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  • 1.
    Abdel-Fattah, Dina
    et al.
    UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Hock, Regine
    University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Trainor, Sarah
    University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA.
    Application of a structured decision-making process in cryospheric hazard planning: Case study of Bering Glacier surges on local state planning in Alaska2024In: Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, ISSN 1057-9214, E-ISSN 1099-1360, Vol. 31, no 1-2, article id e1825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surging glaciers are glaciers that experience rapidly accelerated glacier flow over a comparatively short period of time. Though relatively rare worldwide, Alaska is home to the largest number of surge-type glaciers globally. However, their impact on the broader socioecological system in the state is both poorly understood and under-researched, which poses a challenge in developing appropriate sustainability decisions in Alaska. We investigated how the surge patterns of the Bering Glacier in Alaska have potentially devastating effects on the local ecological biodiversity of its watershed via a structured decision-making analysis of the different possible consequences. Specifically, this analysis was conducted to explore the various outcomes of a Bering Glacier surge particularly if humans have an increased presence near the glacier due to the area potentially becoming a state park. This work explored the benefits of applying a risk and decision analytical framework in a cryosphere context, to better understand the socioeconomic impact of glacier surges. This is a novel approach in which a decision analysis tool was used to better understand an environmental sustainability challenge, offering an innovative method to support the achievement of the United Nations Sustainability Development Goals in Alaska. We therefore emphasise the need for integrated biophysical and socioeconomic analyses when it comes to understanding glacier hazards. Our research highlights the importance of understanding and researching biophysical changes as well as using a structured decision-making process for complicated hazard planning scenarios, exemplified via glaciated regions in Alaska, in order to create adaptation strategies that are sustainable and encompass the range of possible outcomes.

  • 2. Abdennadher, Jihene
    et al.
    Boukthir, Moncef
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Water Mass Transformation in a Secluded Bay of the Mediterranean Sea2023In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 375-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study demonstrates how water transformation in a secluded bay can be investigated using a range of Lagrangian analysis methods that can be calculated with a mass-conserving Lagrangian trajectory model. The study focuses on analysing the water mass transformation and overturning circulation in the Gulf of Gabès. The gradual transformation of water masses flowing through the Gulf was analysed using model-simulated Lagrangian trajectories. It was found that the overturning circulation in the Gulf gradually deepens, although it is falsely exaggerated by up to 50 metres when computed as a simple longitude-depth Lagrangian stream function.

    The Lagrangian method enabled the determination of the spatial dependence of transit time. The analysis revealed that most of the water in the Gulf has a transit time short enough to adjust to seasonal variability. However, in the innermost part of the Gulf, there exists an anticyclonic vortex that tends to trap water on longer timescales, preventing it from adjusting to seasonal variability. The trajectories were computed using velocity and mass transport fields from a high-resolution (1/96°) hydrodynamic ROMS model, which includes the relatively strong tides in this region of the Mediterranean.

  • 3.
    Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic influence on climate through changes in aerosol emissions from air pollution and land use change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particulate matter suspended in air (i.e. aerosol particles) exerts a substantial influence on the climate of our planet and is responsible for causing severe public health problems in many regions across the globe. Human activities have altered the natural and anthropogenic emissions of aerosol particles through direct emissions or indirectly by modifying natural sources. The climate effects of the latter have been largely overlooked. Humans have dramatically altered the land surface of the planet causing changes in natural aerosol emissions from vegetated areas. Regulation on anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions have the potential to affect the climate on regional to global scales. Furthermore, the regional climate effects of aerosol particles could potentially be very different than the ones caused by other climate forcers (e.g. well mixed greenhouse gases). The main objective of this work was to investigate the climatic effects of land use and air pollution via aerosol changes.

    Using numerical model simulations it was found that land use changes in the past millennium have likely caused a positive radiative forcing via aerosol climate interactions. The forcing is an order of magnitude smaller and has an opposite sign than the radiative forcing caused by direct aerosol emissions changes from other human activities. The results also indicate that future reductions of fossil fuel aerosols via air quality regulations may lead to an additional warming of the planet by mid-21st century and could also cause an important Arctic amplification of the warming. In addition, the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and the Asian monsoon appear to be sensitive to aerosol emission reductions from air quality regulations. For these reasons, climate mitigation policies should take into consideration aerosol air pollution, which has not received sufficient attention in the past.

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  • 4. Akam, Sajjad A.
    et al.
    Swanner, Elizabeth D.
    Yao, Hongming
    Hong, Wei-Li
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    Methane-derived authigenic carbonates – A case for a globally relevant marine carbonate factory2023In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 243, article id 104487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation of methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDAC) is an integral part of marine methane production and consumption, but MDAC's relative significance to the global marine carbon cycle is not well understood. Here we provide a synthesis and perspective to highlight MDAC from a global marine carbon biogeochemistry viewpoint. MDAC formation is a result and archive of carbon‑sulfur (C S) coupling in the shallow sulfatic zone and carbon‑silicon (C Si) coupling in deeper methanic sediments. MDAC constitute a carbon sequestration of 3.93 Tmol C yr−1 (range 2.34–5.8 Tmol C yr−1) in the modern ocean and are the third-largest carbon burial mechanism in marine sediments. This burial compares to 29% (11–57%) organic carbon and 10% (6–23%) skeletal carbonate carbon burial along continental margins. MDAC formation is also an important sink for benthic alkalinity and, thereby, a potential contributor to bottom water acidification. Our understanding of the impact of MDAC on global biogeochemical cycles has evolved over the past five decades from what was traditionally considered a passive carbon sequestration mechanism in a seep-oasis setting to what is now considered a dynamic carbonate factory expanding from deep sediments to bottom waters—a factory that has been operational since the Precambrian. We present a strong case for the need to improve regional scale quantification of MDAC accumulation rates and associated carbonate biogeochemical parameters, leading to their incorporation in present and paleo‑carbon budgets in the next phase of MDAC exploration.

  • 5.
    Albert, Séréna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Benthic-pelagic coupling in a changing world: Structural and functional responses of microbenthic communities to organic matter settling2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine soft sediments form the second largest habitat on the planet. Organisms residing in this environment represent a vast reservoir of biodiversity, and play key roles in ecosystem processes. Most benthic organisms depend on organic matter (OM) inputs from phytoplankton in the overlying water column as food supply, but human impacts such as eutrophication and climate change are profoundly altering natural ecosystem dynamics. The consequences of changes in benthic-pelagic coupling for the biodiversity and functioning of soft-sediment communities have yet to be resolved. 

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the role of OM settling on soft-sediments microeukaryotic (small organisms < 1 mm) and bacterial communities. The intents are two-fold, to investigate impacts on (1) community structure and diversity (chapters I, II and IV); and (2) ecosystem functioning, notably in relation to nitrogen (N) cycling (chapters I and III). 

    Our results show that settling OM quantity and quality both had a significant impact on microeukaryotic alpha-diversity. We observed a decrease in alpha-diversity following settling of diatom-derived spring bloom OM, possibly as a result of competitive exclusion, while cyanobacteria-derived summer bloom OM did not affect alpha-diversity (chapters I and IV). We also found that high biomass of diatoms and others fast sinking phytoplankton groups in the water column led to lower microeukaryotic alpha diversity after this material settled on the seafloor (chapter IV). Presumably, following this large sedimentation event, sediment oxygen (O2) demand was strongly stimulated, excluding O2-sensitive taxa. Overall, we propose that the assembly of microeukaryotic communities was primarily mediated by OM settling quantity (chapter IV), while differences in OM quality led to significant but more subtle changes, occurring at fine taxonomic level (chapter I). The response of bacterial communities to OM settling was less pronounced, and probably restricted to the uppermost sediment layer (chapters I and IV). We did, however, observe a significant effect of OM quality on bacterial communities assembly at the sediment-water interface, with taxa favored either by diatom- or by cyanobacteria-derived OM (chapter II). This study also showed that feedback mechanisms from nutrient recycling in the sediment could play a role in this response. Finally, our results indicated a substantial influence of OM quality on N cycling at the sediment-water interface. We found that settling of fresh OM (i.e. low C:N ratio) stimulated denitrification activity (chapters I and III), while simultaneously promoting more N recycling to the water column than settling of degraded OM (i.e. high C:N ratio) did (chapter III).  

    Altogether, our results indicate that current changes in OM settling dynamics in marine systems will likely impact microeukaryotic and, to some extent, bacterial biodiversity in soft sediments. Alterations in settling OM quality, in particular, may also affect crucial microbial processes involved in N cycling. This thesis highlights the importance of considering benthic-pelagic coupling mechanisms to better understand likely future changes in marine ecosystems.

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    Benthic-pelagic coupling in a changing world
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  • 6.
    Aldama Campino, Aitor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Atmospheric and oceanic circulation from a thermodynamic perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate system is continuously transporting and exchanging heat, freshwater, carbon and other tracers in different spatio-temporal scales. Therefore, analysing the system from a thermodynamic or biogeochemical framework is highly convenient. In this thesis the interaction between the ocean and the atmospheric circulation is analysed using thermodynamical and biogeochemical coordinates. Due to the dimensionality of the climate system stream functions are used to reduce this complexity and facilitate the understanding of the different processes that take place. The first half of this thesis, focuses on the interaction between the atmospheric and the ocean circulation from a thermodynamic perspective. We introduce the hydrothermohaline stream function which combines the atmospheric circulation in humidity-potential temperature (hydrothermal) space and the ocean circulation in salinity-temperature coordinates (thermohaline). A scale factor of 7.1 is proposed to link humidity and salinity coordinates. Future scenarios are showing an increase of humidity in the atmosphere due to the increase of temperatures which results in a widening of the hydrothermal stream function along the humidity coordinate. In a similar way, the ocean circulation in the thermohaline space expands along the salinity coordinate. The link between salinity and humidity changes is strongest at net evaporation regions where the gain of water vapour in the atmosphere results in a salinification in the ocean. In addition, the ocean circulation in latitude-carbon space is investigated. By doing so, we are able to distinguish the roles of different water masses and circulation pathways for ocean carbon. We find that the surface waters in the subtropical gyres are the main drivers of the meridional carbon transport in the ocean. By separating the carbon in its different constituents we show that the carbon transported by the majority of the water masses is a result of the solubility pump. The contribution of the biological pump is predominant in the deep Pacific Ocean. The effects of the Mediterranean Overflow Waters on the North Atlantic are discussed in the final part of the thesis.

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  • 7. Alekseeva, I.
    et al.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Schrum, C.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Reconstruction of historic changes of the Aral Sea water budget and sea-groundwater interactions by a coupled 3D sea-ice-groundwater model2007In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 9, 10629, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A 3D coupled sea-ice-groundwater model has been developed and applied for an estimation of the water balance and groundwater-seawater interactions in the shrinking Aral Sea. The model developed combines the complete 3D sea-ice hydrodynamics model ECOSMO, including a mass and energy conserving wetting and drying scheme, and a simple groundwater model based on changes in hydraulic gradient in response to the sea surface variability. During the simulation period 1979-1993, the model successfully reproduced the rapid Aral Sea level drop, surface area decrease, coastline position changes and salinization. Model predictions of evaporation and groundwater inflow were also consistent with independent estimations. Model results indicated that within the 15 years period of simulations the net groundwater inflow to the Aral Sea might have increased by 10% or more as a direct effect of the sea level lowering.

    Furthermore, model scenario tests were carried out to examine effects of salinity on sea hydrodynamics and to estimate non-linear feedbacks of the sea thermo- and hydrodynamics, air-sea turbulent fluxes and the sea water balance. It was shown that a neglect of salinity in the sea hydro- and thermo dynamics resulted in considerable differences in the Aral Sea winter thermal conditions, which in turn influenced the air-sea exchange in the following spring and summer. As a result, the zero salinity scenario predicted higher evaporation rates and an considerably accelerated sea level lowering by up to 2 cm/yr, in comparison with the basic model run. An indirect influence of the fresh groundwater inflow in terms of water balance has been identified as less significant, however it was shown that the fresh groundwater input could influence the Aral Sea salinity distribution considerably since 1990’s.

  • 8.
    Althoff, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Global patterns in water flux partitioning: Irrigated and rainfed agriculture drives asymmetrical flux to vegetation over runoff2023In: One Earth, ISSN 2590-3330, E-ISSN 2590-3322, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1246-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning of precipitation water input on land between green (evapotranspiration) and blue (runoff) water fluxes distributes the annually renewable freshwater resource among sectors and ecosystems. The patterns and main drivers of this partitioning are not fully understood around the global land area. We decipher the worldwide patterns and key determinants of this water flux partitioning and investigate its predictability based on a global machine learning model. Available data for 3,614 hydrological catchments and model application to the global land area agree in showing mostly larger green than blue water flux. Possible expansion/intensification of irrigated and/or rainfed agriculture to feed a growing human population, along with climate warming, will tend to increase this flux partitioning asymmetry, jeopardizing blue water security. The developed machine learning model presents a promising predictive tool for future blue and green water availability under various forthcoming climate and land-use change scenarios around the world.

  • 9.
    Aminjafari, Saeid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Monitoring Water Availability in Northern Inland Waters from Space2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    River deltas and lakes support biodiversity and offer crucial ecosystem services such as freshwater provision, flood control, and fishing. However, climate change and human activities have affected deltas and lakes globally, altering the services they provide. Since delta and lake surface water occurrence and water levels respond to climate change and anthropogenic activities, we need to monitor their variations to understand the potential drivers for effective water management strategies. However, important deltas like the Selenga River Delta (SRD) in Russia lack a detailed analysis of water occurrence. Regarding lake water level, there has been a decline in the number of gauging stations globally, due to installation and maintenance costs. For example, Sweden has ~100,000 lakes which are sources of freshwater and hydro-power, but only 38 lakes have long and continuous in-situ records of water level.

    As satellite data are reliable alternatives for conventional methods to monitor deltas and lakes, I employed Earth Observations (EO) to quantify changes in surface water occurrence in the SRD and water levels in Swedish lakes and identify their main drivers. I also developed and explored a novel methodology for lake water level estimation based on Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) by calculating the six-day phase differences in 30 Swedish lakes.

    To achieve these objectives, I trained and applied a Maximum Likelihood classification to Landsat images from 1987 to 2020 and quantified surface water occurrence and its changes in the SRD. I found that surface water occurrence in 51% of the delta experienced a decrease. As the Selenga River is the only river flowing into the SRD, the change in surface water occurrence in the SRD correlated with river discharge, but not with the river suspended sediment concentration, the lake water level in the outlet of the SRD, or evapotranspiration over the delta.

    In Sweden, I used satellite altimetry data from ERS-2, ENVISAT, JASON-1,2,3, SARAL, and Sentinel-3A/B to quantify water levels in 144 lakes from 1995-2022. I found that 52% of the lakes showed increasing trends (mostly in the north) and 43% decreasing trends (mostly in the south). Water level trends and variabilities did not correlate strongly with hydroclimatic changes (precipitation and temperature) but differed in regulated lakes compared to unregulated ones, both in the north and in the south of Sweden.

    The results of the D-InSAR method for water level estimation in two Swedish lakes (Hjälmaren and Solnen) showed that with water level changes smaller than a complete SAR phase, the phase changes correlate with in-situ water level changes with a minimum Root Mean Square Error of 0.43 cm in some pixels. In all 30 lakes, I accumulated the phase changes of each pixel throughout the whole number of interferograms to construct water levels. This method replicated the direction of water level changes shown by high Pearson’s correlations in at least one pixel in each lake.

    This thesis highlights the importance of EO for estimating surface water occurrence and lake water levels and brings focus to the future of EO through advanced space missions such as Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) and NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR). The findings underscore the need to continuously monitor lake water level and occurrence to adapt to climate change and understand the effects of water-regulatory schemes.

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  • 10.
    Aminjafari, Saeid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Brown, Ian A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Frappart, F.
    Papa, F.
    Blarel, F.
    Vahidi Mayamey, Farzad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Distinctive Patterns of Water Level Change in Swedish Lakes Driven by Climate and Human Regulation2024In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 60, no 3, article id e2023WR036160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite having approximately 100,000 lakes, Sweden has limited continuous gauged lake water level data. Although satellite radar altimetry (RA) has emerged as a popular alternative to measure water levels in inland water bodies, it has not yet been used to understand the large-scale changes in Swedish lakes. Here, we quantify the changes in water levels in 144 lakes using RA data and in situ gauged measurements to examine the effects of flow regulation and hydroclimatic variability. We use data from several RA missions, including ERS-2, ENVISAT, JASON-1,2,3, SARAL, and Sentinel-3A/B. We found that during 1995–2022, around 52% of the lakes exhibited an increasing trend and 43% a decreasing trend. Most lakes exhibiting an increasing trend were in the north of Sweden, while most lakes showing a decreasing trend were in the south. Regarding the potential effects of regulation, we found that unregulated lakes had smaller trends in water level and dynamic storage than regulated ones. While the seasonal patterns of water levels in the lakes in the north are similar in regulated and unregulated lakes, in the south, they differ substantially. This study highlights the need to continuously monitor lake water levels for adaptation strategies in the face of climate change and understand the downstream effects of water regulatory schemes.

  • 11.
    Aminjafari, Saeid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Brown, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frappart, Frédéric
    ISPA, INRAE/Bordeaux Sciences Agro.
    Papa, Fabrice
    LEGOS, Université de Toulouse.
    Blarel, Fabien
    LEGOS, Université de Toulouse.
    Farzad, Vahidi Mayamey
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Assessing the Effects of Regulation on Swedish Lake Water Levels with Satellite AltimetryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are important sources of freshwater for human activities and provide critical ecosystem services. However, despite having approximately 100,000 lakes, Sweden has limited continuous gauged water level data. Although satellite radar altimetry has emerged as a popular alternative to measure water levels in inland water bodies, it is yet to be exploited to understand large-scale changes in inland water bodies in Sweden. Here, we quantify the changes in water levels of 144 lakes using satellite altimetry data and in-situ gauged measurements and examine the effects of flow regulation and hydroclimatic variability. Data from multiple altimetry missions, including ERS-2, ENVISAT, JASON-1,2,3, SARAL, and Sentinel-3A/B, are employed to estimate the variability and yearly and seasonal trends of water levels in two periods, 1995-2022 and 2013-2022. Our study finds that water levels significantly increased in 52% of the lakes during 1995-2022. The increasing trends primarily occurred in northern Sweden and are potentially attributed to earlier snowmelt. On the other hand, 43% of the lakes exhibited a significant decreasing trend, which was mostly concentrated in Southern Sweden. Dividing the set of lakes into regulated and unregulated groups shows how lake regulation in Sweden can partly explain the spatial patterns of water levels and their variability. This study highlights the need to continuously monitor lake water levels for adaptation strategies in the face of climate change and understand the downstream effects of water regulatory schemes.

  • 12.
    Aminjafari, Saeid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Brown, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Vahidi Mayamey, Farzad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Tracking Centimeter-Scale Water Level Changes in Swedish Lakes Using D-InSAR2024In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 60, no 2, article id e2022WR034290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are valuable water resources that support aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and supply fresh water for the agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors worldwide. Although water levels should be tracked to monitor these services, conventional gauging is unfeasible in most lakes. This study applies Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) to estimate small water level changes, less than 2 cm, in Swedish lakes over 6-day intervals. We validated the method across the shores of 30 Swedish lakes with gauged observations in 2019. We used Sentinel-1A/B images with a 6-day temporal separation to construct consecutive interferograms and accumulated the phase changes in pixels of high coherence to build a time series of water levels. We find that the accumulated phase change obtained by D-InSAR replicates the magnitude of water levels in seven lakes in Southern Sweden, where water levels change slowly, less than 2 cm per 6-day period, as validated by in-situ gauges. In addition, this study demonstrates the application of D-InSAR to estimate the long-term direction of water level change (i.e., increase or decrease) in all 30 lakes. This work reveals the utility of high temporal resolution water level observations in support of other satellite water level instruments such as conventional altimeters and the recently launched Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission.

  • 13. Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Grinienė, Evelina
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Gallampois, Christine
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Tysklind, Mats
    Microbial food web changes induced by terrestrial organic matter and elevated temperature in the coastal northern Baltic Sea2023In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 10, article id 1170054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has been projected to cause increased temperature and amplified inflows of terrestrial organic matter to coastal areas in northern Europe. Consequently, changes at the base of the food web favoring heterotrophic bacteria over phytoplankton are expected, affecting the food web structure. We tested this hypothesis using an outdoor shallow mesocosm system in the northern Baltic Sea in early summer, where the effects of increased temperature (+ 3°C) and terrestrial matter inputs were studied following the system dynamics and conducting grazing experiments. Juvenile perch constituted the highest trophic level in the system, which exerted strong predation on the zooplankton community. Perch subsequently released the microbial food web from heavy grazing by mesozooplankton. Addition of terrestrial matter had a stronger effect on the microbial food web than the temperature increase, because terrestrial organic matter and accompanying nutrients promoted both heterotrophic bacterial production and phytoplankton primary production. Moreover, due to the shallow water column in the experiment, terrestrial matter addition did not reduce the light below the photosynthesis saturation level, and in these conditions, the net-autotrophy was strengthened by terrestrial matter enrichment. In combination with elevated temperature, the terrestrial matter addition effects were intensified, further shifting the size distribution of the microbial food web base from picoplankton to microphytoplankton. These changes up the food web led to increase in the biomass and proportion of large-sized ciliates (>60 µm) and rotifers. Despite the shifts in the microbial food web size structure, grazing experiments suggested that the pathway from picoplankton to nano- and microzooplankton constituted the major energy flow in all treatments. The study implies that the microbial food web compartments in shallow coastal waters will adjust to climate induced increased inputs of terrestrial matter and elevated temperature, and that the major energy path will flow from picoplankton to large-sized ciliates during the summer period.

     

  • 14. Andrejev, Oleg
    et al.
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Myrberg, Kai
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    The role of the spatial resolution of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for marine transport risk assessment2011In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 309-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of a novel method for quantifying the environmental risks associated with the current-driven transport of adverse impacts released from offshore sources (e.g. ship traffic) with respect to the spatial resolution of the underlying hydrodynamic model. The risk is evaluated as the probability of particles released in different sea areas hitting the coast and in terms of the time after which the hit occurs (particle age) on the basis of a statistical analysis of large sets of 10-day long Lagrangian trajectories calculated for 1987-1991 for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The relevant 21) maps are calculated using the OAAS model with spatial resolutions of 2, 1 and 0.5 nautical miles (nm) and with identical initial, boundary and forcing conditions from the Rossby Centre 3D hydrodynamic model (RCO, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). The spatially averaged values of the probability and particle age display hardly any dependence on the resolution. They both reach almost identical stationary levels (0.67-0.69 and ca 5.3 days respectively) after a few years of simulations. Also, the spatial distributions of the relevant fields are qualitatively similar for all resolutions. In contrast, the optimum locations for fairways depend substantially on the resolution, whereas the results for the 2 nm model differ considerably from those obtained using finer-resolution models. It is concluded that eddy-permitting models with a grid step exceeding half the local baroclinic Rossby radius are suitable for a quick check of whether or not any potential gain from this method is feasible, whereas higher-resolution simulations with eddy-resolving models are necessary for detailed planning. The asymptotic values of the average probability and particle age are suggested as an indicator of the potential gain from the method in question and also as a new measure of the vulnerability of the nearshore of water bodies to offshore traffic accidents.

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  • 15.
    Arnold, Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    ECORD Teachers Workshop: Exploring the Ocean Floor with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program2007In: European Geosciences Union, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s oceans are important regions of research exploration because they play key roles in driving the Earth’s climate, are very geologically active and preserve sedimentary and rock records that provide a detailed climate and tectonic history of the Earth over the last 200 million years. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is the only international research program that provides scientists from all over the world with long, continuous sediment and rock records to study the Earth’s history in these very important regions. The European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) is the European branch of IODP, which also includes scientists from the USA, Japan, the People’s Republic of China and South Korea.

    The goal of the ECORD workshop is to provide teachers with information and material that can be used to enhance science classes for school students and to illustrate the excitement found in ocean research drilling.

    Scientific talks designed specifically for school teachers by leading IODP scientists will highlight selected ocean drilling research topics important for humanity such as natural resources (gas hydrates), natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanic activity, undersea landslides and tsunamis) and natural climate variation (growth and decline of ice sheets and sea level change).

    The ECORD teacher’s workshop will also provide teachers with background speeches that introduce the highly specialized IODP research ships that drill sediment and rock cores for scientific studies, as well as an introduction to the international IODP websites where teachers and students can obtain scientific results, real-time information about current research cruises, and learning materials for use in their classrooms.

  • 16.
    Aronsson, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Användning av tredimensionell geologisk modellering i hydrogeologiska utredningar: En fallstudie inför anläggandet av ett akviferlager i Brunkebergsåsen i Stockholm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Akviferlager är en form av geoenergi där solenergi lagrad i grundvattnet används för att värma och kyla byggnader. Inför anläggandet av ett akviferlager är det viktigt med grundläggande geologiska och hydrogeologiska utredningar för att säkerställa funktion och kapacitet hos akviferlagret, samt minimera eventuell miljöpåverkan. I denna studie utvecklas en tredimensionell geologisk modell för att öka kunskapen om rullstensåsens geologiska uppbyggnad samt bedöma hur geologin kan komma att påverka det planerade akviferlagret. För att undersöka vilken påverkan manuella justeringar och tolkningar av geologin har, togs två geologiska modeller fram för jämförelse. Utifrån de geologiska modellerna uppskattades effektiv hydraulisk konduktivitet för åsen, d.v.s. sammanlagd konduktivitet för hela akviferens mäktighet, samt transporttid mellan akviferlagrets brunnspoler. Studien visar att akviferen består av sammanhängande jordlager med hög hydraulisk konduktivitet. Beroende på tolkningar och justeringar i modelleringsprocessen visar de två olika modellerna på skillnader vad gäller jordlagrens utbredning och mäktighet. Detta medför skillnader i effektiv hydraulisk konduktivitet mellan modellerna, vilket resulterar i relativt stora skillnader vad gäller transporttider mellan brunnspolerna. Tredimensionella geologiska modeller bedöms bidra till förbättrade hydrogeologiska utredningar då det är ett enkelt och effektivt sätt att bygga upp ett områdes geologi för översikt, tolkning och vidare studier i form av exempelvis grundvattenmodellering.

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  • 17.
    Aronsson, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Saltvattenpåverkan i enskilda brunnar i kustnära områden: En undersökning av grundvattenförhållandena och riskerna för saltvattenpåverkan i S:t Annas skärgård, Östergötland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas are popular for housing, both for permanent living and holiday houses. At the same time, thin sediments and small storage capacity in the bedrock makes the ground water resources limited. The limited ground water resources combined with too large withdrawals of ground water makes salt water intrusion a problem in many coastal areas. This study examine the risk of salt water intrusion in drinking water supplying wells on the island Södra Finnö in S:t Anna archipelago, Östergötland, Sweden. A calculation of the relation between ground water recharge and withdrawal is obtained to analyze the ground water balance in the area. To investigate the thickness of the freshwater in the aquifer, the Ghyben-Herzberg principle is used, based on measurements of ground water levels in the area. The study also includes a GIS-analyze to investigate the risk of salt water intrusion for specific wells, and water samples analyzed for conductivity and sodium. The results show a positive ground water balance, which indicate the area is not to be seen as a risk area for salt water intrusion. However, the GIS-analyze and the water samples shows that some specific wells are in risk of, or has already been effected from, salt water intrusion. 

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  • 18. Austin, William E. N.
    et al.
    Abbott, Peter M.
    Davies, Siwan
    Pearce, Nicholas J. G.
    Wastegård, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marine tephrochronology: an introduction to tracing time in the ocean2014In: Marine tephrochronology / [ed] W. E. N. Austin, P. M. Abbott, S. M. Davies, N. J. G. Pearce, S. Wastegård, London: Geological Society of London, 2014, Vol. 398, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Backman, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Raffi, Isabella
    Ciummelli, Marina
    Baldauf, Jack
    Species-specific responses of late Miocene Discoaster spp. to enhanced biosilica productivity conditions in the equatorial Pacific and the Mediterranean2013In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 285-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Census data of a major Cenozoic calcareous nannofossil genus (Discoaster) have been acquired from Site U1338, located near the Equator in the eastern Pacific Ocean and drilled in 2009 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 321. The investigated 147.53 m thick upper Miocene sediment sequence is primarily composed of biogenic carbonate and biogenic silica. Diatom biostratigraphic data were used to develop a revised biomagnetostratigraphic age model, resulting in more variable late Miocene sedimentation rates. Carbonate content variations mainly reflect dilution by biogenic silica production, although intense carbonate dissolution affects a few shorter intervals. Abundance variations of discoasters show no distinct correlation with either carbonate or biosilica contents. The two dominant Discoaster taxa are D. brouweri and D. variabilis, except for a 12 m thick interval where D. bellus outnumbers the sum of all other discoasters by a factor of 4.6. Data presented indicate that first D. hamatus and then D. berggrenii both evolved from D. bellus. Three unusual morphotypes, here referred to as Discoaster A, B and C, increase in relative abundance during episodes of enhanced biosilica production in the upper half of the investigated sequence (Messinian). Strikingly similar morphotypes have been observed previously in Messinian age sediments from the Mediterranean, characterized by alternating deposition of biogenic carbonate and biosilica. This suggests a species-specific response among some of the late Miocene discoasters to broader oceanographic and climatic forcing that promoted episodes of enhanced deposition of biogenic silica.

  • 20. Baird, Julia M.
    et al.
    Summers, Robert
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Cisterns and safe drinking water in Canada2013In: Canadian water resources journal, ISSN 0701-1784, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 121-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to sources of safe drinking water is imperative to human health and of concern in both developing and developed countries. A myriad of responses have occurred to enhance drinking water safety in Canada over the decade since the Walkerton tragedy. Pressing questions remain about drinking water safety, especially in small systems and private water supplies that fall outside much of the recently implemented regulations. This paper explores the use of cisterns in Canada and their safety as a private means to supply potable drinking water. Knowledge of cistern use in Canada is probed, associated health risks are examined and the ways these risks are being managed are considered. Knowledge of cistern use in Canada at present is nominal. Management and policy considerations need to be advanced alongside further research to better understand and manage risks associated with this source of drinking water.

  • 21. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Morris, Samantha
    Mitchell, Simon
    Rathwell, Kaitlyn
    Enhancing source water protection and watershed management: Lessons from the case of the New Brunswick Water Classification Initiative2014In: Canadian water resources journal, ISSN 0701-1784, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source water protection varies by locale, and approaches and experiences are accumulating in response to concerns about drinking water safety. Learning lessons and transferring them from experiences elsewhere is a well-established practice for addressing water governance challenges. In response to the need to enhance source water protection policies and initiatives and a growing interest in modes of governance in which government and non-government actors collaborate, this research investigated and derived lessons from the Water Classification Initiative in New Brunswick, Canada. The research specifically aimed to describe the development of the initiative, analyze structural relationships among actors involved in the initiative and describe the successes and challenges experienced. Investigation of the Water Classification Initiative illustrates how key aspects of source water protection identified in the literature (e. g. watershed as a focal scale, collaborative approaches, incorporation of science and local knowledge) can be incorporated into policy, how capacity may be built or constrained in the context of government-led collaborative approaches, and how social network analysis offers a powerful tool to understand interactions among those involved in a policy process. Learning from these insights offers an opportunity to advance the development of new approaches as well as to enhance existing source water protection policies.

  • 22. Balathandayuthabani, Sivakiruthika
    et al.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Bastviken, David
    Aquatic carbon fluxes in a hemiboreal catchment are predictable from landscape morphology, temperature, and runoff2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 313-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic networks contribute greenhouse gases and lateral carbon (C) export from catchments. The magnitudes of these fluxes exceed the global land C sink but are uncertain. Resolving this uncertainty is important for understanding climate feedbacks. We quantified vertical methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from lakes and streams, and lateral export of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon from a hemiboreal catchment for 3 yr. Lateral C fluxes dominated the total aquatic C flux. All aquatic C fluxes were disproportionately contributed from spatially restricted areas and/or short-term events. Hence, consideration of local and episodic variability is vital. Temperature and runoff were the main temporal drivers for lake and stream C emissions, respectively. Whole-catchment aquatic C emissions scaled linearly with these drivers within timeframes of stable land-cover. Hence, temperature and runoff increase across Northern Hemisphere humid areas from climate change may yield proportional increases in aquatic C fluxes. 

  • 23.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    The thermohaline circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum and in the Present-Day climate2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermohaline circulation (THC) corresponds to the large time- and spatial-scales ocean circulation associated with the transport of heat and salt, and is known to be an important factor controlling the climate variability. The large scales involved in the THC make it difficult to observe, and therefore the synergy of numerical models and climate proxy reconstructions is particularly relevant to study the characteristics of this circulation in the present and past climates.

    In this doctoral thesis, the THC during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Present-Day (PD) is explored using a state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Model in its high- and low-resolution regimes. By comparing the LGM model outputs with the paleo-proxy reconstructions, it is shown that the high-resolution simulation improves the representation of the sea surface tem- peratures in the regions where the current structures appear to be complex, i.e., the western boundary currents (Agulhas, Kuroshio, Gulf Stream) and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, although statistical comparisons with paleo- proxy reconstructions are not significantly improved on a global scale.

    The THC involves a superposition of processes acting at widely different spatial and temporal scales, from the geostrophic large-scale and slowly-varying flow to the mesoscale turbulent eddies and at even smaller-scale, the mixing generated by the internal wave field. Not all these processes can be properly resolved in numerical models, and thus need to be parameterized. Analyzing the THC in an eddy-permitting numerical model, it was found that the temporal scales required for diagnosing the Southern Ocean circulation should not exceed 1 month and the spatial scales needed to be taken into account must be smaller than 1°. Important changes in the nature and intensity of the THC were observed between the LGM and PD simulations. An estimation of the turnover times (i.e., the time it takes for the water parcel to make and entire loop on the Conveyor Belt) revealed that the LGM THC could be more vigorous than under the PD conditions. As a result, the ocean transports of heat and freshwater, the oceanic uptake of CO2, the ventilation of the deep ocean and the reorganization of the passive and active tracers (e.g., temperature, salinity, greenhouse gases, nutrients) can be altered in these different regimes.

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  • 24.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brodeau, Laurent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    Lundberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    A Last Glacial Maximum world-ocean simulation at eddy-permitting resolution – Part 1: Experimental design and basic evaluation2013In: Climate of the Past Discussions, ISSN 1814-9340, E-ISSN 1814-9359, Vol. 9, p. 297-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most state-of-the-art climate models include a coarsely resolved oceanic compo- nent, which has difficulties in capturing detailed dynamics, and therefore eddy- permitting/eddy-resolving simulations have been developed to reproduce the observed World Ocean. In this study, an eddy-permitting numerical experiment is conducted to simulate the global ocean state for a period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼26500 to 19000yr ago) and to investigate the improvements due to taking into account these higher spatial scales. The ocean general circulation model is forced by a 49-yr sample of LGM atmospheric fields constructed from a quasi-equilibrated climate-model simulation. The initial state and the bottom boundary condition conform to the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) recommendations. Be- fore evaluating the model efficiency in representing the paleo-proxy reconstruction of the surface state, the LGM experiment is in this first part of the investigation, compared with a present-day eddy-permitting hindcast simulation as well as with the available PMIP results. It is shown that the LGM eddy-permitting simulation is consistent with the quasi-equilibrated climate-model simulation, but large discrepancies are found with the PMIP model analyses, probably due to the different equilibration states. The strongest meridional gradients of the sea-surface temperature are located near 40° N and S, this due to particularly large North-Atlantic and Southern-Ocean sea-ice covers. These also modify the locations of the convection sites (where deep-water forms) and most of the LGM Conveyor Belt circulation consequently takes place in a thinner layer than today. Despite some discrepancies with other LGM simulations, a glacial state is captured and the eddy-permitting simulation undertaken here yielded a useful set of data for comparisons with paleo-proxy reconstructions. 

  • 25.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Drijfhout, Sybren
    Kuhlbrodt, Till
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    The residual circulation of the Southern Ocean: Which spatio-temporal scales are needed?2013In: Ocean Modelling, ISSN 1463-5003, E-ISSN 1463-5011, Vol. 64, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Southern Ocean circulation consists of a complicated mixture of processes and phenomena that arise at different time and spatial scales which need to be parametrized in the state-of-the-art climate models. The temporal and spatial scales that give rise to the present-day residual mean circulation are here inves- tigated by calculating the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) in density coordinates from an eddy-permitting global model. The region sensitive to the temporal decomposition is located between 38°S and 63°S, associated with the eddy-induced transport. The ‘‘Bolus’’ component of the residual circu- lation corresponds to the eddy-induced transport. It is dominated by timescales between 1 month and 1 year. The temporal behavior of the transient eddies is examined in splitting the ‘‘Bolus’’ component into a ‘‘Seasonal’’, an ‘‘Eddy’’ and an ‘‘Inter-monthly’’ component, respectively representing the correlation between density and velocity fluctuations due to the average seasonal cycle, due to mesoscale eddies and due to large-scale motion on timescales longer than one month that is not due to the seasonal cycle. The ‘‘Seasonal’’ bolus cell is important at all latitudes near the surface. The ‘‘Eddy’’ bolus cell is dominant in the thermocline between 50°S and 35°S and over the whole ocean depth at the latitude of the Drake Passage. The ‘‘Inter-monthly’’ bolus cell is important in all density classes and is maximal in the Brazil– Malvinas Confluence and the Agulhas Return Current. The spatial decomposition indicates that a large part of the Eulerian mean circulation is recovered for spatial scales larger than 11.25°, implying that small-scale meanders in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), near the Subantarctic and Polar Fronts, and near the Subtropical Front are important in the compensation of the Eulerian mean flow. 

  • 26.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Lundberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brodeau, Laurent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    A Last Glacial Maximum World-Ocean simulation at eddy-permitting resolution – Part 2: Confronting the paleo-proxy data2013In: Climate of the Past Discussions, ISSN 1814-9340, E-ISSN 1814-9359, Vol. 9, p. 329-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous investigations concerning the design of an eddy-permitting LGM oceanic sim- ulation are here extended with focus on whether this type of simulation is capable of improving the numerical results with regard to the available paleo-proxy reconstructions. Consequently, an eddy-permitting and two coarse-grid simulations of the same LGM period are confronted with a dataset from the Multiproxy Approach for the Recon- struction of the Glacial Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures (MARGO SSTs) and a num- ber of sea-ice reconstructions. From a statistical analysis it was found that the eddy- permitting simulation does not significantly improve the SST representation with regard to the paleo-reconstructions. The western boundary currents are better resolved in the high-resolution experiment than in the coarse simulations, but, although these more detailed SST structures yield a locally improved consistency between modelled pre- dictions and proxies, they do not contribute significantly to the global statistical score. As in the majority of the PMIP2 simulations, the modelled sea-ice conditions are still inconsistent with the paleo-reconstructions, probably due to the choice of the model equilibrium. 

  • 27.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brodeau, Laurent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Falahat, Saeed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    The vigorous large-scale ocean circulations during the Last Glacial MaximumManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation of the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) under glacial and interglacial climate conditions is investigated using a new global thermohaline stream function. Consequently, the interglacial and glacial THCs are compared from two experiments based on an ocean general circulation model forced at the surface by conditions representing the present-day and the period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21kyr ago). It is shown  that the LGM THC is amplified by the salinity/density contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basins, as well as in the abyss due to larger salinity gradients. Even though the circuit along the Conveyor Belt loop is not drastically changed, the water mass transformations can regionally differ between the two periods. Additionally, the LGM Conveyor Belt Cell is more  isolated from the abyss and its turnover time is between two and three times shorter than in the present-day simulation, suggesting vigorous large-scale circulation. 

  • 28.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Falahat, Saeed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brodeau, Laurent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    On the glacial and interglacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater2014In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 907-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermohaline circulation (THC) and the oceanic heat and freshwater transports are essential for understanding the global climate system. Streamfunctions are widely used in oceanography to represent the THC and estimate the transport of heat and freshwater. In the present study, the regional and global changes of the THC, the transports of heat and freshwater and the timescale of the circulation between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present-day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and streamfunctions projected in various coordinate systems. We found that the LGM tropical circulation is about 10% stronger than under modern conditions due to stronger wind stress. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is about 20% larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes by almost 50% and reorganising the freshwater transport. The strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation depends strongly on the coordinate system. It varies between 9 and 16 Sv during the LGM, and between 12 to 19 Sv for the present day. Similar to paleo-proxy reconstructions, a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water takes place into the Northern Hemisphere basins and squeezes most of the Conveyor Belt circulation into a shallower part of the ocean. These different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period are illustrated by the streamfunctions in latitude–salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates. From these diagnostics, we found that the LGM Conveyor Belt circulation is driven by an enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The LGM abyssal circulation lifts and makes the Conveyor Belt cell deviate from the abyssal region, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an Atlantic circulation more isolated from the Pacific. An estimate of the timescale of the circulation reveals a sluggish abyssal circulation during the LGM, and a Conveyor Belt circulation that is more vigorous due to the combination of a stronger wind stress and a shortened circulation route.

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  • 29.
    Ballarotta, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Laurent, Brodeau
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Jenny, Brandefelt
    Lundberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Last Glacial Maximum world ocean simulations at eddy-permitting and coarse resolutions: do eddies contribute to a better consistency between models and palaeoproxies?2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 2669-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most state-of-the-art climate models include a coarsely resolved oceanic component, which hardly captures detailed dynamics, whereas eddy-permitting and eddy-resolving simulations are developed to reproduce the observed ocean. In this study, an eddy-permitting and a coarse resolution numerical experiment are conducted to simulate the global ocean state for the period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~26 500 to 19 000 yr ago) and to investigate the improvements due to taking into account the smaller spatial scales. The ocean state from each simulation is confronted with a data set from the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean (MARGO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs), some reconstructions of the palaeo-circulations and a number of sea-ice reconstructions. The western boundary currents and the Southern Ocean dynamics are better resolved in the high-resolution experiment than in the coarse simulation, but, although these more detailed SST structures yield a locally improved consistency between model predictions and proxies, they do not contribute sig- nificantly to the global statistical score. The SSTs in the tropical coastal upwelling zones are also not significantly improved by the eddy-permitting regime. The models perform in the mid-latitudes but as in the majority of the Paleo- climate Modelling Intercomparison Project simulations, the modelled sea-ice conditions are inconsistent with the palaeo-reconstructions. The effects of observation locations on the comparison between observed and simulated SST suggest that more sediment cores may be required to draw reliable conclusions about the improvements introduced by the high resolution model for reproducing the global SSTs. One has to be careful with the interpretation of the deep ocean state which has not reached statistical equilibrium in our simula-tions. However, the results indicate that the meridional overturning circulations are different between the two regimes, suggesting that the model parametrizations might also play a key role for simulating past climate states. 

  • 30. Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Uncertainty-Accounting Environmental Policy and Management of Water Systems2007In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 3653–3659-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem

    management do not commonly require explicit stochastic

    accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the

    quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads

    and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and

    investigate a possible environmental policy that does require

    an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare

    both the environmental and economic resource allocation

    performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental

    policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and riskaverse

    environmental policies under a range of different

    hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison

    indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting

    policy may perform better than deterministic policies over

    a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of

    reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear

    to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  • 31.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Arctic Ocean benthic foraminifera preservation and Mg/Ca ratios: Implications for bottom water palaeothermometry2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructions of Arctic Ocean palaeotemperatures are needed to disentangle natural variability from anthropogenic changes and understand the role of ocean heat transport in forcing or providing feedbacks on Arctic climate change. Despite known complications with calcareous microfossil preservation in Arctic Ocean sediments, calcareous benthic foraminifera can be common in interglacial sequences. However, thus far they have been underutilized in palaeoceanographic studies. This thesis explores the application of the Mg/Ca palaeothermometry proxy for reconstructing bottom water temperatures (BWT) in the Arctic Ocean during the late Quaternary. This method, which is supported by previous empirical studies demonstrating a strong temperature control on trace Mg inclusion into foraminiferal shell calcite, has been applied in many ocean regions and time intervals. Until now its application in the Arctic Ocean has been sparingly explored.

    The results of this doctoral thesis are based on benthic foraminifera retrieved from marine sediment cores covering a wide geographical Arctic Ocean area including both the shallow and vast continental shelves and slopes to the intermediate-to-deep waters of the Lomonosov Ridge and Morris Jesup Rise. These provide the first benthic foraminifera Mg/Ca ratios from the central Arctic Ocean region. In the first study, mechanisms that could affect Mg incorporation in Arctic benthic foraminifera are investigated using oceanographic field data and six 'live' modern Arctic species (Elphidium clavatum, Nonionella labradorica, Cassidulina neoteretis, Oridorsalis tener, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Quinqueloculina arctica). The result is new species-specific Mg/Ca–BWT field calibrations that provide important constraints at the cold end of the BWT spectrum (-2 to 1°C) (Paper I). Using the new Mg/Ca–BWT equation for E. clavatum, a palaeotemperature record was generated for the late Holocene (past ca. 4100 yr) from the western Chukchi Sea. The data showed BWT fluctuations from -2 to 1°C that are interpreted as showing pulses of warmer Pacific water inflow at 500–1000 yr periods, thus revealing multi-centennial variability in heat transport into the Arctic Ocean driven by low latitude forcings (Paper II). Complications with foraminiferal calcite preservation that limit Mg/Ca palaeothermometry in the Arctic were discovered and these are tackled in two additional papers. Anomalously high Mg content in benthic foraminifera from the central Arctic Ocean is linked to diagenetic contamination as a result of the unique oceanographic, sedimentary and geochemical environment (Paper III). Lastly, the dramatic post-recovery dissolution of foraminifera from a Chukchi Shelf sediment core during core storage is investigated and attributed to acidification driven by sulphide oxidation in this organic rich and calcite poor shelf setting (Paper IV).

    The findings of this thesis demonstrate that benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-palaeothermometry can be applied in the Arctic Ocean and capture small BWT change (on the order of -2 to 2°C) even at low temperatures. In practice, preservational complexities can be limiting and require special sample handling or analysis due to the high potential for diagenetic contamination in the central Arctic Ocean and rapid post coring calcite dissolution in the seasonally productive shelf seas. This Ph.D. project is a component of the multidisciplinary SWERUS-C3 (Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Climate-Cryosphere- Carbon Interactions) project that included an expedition with Swedish icebreaker Oden to the East Siberian Arctic Ocean.

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  • 32.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Lear, Caroline
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    de Boer, Agatha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cronin, Thomas
    Semiletov, Igor
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Late Holocene variability in Arctic Ocean Pacific Water inflow through the Bering StraitManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Lear, Caroline H.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Gukov, Aleksandr Y.
    Coxall, Helen K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Arctic Ocean benthic foraminifera Mg/Ca ratios and global Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations: New constraints at low temperatures2018In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 236, p. 240-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the use of Mg/Ca ratios in six Arctic Ocean benthic foraminifera species as bottom water palaeothermometers and expand published Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations to the coldest bottom temperatures (<1 °C). Foraminifera were analyzed in surface sediments at 27 sites in the Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Laptev Sea, Lomonosov Ridge and Petermann Fjord. The sites span water depths of 52–1157 m and bottom water temperatures (BWT) of −1.8 to +0.9 °C. Benthic foraminifera were alive at time of collection, determined from Rose Bengal (RB) staining. Three infaunal and three epifaunal species were abundant enough for Mg/Ca analysis. As predicted by theory and empirical evidence, cold water Arctic Ocean benthic species produce low Mg/Ca ratios, the exception being the porcelaneous species Quinqueloculina arctica. Our new data provide important constraints at the cold end (<1 °C) when added to existing global datasets. The refined calibrations based on the new and published global data appear best supported for the infaunal species Nonionella labradorica (Mg/Ca = 1.325 ± 0.01 × e^(0.065 ± 0.01 × BWT), r2 = 0.9), Cassidulina neoteretis (Mg/Ca = 1.009 ± 0.02 × e^(0.042 ± 0.01 × BWT), r2 = 0.6) and Elphidium clavatum (Mg/Ca = 0.816 ± 0.06 + 0.125 ± 0.05 × BWT, r2 = 0.4). The latter is based on the new Arctic data only. This suggests that Arctic Ocean infaunal taxa are suitable for capturing at least relative and probably semi-quantitative past changes in BWT. Arctic Oridorsalis tener Mg/Ca data are combined with existing O. umbonatus Mg/Ca data from well saturated core-tops from other regions to produce a temperature calibration with minimal influence of bottom water carbonate saturation state (Mg/Ca = 1.317 ± 0.03 × e^(0.102 ± 0.01 BWT), r2 = 0.7). The same approach for Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi yields Mg/Ca = 1.043 ± 0.03 × e^(0.118 ± 0.1 BWT), r2 = 0.4. Mg/Ca ratios of the porcelaneous epifaunal species Q. arctica show a clear positive relationship between Mg/Ca and Δ[CO32−] indicating that this species is not suitable for Mg/Ca-palaeothermometry at low temperatures, but may be useful in reconstructing carbonate system parameters through time.

  • 34. Bayer-Raich, Martí
    et al.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Teutsch, Georg
    Comment on “Analysis of groundwater contamination using concentration-time series recorded during an integral pumping test: Bias introduced by strong concentration gradients within the plume” by Allelign Zeru and Gerhard Schäfer2007In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, Vol. 90, no 3-4, p. 240-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the results of a recent paper in this journal [Zeru, A. and Schäfer, G., 2005. Analysis of groundwater contamination using concentration–time series recorded during an integral pumping test: Bias introduced by strong concentration gradients within the plume. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 81 (2005) 106–124], which addresses the field-scale characterisation of contaminant plumes in groundwater. There, it is concluded that contaminant concentration gradients can bias Integral Pumping Test (IPT) interpretations considerably, in particular if IPTs are conducted in advective fronts of contaminant plumes. We discuss implications of this setting and also argue that the longitudinal and transverse dispersivities used in the examples of Zeru and Schäfer (2005) of up to 30 m and 3 m, respectively, are generally very high for the here relevant capture zone scale (b20 m). However, regardless of both longitudinal and transverse concentration gradients, we further show through a counter-example that IPT results are unbiased as long as the concentration attenuation along the flow direction is linear over the capture zone extent.

  • 35. Beltran, Catherine
    et al.
    Rousselle, Gabrielle
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Wade, Bridget S.
    Sicre, Marie Alexandrine
    Paleoenvironmental conditions for the development of calcareous nannofossil acme during the late Miocene in the eastern equatorial Pacific2014In: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 210-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated monospecific coccolithophore dominance intervals (acmes) of specimens belonging to the Noelaerhabdaceae familyincluding the genus Reticulofenestra and modern descendants Emiliania and Gephyrocapsaoccurred during the Neogene. Such acme was recognized during the late Miocene (similar to 8.6Ma), at a time of a major reorganization of nannofossil assemblages resulting in a worldwide temporary disappearance of larger forms of the genus Reticulofenestra (R. pseudoumbilicus) and the gradual recovery and dominance of its smaller forms (< 5 mu m). In this study we present a multiproxy investigation of late Miocene sediments from the east equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1338 where small reticulofenestrid-type placoliths with a closed central areaknown as small Dictyococcites spp. (< 3 mu m)formed an acme. We report on oxygen and carbon stable isotope records of multispecies planktic calcite and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature. Our data indicate that, during this 100 kyr long acme, the east equatorial Pacific thermocline remained deep and stable. Local surface stratification state fails to explain this acme and thus contradicts the model-based hypothesis of a Southern Ocean high-latitude nutrient control of the surface waters in the east equatorial Pacific. Instead, our findings suggest that external forcing such as an extended period of low eccentricity may have created favorable conditions for the small Dictyococcites spp. growth. Key Points < list list-type=bulleted id=palo20081-list-0001> < list-item id=palo20081-li-0001> EEP thermocline deep during the late Miocene small Dictyococcites acme <list-item id=palo20081-li-0002>Low eccentricity favorable for the small Dictyococcites spp. growth

  • 36.
    Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Remote sensing in optically complex waters: water quality assessment using MERIS data2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD study focusses on the use of MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data for reliable and quantitative water-quality assessment of optically-complex waters (lake, brackish and coastal waters). The thesis is divided into two parts: A. intercalibration of reflectance measurements in different optically-complex water bodies (Paper I), and validation of various satellite processing algorithms for the coastal zone (Paper II). B. Applications: the use of MERIS data in integrated coastal zone management mostly using Himmerfjärden bay as an example.

    Himmerfjärden bay is one of the most frequently monitored coastal areas in the world and it is also the recipient of a large urban sewage treatment plant, where a number of full-scale nutrient management experiments have been conducted to evaluate the ecological changes due to changes in nutrient schemes in the sewage plant.

    Paper I describes the development and assessment of a new hyperspectral handheld radiometer for in situ sampling and validation of remote sensing reflectance.  The instrument is assessed in comparison with readily available radiometers that are commonly used in validation.

    Paper II has a focus on the validation of level 2 reflectance and water products derived from MERIS data. It highlights the importance of calibration and validation activities, and the current accuracy and limitations of satellite products in the coastal zone.  Bio-optical in situ data is highlighted as one of the key components for assessing the reliability of current and future satellite missions. Besides suspended particulate matter (SPM), the standard MERIS products have shown to be insufficient to assure data quality retrieval for Baltic Sea waters. Alternative processors and methods such as those assessed and developed in this thesis therefore will have to be put in place in order to secure the success of future operational missions, such as Sentinel-3.

    The two presented manuscripts in the applied part B of the thesis (paper III and IV), showed examples on the combined use of in situ measurements with optical remote sensing to support water quality monitoring programs by using turbidity and suspended particulate matter as coastal indicators (manuscript III). The article also provides  a new turbidity algorithm for the Baltic Sea and a robust and cost-efficient method for research and management.  A novel approach to improve the quality of the satellite-derived products in the coastal zone was demonstrated in manuscript IV. The analysis included, the correction for adjacency effects from land and an improved pixel quality screening.  The thesis provides the first detailed spatio-temporal description of the evolution of phytoplankton blooms in Himmerfjärden bay  using quality-assured MERIS data, thus forwarding our understanding of ecological processes in in Swedish coastal waters.

    It must be noted that monitoring from space is not a trivial matter in these optically-complex waters dominated by the absorption of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). These types of coastal waters are especially challenging for quantitative assessment from space due to their low reflectance.  Papers III and IV thus also provide tools for a more versatile use in other coastal waters that are not as optically-complex as the highly absorbing Baltic Sea waters. The benefits of the increased spatial-temporal data coverage by optical remote sensing were presented, and also compared to in situ sampling methods (using chlorophyll-a as indicator).

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  • 37.
    Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Uncertainty measurements and validation of ocean colour data in optically complex waters2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis addresses validation activities associated with the use of in situ and satellite-based radiometers to assess water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total suspended matter (TSM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM- also known as yellow substances, YEL) in CDOM-dominated waters. In paper I, an inter-comparison of in situ radiometers is presented. Here, a new hand-held radiometer, the Water Insight Spectrometer (WISP-3) was tested and evaluated for routine water monitoring against other common radiometers used for validation. The WISP-3 measures the reflectance at the surface, and thus also works in shallow depths. The WISP-3 is designed for validation in places where other radiometers are difficult to deploy. As it is hyperspectral it can be used to develop in-water algorithms for the retrieval of water-quality information. In paper II, satellite data from the 3rd reprocessing archives of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor on board of ENVISAT is evaluated. MERIS level 2 reflectance and water products are assessed against in situ data. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of  monitoring systems based on MERIS data such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system www.vattenkvalitet.se. The evaluation of reflectance data is based on a pair-wise comparison of the standard MEGS processor and three coastal processors that are provided as source free plug-ins for the VISAT BEAM software; all pairs are compared to data measured in situ. The derived water products are evaluated both on a pair-wise comparison of processors as well as on an individual comparison of some processors to sea-truthing data. The studied processors improved the retrievals of MERIS reflectance when used the latest MERIS FR 3rd reprocessing, equalized and “smile” corrected and a land adjacency effects were corrected using the improved contrast between ocean and land (ICOL). The blue spectral bands remain problematic for all processors. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using FUB with an overestimation between 18% - 26.5% (MNB) dependent on the compared pairs. At low chlorophyll < 2.5 mg m-3, random errors dominates the retrievals of MEGS. MEGS showed lower bias and random errors when deriving suspended particulate matter (SPM) with an overestimation in the range 8-16% (MNB). All processors failed to retrieve CDOM correctly, but FUB could at least resolve variations in CDOM, however with a systematic underestimation that may be corrected for by using a local correction factor . MEGS has shown already potential to be used as operational processor in the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in presence of CDOM.

  • 38.
    Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hoglander, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Using MERIS data to assess the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton in coastal areas2017In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 2004-2028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to highlight how satellite data can be used for an improved understanding of ecological processes in a narrow coastal bay. The usefulness of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data (2003-2011) as a complement to the in situ monitoring in Himmerferdenn (HF) bay is used as an example that can also be applied to other coastal areas. HF bay is one of the most frequently monitored coastal areas in the world, allowing for a rigorous comparison between satellites and ship-based monitoring data. MERIS data was used for the integration of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) over each waterbody in the HF area, following the national waterbody classification by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Chl-a anomaly maps were produced for the bay and its adjacent areas. The maps could be used to show events with high chl-a, both with natural causes (e.g. a Prymnesium polylepis bloom observed in summer 2008) and of anthropogenic causes (e.g. failure in the local sewage treatment plant resulting in a strong spring bloom in 2006). Anomaly maps thereby allow to scan larger coastal stretches to discriminate areas that may require additional sampling by ship, or to identify areas that do not differ much from the median value of the MERIS time series.

  • 39.
    Berglund, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tracing pathways in the ocean circulation: A temperature and salinity perspective2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ocean circulation plays an essential role in our climate system. It redistributes heat, salt, carbon and other tracers across the globe, making the climate of Earth more moderate. This thesis targets density differences that are driving the ocean circulation. These differences are caused by changes in temperature and salinity. The analysis is based on the usage of Lagrangian trajectories simulated with velocity fields from an Earth System Model. The Lagrangian approach opens up for the possibility to follow specific water paths and water masses. The results herein provide a new insight to specific circulation patterns in the ocean, and which regions that play an important role in controlling temperature and salinity changes.

    In the first two articles, the Lagrangian divergence is introduced. It shows the geographical distribution of heat and salt changes of a simulated water mass. Using this, we are able to show that the northward flowing water in the Atlantic Ocean cools and freshens in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current. Similarly, we show that the water flowing from the Drake Passage, following the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and moving northwards into the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, transforms from cold and fresh to warm and saline. This warming and salinification are a result of, not only air-sea fluxes, but also interior mixing.

    In the third study, we show that 70% of the water flowing northwards as part of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation circuits the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre at least once before it continues northwards. In the gyre, the water spirals downwards as it gets denser, due to a combination of air-sea fluxes and interior mixing. These results bring a new perspective on the Subtropical Gyre's role to the circulation patterns of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

    In the last part of this thesis, the circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is traced into four different pathways. The pathways are visualised geographically together with their change in temperature, salinity and density. With this, we are able to show that the northward flowing water in the Atlantic Ocean exchanges heat and salt with the colder and fresher waters circulating the Subpolar Gyre.

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  • 40.
    Berglund, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Groeskamp, Sjoerd
    McDougall, Trevor
    North Atlantic Ocean Circulation and Related Exchange of Heat and Salt Between Water Masses2023In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 50, no 13, article id e2022GL100989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The meridional transport of mass, heat, and salt in the North Atlantic Ocean is often described for separate regions and parts, but rarely are all components of the circulation followed at once. Lagrangian trajectories have here been used to divide the North Atlantic Ocean circulation into four different pathways. In the boundary between the Subpolar and Subtropical Gyres, we show that the northward flowing waters exchange heat and salt with the water originating from the subpolar regions. This subsurface water mass exchange takes place in the first 1,000 m and is a key piece of the puzzle of how the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation transports heat and salt. Between 30 & DEG; and 60 & DEG;N the northward flowing water loses 8.8 Gg/s salt to the Subpolar Gyre and an equivalent loss of only 1.7 Gg/s to the atmosphere due to the net fresh water influx.

  • 41.
    Berglund, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Groeskamp, Sjoerd
    NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands.
    McDougall, Trevor J.
    School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Australia.
    The contrasting roles of heat and salt in the overturning circulation of the North Atlantic OceanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The meridional transport of mass, heat and salt in the North Atlantic Ocean is often described for separate regions and parts, but rarely are all components of the circulation followed in the same study. In the present study we use Lagrangian trajectories to divide the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation into four different pathways, all contributing to the total circulation and its appurtenant heat and salt changes. In the boundary between the Subpolar and Subtropical Gyres, we show that the northward flowing waters in the North Atlantic Ocean lose heat and salt through exchange with the water originating from the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean. This in turn means that the subpolar waters gain this amounts of heat and salt.Water leaving the subpolar region as North Atlantic Deep Water are clearly distinguishable from this subpolar water, both geographically and in temperature and salinity. The southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water meets the colder and fresher Antarctic Bottom Water in the interior, where they exchange heat and salt before returning southwards as a unified flow. The separation of the overturning circulation by Lagrangian trajectories thus reveals how the components of the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation exchange heat and salt and thus have contrasting roles.

  • 42.
    Berglund, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Groeskamp, Sjoerd
    NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands.
    McDougall, Trevor J.
    School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Australia.
    The Downward Spiralling Nature of the North Atlantic Subtropical GyreManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) regulates the heat distribution and climate of Earth. Here we identify a new feature of the circulation within the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre that is associated with the northward flowing component of the AMOC.We find that 70% of the water that flows northwards as part of the AMOC circulates the Gyre at least once before it can continue northwards.These circuits are needed to achieve an increase of density and depth through a combination of air-sea interaction and interior mixing processes, before water can escape the latitudes of the Gyre and join the northern upper branch of the AMOC.This points towards an important role of the Gyre circulations in determining the strength and variability of the AMOC and the northward heat transport.Understanding this newly identified role of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre is needed to properly represent future changes of the AMOC. 

  • 43.
    Beygi, Heydar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Impact of irrigation development and climate change on the water level of Lake Urmia, Iran2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Urmia, located in the north-west of Iran, is one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world. In recent years, there has been a significant decrease in the lake’s area and volume by 88% and 80% respectively. An integrated water balance model of the Lake Urmia Drainage Basin (LUDB) and Lake Urmia was developed to identify these main drivers of the significant changes, and to investigate the possible future evolution of the lake under effects of projected climate change and land use change. We used an energy balance method to estimate the evaporation from the lake and the Turc-Langbein method to estimate the evapotranspiration from the drainage basin of the lake. Agricultural irrigation water was introduced to the model as an extra precipitation over the irrigated fields, after being subtracted from the surplus runoff (precipitation−evapotranspiration). The agricultural land development was assumed to be linear that changed from 300000 ha at 1979 to 500000 at 2010, which is consistent with the best available data on the actual irrigation development in the basin. We estimated the annual evaporation over the Lake Urmia and the evapotranspiration over its drainage basin as 932 mm and 287 mm respectively. Our results showed that decreased precipitation and increased temperature over the basin since 1995 could explain 68% of the observed lake level decrease. Irrigation developments during the last four decades were found to be responsible for 32% of the observed lake level decrease. Thus the future lake level of the Lake Urmia is very likely to continue to decrease unless the current climate condition will be followed by a period of increased precipitation. If the current climate conditions will prevail also in the future, even a 20% decrease in the irrigated land area, which is actually quite ambitious, will not make the lake recover to its ecological level at the end of 2020.

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  • 44. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Seibert, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Nyberg, L.
    Rodhe, A.
    Water storage in a till catchment. II: Implications of transmissivity feedback for flow paths and turnover times2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 25, p. 3950-3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the flow paths and turnover times within a catchment characterized by the transmissivity feedback mechanism where there is a strong increase in the saturated hydraulic conductivity towards the soil surface and precipitation inputs saturate progressively more superficial layers of the soil profile. The analysis is facilitated by the correlation between catchment water storage and groundwater levels, which made it possible to model the daily spatial distribution of water storage, both vertically in different soil horizons and horizontally across a 6300-m2 till catchment. Soil properties and episodic precipitation input dynamics, combined with the influence of topographic features, concentrate flow in the horizontal, vertical, and temporal dimensions. Within the soil profile, there was a vertical concentration of lateral flow to superficial soil horizons (upper 30?cm of the soil), where much of the annual flow occurred during runoff episodes. Overland flow from a limited portion of the catchment can contribute to peak flows but is not a necessary condition for runoff episodes. The spatial concentration of flow, and the episodic nature of runoff events, resulted in a strong and spatially structured differentiation of local flow velocities within the catchment. There were large differences in the time spent by the laterally flowing water at different depths, with turnover times of lateral flow across a 1-m-wide soil pedon ranging from under 1?h at 10- to 20-cm depth to a month at 70- to 80-cm depth. In many regards, the hydrology of this catchment appears typical of the hydrology in till soils, which are widespread in Fenno-Scandia. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 45.
    Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    SLU-Ultuna.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Dahlke, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    The relationship between land use and water2012In: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 93, no 28, p. 259-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water As the Mirror of Landscapes: How Useful a Hypothesis for Resource Management?; Uppsala, Sweden, 28–29 March 2012 The question posed in the title of this workshop formed its focus as an international group of more than 50 researchers and managers gathered to discuss our current level of understanding of land-water interactions and the potential impacts this has for resource management. Special emphasis was placed on the Ethiopian highlands, which deliver more than 85% of the flow in the Nile in Egypt. The 2-day workshop, held at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, was cosponsored by the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs as part of its special allocation for global food security and by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations' Unit 3.05, Forest Operations Ecology.

  • 46.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Ocean Decade as an instrument of peace2023In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 64, article id 101319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021-2030 (the 'Ocean Decade') is poised to stimulate new cooperation for ocean science, but makes no mention of conflict or peace. We contend that this is a missed opportunity, and use an environmental peacebuilding typology to review how ocean science has historically contributed to peace. Such considerations are timely in the context of an increasingly complex and multidimensional ocean risk landscape, due among other things to unprecedented growth in the extent and intensity of ocean uses, and increasing conflict potential as the ocean becomes a more crowded and coveted place. We conclude by proposing the Ocean Decade Implementation Plan be appended to include an eighth intended outcome: 'A Peaceful Ocean'.

  • 47.
    Blomberg, Freddy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Inläckage i dagbrott: En jämförelse mellan beräknade och uppmätta värden i dagbrott i norra Sverige2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before the construction of an open pit mine is initialized it is common practice to perform hydrogeological surveys, in order to quantify the inflow of groundwater from surrounding soil and bedrock layers. As expansion of the pits progress, continuous pumping will need to be done, as groundwater will otherwise fill the pits, preventing further mining. Several quantification methods are available for these analyses, which can be either analytical or numerical in their structure. In this study, a review of established methods is performed. Then the inflow to five active mines in northern Sweden are estimated, using four analytical methods. The results from using these methods are then compared to the measured pumping rates in the mines, to evaluate the methods efficiency in estimating the correct withdrawal. One of the mines is also evaluated using a numerical model. All methods approximate the inflow rates to the same order of magnitude as the measured values. However, the same method can in some mines overestimate the inflow while in other mines make an underestimation of it. As they in most cases make an adequate approximation of the inflow, further use of the methods are recommended. Smaller adjustments might be needed based on local knowledge of the modeled area. The sensitivity analysis that was performed show a significant predisposition toward changes in hydraulic conductivity, emphasizing the importance of thorough surveys before parameterization of the models.

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  • 48.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Hylén, Astrid
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Kononets, Mikhail Y.
    Ekeroth, Nils
    Roos, Per
    Thamdrup, Bo
    Brüchert, Volker
    Hall, Per O. J.
    The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 285-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N-2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 mu mol Nm(-2) day(-1)) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: 34-344 mu mol Nm(-2) day(-1)). Anammox accounted for 18-26% of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore water suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one-third to the TDN efflux and accounted, on average, for 45% of total nitrate reduction. At the offshore stations, the proportion of DNRA in relation to denitrification was lower (0-16% of total nitrate reduction). Median value and range of benthic DNRA rates from the GOB were comparable to those from the southern and central eutrophic Baltic Sea and other temperate estuaries and coasts in Europe. Therefore, our results contrast with the view that DNRA is negligible in cold and well-oxygenated sediments with low organic carbon loading. However, the mechanisms behind the variability in DNRA rates between our sites were not resolved. The GOB sediments were a major source (237 kt yr(-1), which corresponds to 184% of the external N load) of fixed N to the water column through recycling mechanisms. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document the simultaneous contribution of denitrification, DNRA, anammox, and TDN recycling combined with in situ measurements.

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  • 49.
    Brannigan, Liam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Johnson, Helen
    Ligue, Camille
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Generation of Subsurface Anticyclones at Arctic Surface Fronts due to a Surface Stress2017In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2653-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated anticyclones are frequently observed below the mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean. Some of these subsurface anticyclones are thought to originate at surface fronts. However, previous idealized simulations with no surface stress show that only cyclone–anticyclone dipoles can propagate away from baroclinically unstable surface fronts. Numerical simulations of fronts subject to a surface stress presented here show that a surface stress in the same direction as the geostrophic flow inhibits dipole propagation away from the front. On the other hand, a surface stress in the opposite direction to the geostrophic flow helps dipoles to propagate away from the front. Regardless of the surface stress at the point of dipole formation, these dipoles can be broken up on a time scale of days when a surface stress is applied in the right direction. The dipole breakup leads to the deeper anticyclonic component becoming an isolated subsurface eddy. The breakup of the dipole occurs because the cyclonic component of the dipole in the mixed layer is subject to an additional advection because of the Ekman flow. When the Ekman transport has a component oriented from the anticyclonic part of the dipole toward the cyclonic part then the cyclone is advected away from the anticyclone and the dipole is broken up. When the Ekman transport is in other directions relative to the dipole axis, it also leads to deviations in the trajectory of the dipole. A scaling is presented for the rate at which the surface cyclone is advected that holds across a range of mixed layer depths and surface stress magnitudes in these simulations. The results may be relevant to other regions of the ocean with similar near-surface stratification profiles.

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  • 50.
    Brannigan, Liam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, United Kingdom; University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Marshall, David P.
    Garabato, Alberto C. Naveira
    Nurser, A. J. George
    Kaiser, Jan
    Submesoscale Instabilities in Mesoscale Eddies2017In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 3061-3085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Submesoscale processes have been extensively studied in observations and simulations of fronts. Recent idealized simulations show that submesoscale instabilities also occur in baroclinic mesoscale cyclones and anticyclones. The instabilities in the anticyclone grow faster and at coarser grid resolution than in the cyclone. The instabilities lead to larger restratification in the anticyclone than in the cyclone. The instabilities also lead to changes in the mean azimuthal jet around the anticyclone from 2-km resolution, but a similar effect only occurs in the cyclone at 0.25-km resolution. A numerical passive tracer experiment shows that submesoscale instabilities lead to deeper subduction in the interior of anticyclonic than cyclonic eddies because of outcropping isopycnals extending deeper into the thermocline in anticyclones. An energetic analysis suggests that both vertical shear production and vertical buoyancy fluxes are important in anticyclones but primarily vertical buoyancy fluxes occur in cyclones at these resolutions. The energy sources and sinks vary azimuthally around the eddies caused by the asymmetric effects of the Ekman buoyancy flux. Glider transects of a mesoscale anticyclone in the Tasman Sea show that water with low stratification and high oxygen concentrations is found in an anticyclone, in a manner that may be consistent with the model predictions for submesoscale subduction in mesoscale eddies.

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