and intracranial tumours. Such approach might be a future optimisation tool in order to further reduce toxicity risks and maximise the benefit of proton therapy.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-22 13:00 sal FA32, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Liu, Chang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Le Fantôme de l’Opéra - Studies on Atoms and Electrons Beneath2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon dioxide reduction reaction is a promising candidate to tackle ecological challenges of our age. This is due to its capability of reducing carbon dioxide emission generated from the combustion of fossil fuels by converting carbon dioxide into valuable hydrocarbons. Oxide-derived metal nanostructures have been found to exhibit unique catalytic characteristics for facilitating the carbon dioxide reduction reaction. In this thesis work, the stability, influence, and effects of subsurface oxygen atoms are investigated by theoretical computations with various levels of theory and models. It is found that subsurface oxygen atoms are stable and that their presence increases the CO adsorption strength and coverage on oxide-derived Cu surface. This is explained by a reduced σ-repulsion and leads to the breaking of scaling relations. Although it does not directly reduce the CO dimerization barrier, the adsorption of H atoms is inhibited thus steering the selectivity. The presence of subsurface oxygen atoms is also concluded from a joint work with experimental and theoretical efforts of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The precursor region of CO desorption from Ru(0001) is studied with the transition potential method. In contrast, for the simulation of the X-ray spectroscopy results on p4g C/Ni(100), which is a surface reconstruction when carbon atoms adsorb on Ni(100), vibrational effects are also needed for understanding the experimental data.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-25 09:30 Air & Fire, SciLifeLab, Solna
    Qian, Xiaoyan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Towards comprehensive cellular atlases: High-throughput cell mapping by in situ sequencing2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With recent technological advancements in single-cell biology, many aspects of individual cells are characterized with unprecedented resolution and details. Cell types in human and model organisms are redefined, and multiple organ-wide atlases are proposed to integrate different types of data to provide a comprehensive view of biological systems at cellular resolution. Incorporating location information of cells in such atlases is crucial to understanding the structure and functions. Several spatially resolved transcriptomics technologies may serve this purpose, and in situ sequencing (ISS) is among the most powerful ones.

    ISS detects the expression of tens to hundreds of genes in situ, i.e. inside preserved cells and tissues. ISS is a targeted approach, using probes designed to identify specific transcripts. Its key advantages, as compared to other spatially resolved gene expression analysis methods, are high throughput, cellular resolution and tissue compatibility, making it a tool ideally suited for spatial cell mapping. The work included in this thesis aims to develop tools and methods for this application.

    In paper I, a network analysis tool was developed to analyze ISS and other spatially resolved data. The tool enables smooth visualization of large datasets and generates networks based on colocalization. It also includes functions to test statistical significance and resolve tissue heterogeneity.

    In paper II, we studied spatio-temporal patterns of immune response in tuberculosis granuloma by targeting immune markers with ISS. Using the tool developed in paper I together with other methods, we established an immune response time course at the granuloma sites and found histologically different granulomas based on transcriptional information. The paper demonstrated that ISS can robustly detect transcripts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues across biological samples and reveal biologically relevant structures.

    In paper III, we developed probabilistic cell typing by in situ sequencing (pciSeq), a method to spatially map cell types defined by single-cell RNA-sequencing. pciSeq is an integrated pipeline that includes gene selection, image analysis, barcode calling and cell type calling. We mapped closely related interneuron cell types of the mouse hippocampal CA1 region in 14 coronal sections and validated the results against ground truth.

    In paper IV, we investigated the quantification bias of ISS resulting from the probe target selection. We developed a method to sequence in situ synthesized cDNA and found that the read coverage of in situ cDNA library reflected ISS counts more closely than conventional RNA sequencing, making it possible, to some extent, to predict a probe’s performance and guide the probe design.

    Taken together, the developments described in this thesis comprise several tools that make ISS suitable for building cellular atlases via large-scale spatial mapping.

  • Patriksdotter, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Vikingatida förgyllningstekniker: En studie av förgyllningstekniker tillämpade på föremål från Birka med SEM-EDS2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies with primary focus on Viking age gilding techniques in Scandinavia has not been carried out since the sixties. During the past 50 years knowledge about prehistoric gilding techniques and traces of them in the archeological material, as well as the usage of natural sciences within archaeology, has developed considerably. The aim of this thesis was to revisit the topic of gilding and shed new light on Viking age metalworking in Scandinavia with focus on gilding techniques. The second aim was to determine the possibilities and limitations of the study of gilding with a non-destructive methodology. The surfaces of 13 metal objects, four of which are indigenous and the rest are imported goods, were analyzed with SEM-EDS. The chemical compositions of the gilded layers as well as the underlying silver- or copper alloys were analyzed. Furthermore, observations of micro morphological structures were carried out on the gilt surfaces. Interpretations of both chemical compositions and micro morphology were carried out in order to identify what technique or techniques have been used for gilding. The results show that two of artefacts have not been gilded at all, five of them have been fire gilded and the results of the remaining six objects are inconclusive mainly due to lacking reference data. It can be concluded that further research regarding the aging of gilt surfaces on gilded artefacts, more specifically the loss of mercury in fire gilded surfaces over time, needs to be carried out.

  • Berr, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Slaves to our Screens?: A Critical Approach to Self-Regulation of Smartphone Use at the Example of Apple’s Screen Time Feature2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly ubiquitous role of smartphones in our everyday lives causes concerns regarding our relationship with the devices. While some raise the question whether smartphones are addictive (Alter 2017; Lopez-Fernandez 2019), others regard this concern as the most recent manifestation of moral panics (Cashmore, Cleland & Dixon 2018; Leick 2019). Meanwhile advocates of the attention economy argument claim that the problem is the design of technology occupying users’ attention (CHT 2019a-d). Somewhere in between, media and communication studies search for empirical evidence.

    From this vantage point of ideas this study explores the role of Screen Time, shaping and being shaped by this discourse. As a feature of Apple’s iOS software it is supposed to support users in regulating their smartphone use. Applying the walkthrough method as proposed by Light, Burgess & Duguay (2018) combined with an analysis of user experiences, shows how the technology company shapes a concept of self-regulation for users to adopt to. A concept, which first and foremost follows corporate and not the users’ best interest.

    This thesis poses the the question whether we are slaves to our screens, but arrives at the conclusion that we carry chains of self-regulation. The question remains, how we can create more sustainable and meaningful environments for protecting our attention.

  • Lannergren, Mikaela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skoog, Vanessa Amy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    På tröskeln mellan inne och ute: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om tillkomna svenska kvinnors etableringsmöjligheter och föreställningar om svenskhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a discourse analysis conducted on the basis of a social constructionist perspective. The study aims to examine establishment opportunities in relation to constructions of Swedishness with a focus on the Swedish language. The method for collected empirical data has been conducted through six semi-structured interviews with women who have lived in Sweden between 3-10 years. The focus has been on the interpretation of the subjective stories from women who have moved to Sweden. In this study, we have aimed to include the individuals who are being talked about in the political debate, by instead talking to women who have moved to Sweden. We have chosen this angle because Swedish integration policy often follows a discourse that shapes an "us" and "them" distinction on newcomers. In this "us and them" thinking, white Swedish born citizens are constructed as opposites to "the Others" which are often referred to as "immigrants". Throughout our study, the Swedish language, establishment and Swedishness have proved to be intimately associated. Swedishness consists of several norms about language, establishment and body appearance which after several years in Sweden can be perceived as a restriction on her opportunities for integration. It has proved difficult to pass within the framework of Swedishness if the woman who has moved to Sweden lives in a non-white body, with a "broken" Swedish and if she does not adapt to the attributed position as a guest in Sweden.

  • Alm, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att kunna läsa före skolstarten: En studie av några lärares uppfattningar av tidiga läsare i årskurs 12019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Early readers are defined as students that are able to read fluently before beginning year 1. In this study, I have investigated some teachers' perceptions of early readers and the teaching of early readers from a phenomenographic research approach. The empirical evidence of the study consists of six recorded and semi-structured interviews with primary school teachers from three public schools. All participants have been involved in teaching students that are early readers. The inductive and phenomenographic inspired analysis generated eight different categories based on the participants' perceptions of early readers, and the other four categories addressed the perceptions of the teaching of early readers. Early readers are in general perceived to be strong, alternatively to be affected by factors at home, to have a strong motivation, or to have gained input from the pre-school and pre-school classes. The perceptions about the teaching of early readers are either based on their specific needs and the need of challenges that should be provided by the teacher, or the inclusion of the early readers in groups, in order to increase the involvement in a group learning process. Other perceptions are that the early reader should learn based on the current possessed level of knowledge, or that the early reader can be a resource for other students. The result of this study can be related to previous research, suggesting that the development of reading can occur in several different ways and that the teacher's own knowledge, attitude, and willingness in meeting with early readers, is significant for the student's motivation and future reading development. The findings in this study suggest that teaching of early readers requires reflection and presence from the teachers, and reflections of what, how, and why the teaching is performed in a certain way, and how it can benefit early readers.  

  • Serengil, Volkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bland poliser, veterinärer och dinosaurie-museiföreståndare: En statistisk deskriptiv studie om barns tidiga yrkesaspirationer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Finns det skillnader i pojkars och flickors yrkesaspirationer i de lägre årskurserna? Hur ser i så fall skillnaderna ut? Och förstärks skillnaderna av skolornas socioekonomiska status såväl som årskurs? Tidigare studier visar att barn i de lägre skolåldrarna, såväl som i förskoleåldern, har könsstereotypa yrkesaspirationer. Forskningsområdet i den svenska kontexten är gles, men att det i många avseenden finns en verksamhetsförankrad praktik för tidiga studie- och yrkesvägledande aktiviteter i de lägre årskurserna. Studien visar att elevernas har könsstereotypa yrkesaspirationer i tidig ålder. Sambanden är starka och signifikanta. Elevernas skolors socioekonomisk status såväl som årskursvariabeln har marginella effekter på könsstereotypiseringen. Studien visar vidare ett behov av ytterligare forskning i området som kan stärka upp tidiga studie- och yrkesvägledande insatser såväl som undersöka barn i karriärutvecklingsprocessen.

  • Nilsson, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Det som inte går att mäta får inte vara med!: En analys av fyra kommuners verksamhetsstyrning av grundskolan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemområdet för den här uppsatsen var styrning och jämförelser. Syftet var att analysera och jämföra vilken skola som synliggjordes i den kommunala styrningen i fyra kommuner; Danderyd, Piteå, Täby och Vellinge. Den teoretiska basen utgjordes av Focuaults governmentalitybegrepp, och den – framför allt internationella – forskningen om dataproduktion och jämförelser på en mellanstatlig nivå. Gemensamt för den presenterade forskningen i uppsatsen är att produktionen av data och jämförelser ligger till grund för en informell styrning som inte är vetenskapligt förankrad. Analysen av kommunerna gjordes utifrån de tre begreppen governing by numbers (dataproduktion), governance by comparison (jämförelser) och best practice (det goda exemplet). Resultaten visade att de granskade kommunerna till mycket stor del styrde med hjälp av dataproduktion, det vill säga att det sker en kvantifiering av verksamheten. I många fall utsattes även den dataproduktionen för jämförelser med andra kommuner och/eller med riket. Produktionen av data var så pass omfattande i dessa kommuner att det föreföll som att endast det som kan mätas togs upp i verksamhetsplaneringen. Mätbar verksamhet lyftes upp framför verksamhet med mjukare värden, vilket bland annat innebar att professionen i stort sett var osynliggjord. Resultaten visade också att uppföljning och utvärdering inte har något genomslag i verksamhetsstyrningsdokumenten.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-21 13:00 Hörsal 8, hus D, Stockholm
    Pettersson, Jimmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Film på konstmuseum: Nationalmuseums möten med filmmediet 1945–19502019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents a number of previously-forgotten practices and ‘expected opportunities’ which surrounded film at the Swedish National Museum of Fine Arts (Nationalmuseum), between 1945 and 1950. The dissertation is structured around three projects and each project has its own chapter. The three projects are: (1) the educational film production entitled Möte med konsten which took place in connection with the exhibition entitled God konst i hem och samlingslokaler; the exhibition entitled Viking Eggeling 1880–1925 which included (2) showings of Viking Eggeling’s abstract film called Diagonalsymfonin (Diagonal Symphony) in the exhibition and (3) the related film series called 30 år experimentfilm (30 years of experimental film) which included films by Maya Deren, Man Ray, Fernand Léger, Jean Cocteau, Hans Richter and Viking Eggeling. The purpose of this dissertation is primarily to investigate the areas of use and ‘expected opportunities’ associated with film in these film projects as well as the prerequisites and implementation of working with film at the museum.

    Because media technologies are closely interwoven with human life, a number of individuals have been identified as important figures with respect to the curation and exhibition of film at Nationalmuseum between 1945 and 1950. The analysis of these figures’ speculations, their administration, and ‘expected opportunities’ has resulted in the creation of new knowledge with respect to the museum’s operations in post-war Sweden.

    In summary, the present dissertation highlights the medium of film’s role and importance for those individuals inside Nationalmuseum who, in response to contemporary needs (but also with an eye to the future) worked towards developing the museum. Film was seen as an answer to the question of how an art museum such as Nationalmuseum might be able to revitalise its operations and remain relevant to a new generation’s tastes and habits with respect to the consumption of art- and culture. In their work with film, they opened up the museum’s art division to working with modern abstract art in non-conventional forms, attempted to reach new sectors of the public and reinforced the contemporary relevance of the museum in a local cultural context. This dissertation thus does not only present new knowledge about the history of film at the art museum, of which it is an obvious part of today, but also new knowledge about Nationalmuseum. From a broader perspective, this dissertation also demonstrates how it is possible take the field of art museum research in a somewhat different and relatively unexplored direction, namely, in the direction of media history.

  • Eldfjell, Yrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Identifying Mitochondrial Genomes in Draft Whole-Genome Shotgun Assemblies of Six Gymnosperm Species2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sequencing efforts for gymnosperm genomes typically focus on nuclear and chloroplast DNA, with only three complete mitochondrial genomes published as of 2017. The availability of additional mitochondrial genomes would aid biological and evolutionary understanding of gymnosperms. Identifying mtDNA from existing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data (i.e. contigs) negates the need for additional experimental work but previous classification methods show limitations in sensitivity or accuracy, particularly in difficult cases. In this thesis I present a classification pipeline based on (1) kmer probability scoring and (2) SVM classification applied to the available contigs. Using this pipeline the mitochondrial genomes of six gymnosperm species were obtained: Abies sibirica, Gnetum gnemon, Juniperus communis, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Taxus baccata. Cross-validation experiments showed a satisfying and forsome species excellent degree of accuracy.

  • Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Diversity, stablity and diffusion in the Hindu Kush region of Inner Asia2019In: SLE 2019: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Olga Spevak, 2019, p. 568-570Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mountainous Hindu Kush, on the northwestern edge of the Indian subcontinent, offers a promising “test site” for questions relating to language contact, diffusion and stability, considering its high linguistic density and diversity, with languages from six genera: Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibetan, Turkic and Burushaski (Masica 2001: 225; Liljegren 2017: 107–108). While traces of several substrata suggest that the region in a distant past served as an important accretion zone (Tikkanen 1988: 304), akin to Caucasus (Nichols 2003: 306), the region as of today bears witness of several waves of small- or larger scale diffusion (Bashir 2003: 823; Liljegren 2014: 162–167), mainly related to Indo-Aryan northward expansion within the last few millennia (Morgenstierne 1932: 51; 1961: 138; Strand 2001: 200), and in more recent times by superstratal influences (Bashir 2007) from a few languages of wider scope (e.g. Pashto, Urdu and Dari).  

    The main question asked in the present study is to what extent properties of some linguistic subsystems are more prone to diffuse than others, and whether they cluster similarly (geographically or genealogically) or significantly differently. We also ask to what extent individual properties show a higher or lower degree of intra-genealogical stability. A set of comparable first-hand data was collected from 59 varieties (representing all six genera) in a handful of collaborative workshops held in the region. The data was coded and analysed for approximately 50, mainly binary, linguistic features belonging to five different subsystems: phonology, word order syntax, grammatical categories, simple clause properties, and lexical structure, with an even distribution of features belonging to each of these five. In addition, a basic word list was cognacy-coded and used as the basis for measuring genealogical relatedness. It was primarily Indo-Aryan, due to its high representation (33 of the 59 varieties) that was analysed for feature stability.

    The preliminary results, visualized with NeighborNet representations (Huson & Bryant 2006), indicate differential clustering depending on subsystem. The clearest examples of diffusion affecting substantial parts of the region were found within phonology, word order and lexical structure, while simple clause features (alignment in particular) display more limited (subareal) clustering, and grammatical categories (especially gender) a relatively high degree of intra-genealogical stability.     

  • Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gender typology and gender (in)stability in Hindu Kush Indo-Aryan languages2019In: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies / [ed] Francesca di Garbo, Bruno Olson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, p. 279-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of gender as it appears in 25 Indo-Aryan languages (sometimes referred to as “Dardic”) spoken in the Hindu Kush-Karakorum region – the mountainous areas of northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and the disputed territory of Kashmir. Looking at each language in terms of the number of genders present, to what extent these are sex-based or non-sex-based, how gender relates to declensional differences, and what systems of assign-ment are applied, we arrive at a micro-typology of gender in Hindu Kush Indo-Aryan, including a characterization of these systems in terms of their general com-plexity. Considering the relatively close genealogical ties, the languages display a number of unexpected and significant differences. While the inherited sex-based gender system is clearly preserved in most of the languages, and perhaps even strengthened in some, it is curiously missing altogether in others (such as in Kalasha and Khowar) or seems to be subject to considerable erosion (e.g. in Dameli). That the languages of the latter kind are all found at the northwestern outskirts of the Indo-Aryan world suggests non-trivial interaction with neighbouring languages without gender or with markedly different assignment systems. In terms of com-plexity, the southwestern-most corner of the region stands out; here we find a few languages (primarily belonging to the Pashai group) that combine inherited sex-based gender differentiation with animacy-related distinctions resulting in highly complex agreement patterns. The findings are discussed in the light of earlier obser-vations of linguistic areality or substratal influence in the region, involving Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic languages and Burushaski. The present study draws from the analysis of earlier publications as well as from en-tirely novel field data.

  • Thorp, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogical Entanglements and the Cold War: A Comparative Study on Opening History Lessons on the Cold War in Sweden and Switzerland2019In: The Cold War in the Classroom: International perspectives on textbooks and memory practices / [ed] Barbara Christophe, Peter Gautschi, Robert Thorp, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, p. 423-447Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cold War was a complex series of events that came to have a great impact on most countries in Europe. This article analyses two lower secondary schools’ opening lessons on the Cold War, one taught in Sweden and the other in Switzerland. The study finds that the opening lessons vary to a great extent, regarding both what content is covered but also how that content is covered. Whereas the Swiss lesson predominantly focuses on establishing a critical narrative of the origins of the Cold War conflict, the Swedish lesson disseminates what could be considered a traditional narrative of the Cold War. The lessons also differ due to the different forms of educational media employed by each teacher. While the Swiss teacher makes use of caricatures to instigate pupil-oriented discussions about what caused the Cold War, the Swedish teacher uses personal analogies and a video during class. The study, however, finds that neither teacher engages with the contingencies of his- tory culture that affect historical content and how we approach it; instead both disseminate a closed rendering of the history of the Cold War.