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Linnros, Evelina
Publications (2 of 2) Show all publications
Linnros, E. (2024). Essays on Fertility and Health. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Economics, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essays on Fertility and Health
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Infertility Risk and Child Marriage

The high infertility rates observed in some developing countries may have broad societal impacts, for example by people marrying and having children at a young age to increase their chances of reaching their fertility target. I study the link between infertility risk and marriage timing using data from Madagascar. Specifically, I focus on how infertility risk affects the probability of child marriage, a practice associated with adverse outcomes for young brides and their children. I use spatial variation in exposure to the parasite schistosomiasis. The empirical strategy compares two strains of this parasite, similar in their transmission mechanisms and health impacts, except that one of the two strains causes infertility. In my data, exposure to this strain increases the probability that a woman is infertile by 40%. I find that exposure to the infertility-causing strain increases the probability of child marriage and early fertility by 22%.

Maternal Health and Labor Market Outcomes

We study how severe injuries related to childbirth affect mothers' labor market outcomes. 1 in 20 first-time mothers who have a vaginal delivery suffer a severe birth tear, which can have long-lasting adverse impacts on their health and quality of life. Using a difference-in-differences design with a matched control group, we find that severe birth tears lead to a 6% higher earnings loss in the first five years after childbirth compared to the control group. The effect is larger for mothers from low SES backgrounds, while high SES mothers are found to seek more healthcare following their injury.

Alcohol Availability, Prenatal Conditions and Midlife Mental Health

 We examine the long-term mental health effects of an 8.5-month policy experiment that led to a sharp and unexpected increase in alcohol availability, focusing on individuals exposed to the policy in utero. We use administrative healthcare and drug prescription records to identify individuals who have received treatment for a mental health disorder. Prenatal exposure to the policy had a large and persistent effect on mental health: the exposed cohort is 16% more likely to be treated for a mental disorder in midlife. The effect is largest for those exposed from the second trimester and is only partly explained by the lower earnings observed among exposed individuals.

The Value of Monitoring for Disaster Prevention: The Desert Locust

Monitoring systems are meant to detect early signs of potentially disastrous outbreaks of diseases and pests, in time for preventative action. These monitoring systems are costly, and identifying their economic value requires estimating damages from outbreaks in empirical settings where monitoring is neither uniform nor exogenous. We estimate the value of monitoring systems for desert locusts, known to devour entire agricultural fields. We leverage conflict and weather events in breeding areas to detect the effects of monitoring interruptions on swarm outbreaks. We then reconstruct the spatial patterns of locust migrations to propagate these effects on swarm outbreaks beyond breeding areas. Finally, we show that in-utero exposure to a swarm increases the probability of stunting by 16%. These estimates allow us to quantify the effects of a change in monitoring efforts on subsequent locust swarms and on human health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Economics, Stockholm University, 2024. p. 253
Series
Monograph series / Institute for International Economic Studies, University of Stockholm, ISSN 0346-6892 ; 130
Keywords
Health Economics, Fertility, Maternal Morbidity, Infertility, Reproductive Health, Prenatal Health, Fetal Origins, Child Marriage, Development Economics
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-228499 (URN)978-91-8014-791-0 (ISBN)978-91-8014-792-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-14, hörsal 9, hus D, Södra Husen, Universitetsvägen 10, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-22 Created: 2024-04-20 Last updated: 2024-06-24Bibliographically approved
Harlow, B. L., Coleman, C. M., Mühlrad, H., Yan, J., Linnros, E., Lu, D., . . . Bohm-Starke, N. (2023). The Association Between Immune-Related Conditions Across the Life-Course and Provoked Vulvodynia. Journal of Pain, 24(8), 1415-1422
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Association Between Immune-Related Conditions Across the Life-Course and Provoked Vulvodynia
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Pain, ISSN 1526-5900, E-ISSN 1528-8447, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1415-1422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vulvodynia, impacts up to 8% of women by age 40, and is hypothesized to manifest through an altered immune-inflammatory response. To test this hypothesis, we identified all women born in Sweden between 1973 and 1996 diagnosed with localized provoked vulvodynia (N76.3) and/or vaginismus (N94.2 or F52.5) between 2001 and 2018. We matched each case to two women from the same birth year with no vulvar pain ICD codes. As a proxy for immune dysfunction, we used Swedish Registry data to capture 1) immunodeficiencies, 2) single organ and multiorgan autoimmune conditions, 3) allergy and atopies, and 4) malignancies involving immune cells across the life course. Women with vulvodynia, vaginismus or both were more likely to experience immune deficiencies (OR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.2–2.8), single organ (OR 1.4, 95% CI, 1.2–1.6) and/or multi-organ (OR 1.6, 95% CI, 1.3–1.9) immune disorders, and allergy/atopy conditions (OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.6–1.8) compared to controls. We observed greater risk with increasing numbers of unique immune related conditions (1 code: OR = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.5–1.7; 2 codes: OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 2.1–2.9; 3 or more codes: OR = 2.9, 1.6–5.4). These findings suggest that women with vulvodynia may have a more compromised immune system either at birth or at points across the life course than women with no vulvar pain history.

Keywords
Vulvodynia, immune dysfunction, risk factors, inflammation, life course.
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223951 (URN)10.1016/j.jpain.2023.03.007 (DOI)001076070800001 ()36940787 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151881616 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-11-27Bibliographically approved
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