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  • 1. Abiven, Samuel
    et al.
    Hund, Andreas
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway .
    Biochar amendment increases maize root surface areas and branching: a shovelomics study in Zambia2015In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 395, no 1-2, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive crop yield effects from biochar are likely explained by chemical, physical and/or biological factors. However, studies describing plant allometric changes are scarcer, but may be crucial to understand the biochar effect. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of biochar on root architecture under field conditions in a tropical setting. The presented work describes a shovelomics (i.e., description of root traits in the field) study on the effect of biochar on maize root architecture. Four field experiments we carried out at two different locations in Zambia, exhibiting non-fertile to relatively fertile soils. Roots of maize crop (Zea mays L.) were sampled from treatments with fertilizer (control) and with a combination of fertilizer and 4 t.ha(-1) maize biochar application incorporated in the soil. For the four sites, the average grain yield increase upon biochar addition was 45 +/- 14 % relative to the fertilized control (from 2.1-6.0 to 3.1-9.1 ton ha(-1)). The root biomass was approximately twice as large for biochar-amended plots. More extensive root systems (especially characterized by a larger root opening angle (+14 +/- 11 %) and wider root systems (+20 +/- 15 %)) were observed at all biochar-amended sites. Root systems exhibited significantly higher specific surface areas (+54 +/- 14 %), branching and fine roots: +70 +/- 56 %) in the presence of biochar. Biochar amendment resulted in more developed root systems and larger yields. The more extensive root systems may have contributed to the observed yield increases, e.g., by improving immobile nutrients uptake in soils that are unfertile or in areas with prolonged dry spells.

  • 2.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strongly heated carbohydrate-rich food is an overlooked problem in cancer risk evaluation2018In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 121, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cascade of compounds is produced when foodstuffs are heated at high temperatures but only a few of these compounds have been identified and quantified. In this study data are evaluated regarding differences in the micronucleus frequency of human erythrocytes (fMNs) in peripheral blood (a known biomarker of genotoxicity) in individuals that consumed either high- or low-heated food during a 4-day period. Concomitantly, acrylamide (aa) levels were measured in the food that the participants consumed. The obtained fMNs in this human study are compared with the fMNs in mice after comparable exposure levels of pure aa. The results of this comparison showed several hundred times higher fMNs in humans compared with mice. With an assumed linear correlation between an increased genotoxic effect and cancer, our data suggest that aa only represents a fraction of all carcinogenic compounds produced in heated carbohydrate-rich food. Consequently, our daily intake of carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures might be responsible for one-fifth of the rate of the total cancer risk. One sentence summary: A biomarker of genotoxicity indicates the risk of cancer to be some hundred-fold greater in heated carbohydrate-rich food than the risk calculated from animal studies on pure acrylamide.

  • 3.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Ilback, Nils-Gunnar
    The synthetic food colouring agent Allura Red AC (E129) is not genotoxic in a flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay in vivo2013In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 59, p. 86-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety of several azo colouring agents, used as food additives, has during the years been questioned. Allura Red AC (E129) has in some publications been classified as genotoxic. In fact, in the European Union, Allura Red is permitted as a food additive in human food, but, surprisingly, it was not acceptable as an additive for use in animal feed. In this study we have evaluated whether Allura Red is genotoxic using a flow cytometer-based micronucleus assay in peripheral blood of mice. Male FVB mice were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of various doses of Allura Red and sacrificed at 46 h after treatment. The tested doses were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Each dose group constituted three mice, except for in the dose group of 1000 mg/kg b.w., which constituted four mice. Blood samples were collected and the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE) and the cell proliferation (%PCE) was determined. The analyses did not show any significant difference in the %PCE or in the fMNPCE. Consequently, under the testing circumstances one can conclude that Allura Red is not genotoxic.

  • 4. Adler, Anneli
    et al.
    Kumaniaev, Ivan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karacic, Almir
    Baddigam, Kiran Reddy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hanes, Rebecca J.
    Subbotina, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bartling, Andrew W.
    Huertas-Alonso, Alberto José
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
    Moreno, Andres
    Håkansson, Helena
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Beckham, Gregg T.
    Samec, Joseph S. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Lignin-first biorefining of Nordic poplar to produce cellulose fibers could displace cotton production on agricultural lands2022In: Joule, E-ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1845-1858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we show that lignin-first biorefining of poplar can enable the production of dissolving cellulose pulp that can produce regenerated cellulose, which could substitute cotton. These results in turn indicate that agricultural land dedicated to cotton could be reclaimed for food production by extending poplar plantations to produce textile fibers. Based on climate-adapted poplar clones capable of growth on marginal lands in the Nordic region, we estimate an environmentally sustainable annual biomass production of ∼11 tonnes/ha. At scale, lignin-first biorefining of this poplar could annually generate 2.4 tonnes/ha of dissolving pulp for textiles and 1.1 m3 biofuels. Life cycle assessment indicates that, relative to cotton production, this approach could substantially reduce water consumption and identifies certain areas for further improvement. Overall, this work highlights a new value chain to reduce the environmental footprint of textiles, chemicals, and biofuels while enabling land reclamation and water savings from cotton back to food production.

  • 5.
    Ahlbeck, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Evaluating fish diet analysis methods by individual-based modelling2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 1184-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of diet compositions is important in ecological research. There are many methods available and numerous aspects of diet composition. Here we used modelling to evaluate how well different diet analysis methods describe the true diet of fish, expressed in mass percentages. The methods studied were both basic methods (frequency of occurrence, dominance, numeric, mass, points) and composite indices (Index of Relative Importance, Comparative Feeding Index). Analyses were based on both averaged stomach content of individual fish and on pooled content from several fish. Prey preference, prey size, and evacuation rate influenced the performance of the diet analysis methods. The basic methods performed better than composite indices. Mass and points methods produced diet compositions most similar to the true diet and were also most robust, indicating that these methods should be used to describe energetic-nutritional sources of fish.

  • 6. Akselsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Belyazid, Salim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Critical biomass harvesting - Applying a new concept for Swedish forest soils2018In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 409, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of forest harvesting to base cation losses and soil acidification has increased in recent years in Sweden, as the demand for bioenergy has increased and the sulphur deposition has decreased. Thus, new policy tools are required to evaluate the progress of the recovery from acidification, and as a basis for forest management recommendations. In this study we introduce and test a concept, Critical biomass harvesting. The concept builds on the concept Critical loads, which has been used world-wide for several decades as a bridge between science and policies related to transboundary air pollution and acidification. The basis for the concept is an acidity mass balance, with sources and sinks of acidity. A critical limit defines the highest acceptable acidification status of the water leaving the root zone. Based on the critical limit, the highest allowed biomass harvesting can be calculated, keeping the other parameters constant. In this study the critical limit was set to ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity) = 0. Nitrogen was assumed to be affecting acidity only if it leaches from the root zone. The critical biomass harvesting was calculated for almost 12000 National Forest Inventory sites with spruce and pine forest, using the best available data on deposition, weathering and nitrogen leaching. The exceedance of critical biomass harvesting was calculated as the difference between the estimated harvest losses and the critical biomass harvesting. The results were presented as median values in merged catchments in a catchment database, with totally 2079 merged catchments in Sweden. According to the calculations, critical biomass harvesting was exceeded in the southern half of Sweden already at stem harvesting in spruce forests. Whole-tree harvesting expanded the exceedance area, and increased the exceedance levels in southern Sweden. The exceedance in pine forest was lower and affected smaller areas. It was concluded that the concept of critical biomass harvesting can be successfully applied on the same database that has been used for critical load calculations in Sweden, using basically the same approach as has been extensively applied, evaluated and discussed in a critical load context. The results from the calculations in Sweden indicate that whole-tree harvesting, without wood ash recycling, can be expected to further slow down recovery, especially in the most acidified parts of the country, in the southwest.

  • 7.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

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  • 8.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Supply and demand of ecosystem services among smallholder farmers in irrigated and rainfed farming, Kilombero, Tanzania2022In: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 661-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sufficient supply of ecosystem services (ESs) in agriculture provides the basis for human sustainable development. Intensified large-scale farming has changed wetland ecosystems extensively by reducing both the resilience and capacity to support production of many ESs. Small-scale farming may also affect the generation of ESs where the impact often reflects the differences in farming practices. This paper explores the supply and demand of the ESs between management practices, irrigated and rainfed, of smallholder farmers in Kilombero wetland, Tanzania. We conducted interviews involving 30 households and two focus groups with five discussants for each practice, rainfed and irrigation. Generally, we found that the need for ES, especially food, water and flood control, in both farming practices, were exceeding the capacity to supply. In general, irrigation farming compared to rainfed farming was associated with higher levels of food production, increasing flood regulation and erosion control. However, the ES delivery and need were not uniform depending on the river discharge. The differences in supply and demand of ESs between farming practices suggest that society would benefit from investing in irrigation and regulatory infrastructures to minimize flooding risk and to build up the ecosystem’s natural capacity to produce services. Such practical policy-relevant measures could balance the gap between supply and demand of ESs in smallholder farming systems in Tanzanian wetland. 

  • 9.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, USA.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barnes, Michele L.
    Untangling the drivers of community cohesion in small-scale fisheries2018In: International Journal of the Commons, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 519-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable fisheries require strong management and effective governance. However, small-scale fisheries (SSF) often lack formal institutions, leaving management in the hands of local users in the form of various governance approaches (e.g. local, traditional, or co-management). The effectiveness of these approaches inherently relies upon some level of cohesion among resource users to facilitate agreement on common policies and practices regarding common pool fishery resources. Understanding the factors driving the formation and maintenance of community cohesion in SSF is therefore critical if we are to devise more effective participatory governance approaches and encourage and empower decentralized, localized, and community-based resource management approaches. Here, we adopt a social relational network perspective to propose a suite of hypothesized drivers that lead to the establishment of social ties among fishers that build the foundation for community cohesion. We then draw on detailed data from Jamaica's small-scale fishery to empirically test these drivers by employing a set of nested exponential random graph models (ERGMs) based on specific structural building blocks (i.e. network configurations) theorized to influence the establishment of social ties. Our results demonstrate that multiple drivers are at play, but that collectively, gear-based homophily, geographic proximity, and leadership play particularly important roles. We discuss the extent to which these drivers help explain previous experiences, as well as their implications for future and sustained collective action in SSF in Jamaica and elsewhere.

  • 10.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio‐Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), Maryland, USA; University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Staniczenko, Phillip P. A.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social ties explain catch portfolios of small-scale fishers in the Caribbean2020In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries often involve weak management regimes with limited top-down enforcement of rules and minimal support from legal institutions, making them useful model systems for investigating the role of social influence in determining economic and environmental outcomes. In such regimes, interpersonal relationships are expected to have a strong effect on a fisher's catch portfolio, the set of fish species targeted by an individual fisher. Here, we test three competing hypotheses about social influence using belief propagation network models and show that a peer-to-peer information-sharing social network is key to explaining catch portfolios at a small-scale fishery in Jamaica. We find that experience dictates the direction of influence among fishers in the social network, with older fishers and information brokers having distinct roles in shaping catch patterns for large- and small-sized fish species, respectively. These findings highlight concrete opportunities for harnessing social networks in natural resource management. Our new approach to modelling social influence is applicable to many social-ecological systems with minimal legal and institutional support or those that rely heavily on bottom-up participatory processes.

  • 11. Aliabad, Fahime Arabi
    et al.
    Shojaei, Saeed
    Mortaz, Morad
    Santos Ferreira, Carla Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Use of Landsat 8 and UAV Images to Assess Changes in Temperature and Evapotranspiration by Economic Trees following Foliar Spraying with Light-Reflecting Compounds2022In: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 14, no 23, article id 6153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pistachio is an important economic crop in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. A major problem leading to a reduction in crop quality and reduced marketability is extreme air temperature in summer, which causes sunburn of pistachio leaves and fruit. A solution proposed to deal with the negative effects of high temperatures and increase water consumption efficiency in pistachio orchards is use of light-reflecting compounds. This study investigated the effect of foliar application of gypsum, sulfur, and NAX-95 (calcium-based suspension coating) to trees in a pistachio orchard (150 ha) in central Iran. The effect of these foliar products is assessed at plot scale, using control plots sprayed with calcium sulfate, based on temperature and evapotranspiration changes analyzed through remote sensing. Landsat 8 sensor images and RGB images collected by UAVs (spatial resolution of 30 m and 20 cm, respectively), on the same dates, before and after foliar spray application, were merged using the PCA method and bilinear interpolation re-sampling. Land surface temperature (LST) was then estimated using the split-window algorithm, and daily evapotranspiration using the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) algorithm. A land use map was prepared and used to isolate pistachio trees in the field and assess weed cover, whose effect was not accounted. The results showed that temperature remained constant in the control plot between the spraying dates, indicating no environmental changes. In the main plots, gypsum had the greatest effect in reducing the temperature of pistachio trees. The plots with foliar spraying with gypsum displayed a mean tree temperature (47–48 °C) decrease of 3.3 °C in comparison with the control plots (>49 °C), leading to an average decline in evapotranspiration of 0.18 mm/day. NAX-95 and sulfur reduced tree temperature by on average 1.3 °C and 0.6 °C, respectively. Thus, gypsum is the most suitable foliar-spraying compound to lower the temperature of pistachio trees, reduce the water requirement, and increase crop productivity.

  • 12.
    Allard, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Miljöövervakning via infraröda flygbilder, ett väl använt verktyg med goda framtidsutsikter i Sverige2010In: Kart- och bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), Vol. 4, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Ammar, Yosr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Voss, Rudi
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Quantifying socio-economic novelty in fisheries social-ecological systems2022In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 445-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-economic development has shaped fisheries social-ecological systems (SES) worldwide across different scales. No work has yet undertaken how this development led to novel, not experienced before, systems structure in marine SES. Here, we quantify socio-economic novelty as the degree of dissimilarity relative to a specific spatiotemporal baseline in the Baltic Sea fisheries SES between 1975 and 2015. We used catch by "gears," catch by "commercial groups" and trade ("import" and "export") as respective indicators of novelty at national, regional and international governance levels. We found that socio-economic novelty increased over time nonlinearly in relation to the 1975–1979 baseline. The contribution to total novelty shifted from the dominance of “gears” and “commercial groups” in the late 1990s and early 2000s to “import” and “export” after the mid-2000s, i.e. from national and regional levels to the international level. The fastest increase in novelty occurred with the trade dominance shift, primarily related to monetary value rather than quantity. Spatially, novelty emerged with a large difference across countries, and a major contribution by Sweden, Denmark and Poland. We identified the influence of different management interventions and governance actions on the emergence of novelty in the Baltic SES. The decreasing socio-economic novelty at national and regional levels could indicate reduced variability due to management intervention in recent years which might decrease SES resilience to shocks. Calculating socio-economic novelty and studying its drivers at different scales could provide a better understanding of SES complexity and inform urgently needed adaptation and transformation towards sustainable future pathways. 

  • 14. Amorim, Jorge H.
    et al.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Environment and Health Administration, Sweden.
    Ribeiro, Isabel
    Sannebro, Magnus
    Regulating and Cultural Ecosystem Services of Urban Green Infrastructure in the Nordic Countries: A Systematic Review2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 3, article id 1219Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), the Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) has been traditionally targeted at reducing flood risk. However, other Ecosystem Services (ES) became increasingly relevant in response to the challenges of urbanization and climate change. In total, 90 scientific articles addressing ES considered crucial contributions to the quality of life in cities are reviewed. These are classified as (1) regulating ES that minimize hazards such as heat, floods, air pollution and noise, and (2) cultural ES that promote well-being and health. We conclude that the planning and design of UGI should balance both the provision of ES and their side effects and disservices, aspects that seem to have been only marginally investigated. Climate-sensitive planning practices are critical to guarantee that seasonal climate variability is accounted for at high-latitude regions. Nevertheless, diverging and seemingly inconsistent findings, together with gaps in the understanding of long-term effects, create obstacles for practitioners. Additionally, the limited involvement of end users points to a need of better engagement and communication, which in overall call for more collaborative research. Close relationships and interactions among different ES provided by urban greenery were found, yet few studies attempted an integrated evaluation. We argue that promoting interdisciplinary studies is fundamental to attain a holistic understanding of how plant traits affect the resulting ES; of the synergies between biophysical, physiological and psychological processes; and of the potential disservices of UGI, specifically in Nordic cities.

  • 15. An, Yiming
    et al.
    Zhao, Wenwu
    Li, Changjia
    Santos Ferreira, Carla Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Temporal changes on soil conservation services in large basins across the world2022In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 209, article id 105793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil erosion is one of the main drivers of land degradation across the world, thus soil conservation service has received increasing attention. Limited studies have focused on it, hence this study investigates spatial and temporal patterns on soil conservation service in four large representative basins globally (i.e., Amazon, Mississippi, Yangtze, and Yellow River Basins), between 2001 and 2018. Annual soil conservation service and soil erosion rate are estimated under RUSLE framework, and temporal trends are analyzed using Mann-Kendall test. Additionally, impacts of soil erosion factors on spatial distribution of soil conservation service are assessed through fitting stepwise regressions annually and calculating the factors' contributions. Furthermore, driving factors of temporal changes are identified as climate or land cover dominated, and combined effect of both, according to Z scores from Mann-Kendall test for soil conservation service, R and C factors. Results show the Yangtze River Basin produces the highest average annual erosion rate (mean values of 133.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2001 and 143.21 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2018) and average soil conservation service (mean values of 2663.57 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2001 and 3126.43 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2018). Amazon River Basin yields the lowest average annual soil erosion rate (15.96 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2001 and 21.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2018), whereas the Mississippi River Basin produces the lowest average soil conservation service (388.48 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2001 and 730.70 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2018). Over the study period, soil conservation service shows an increasing trend in the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, with average changing rates of 27.23 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 16.60 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Increasing soil conservation service is mainly driven by climate change (i.e., rainfall) and the combined effect of climate and land cover changes, but terrain conditions are the main spatial drivers.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Anastasia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lack of trophic polymorphism despite substantial genetic differentiation in sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations2017In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 643-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sympatric populations occur in many freshwater fish species; such populations are typically detected through morphological distinctions that are often coupled to food niche and genetic separations. In salmonids, trophic and genetically separate sympatric populations have been reported in landlocked Arctic char, whitefish and brown trout. In Arctic char and brown trout rare cases of sympatric, genetically distinct populations have been detected based on genetic data alone, with no apparent morphological differences, that is cryptic structuring. It remains unknown whether such cryptic, sympatric structuring can be coupled to food niche separation. Here, we perform an extensive screening for trophic divergence of two genetically divergent, seemingly cryptic, sympatric brown trout populations documented to remain in stable sympatry over several decades in two interconnected, tiny mountain lakes in a nature reserve in central Sweden. We investigate body shape, body length, gill raker metrics, breeding status and diet (stomach content analysis and stable isotopes) in these populations. We find small significant differences for body shape, body size and breeding status, and no evidence of food niche separation between these two populations. In contrast, fish in the two lakes differed in body shape, diet, and nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures despite no genetic difference between lakes. These genetically divergent populations apparently coexist using the same food resources and showing the same adaptive plasticity to the local food niches of the two separate lakes. Such observations have not been reported previously but may be more common than recognised as genetic screenings are necessary to detect the structures.

  • 17. Andrade, Carlos A. P.
    et al.
    Nascimento, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Conceicao, Luis E. C.
    Linares, Fatima
    Lacuisse, Marc
    Dinis, Maria T.
    Red Porgy, Pagrus pagrus, Larvae Performance and Nutritional Condition in Response to Different Weaning Regimes2012In: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, ISSN 0893-8849, E-ISSN 1749-7345, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 321-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, is a candidate species for aquaculture diversification. The aim of this work was to assess whether an early supply of enriched Artemia (D1) or a direct step to dry diets (D3) would be advantageous weaning strategies for red porgy larvae, compared to a later supply of Artemia followed by dry diets (D2). Direct weaning to dry diet resulted in significantly lower growth, survival, pancreatic (trypsin and lipase), and intestinal (alkaline phosphatase) enzyme-specific activity, with the exception of leucine-alanine peptidase. The direct weaning strategy presented severe nutritional restrictions from early weaning stages with an associated delay of the maturation of digestive system. The two-step strategy presented in D1 and D2 resulted in comparable results in most parameters, including survival. Weaning using enriched Artemia as an intermediate step is confirmed as the most adequate strategy for red porgy larvae. Digestive enzymes and selected fatty acids correlated well with performance responses to dietary regimes, thereby supporting the use of these parameters as sensitive and reliable indicators of red porgy nutritional or physiological status during larval stages.

  • 18. Andrade, Carlos A. P.
    et al.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nogueira, Natacha
    Pimenta, Filomena
    Dinis, Maria T.
    Narciso, Luis
    Allometric Growth in Red Porgy Larvae: Developing Morphological Indices for Mesocosm Semi-Intensive Culture2013In: North American Journal of Aquaculture, ISSN 1522-2055, E-ISSN 1548-8454, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the morphological development, allometric growth, and cannibalistic behavior of Red Porgy Pagrus pagrus reared in mesocosm semi-intensive culture. The study was conducted from hatching to 32 d after hatching (DAH). Red porgy ontogeny was characterized by strong positive allometric growth of body depth at anus (BDA) to 6.7mm total length (TL) at about 2122 DAH. The BDA combined with standard length (SL) in a morphometric index was found to be better correlated with dry weight than TL and provided an improved method to estimate larval growth. Mouth size also exhibited strong positive allometric growth at early larval stages that, together with inflation of the swim bladder, may have contributed to improve feeding ability, in preparation for the high energy demands of metamorphosis. A predictive regression model developed for cannibalism underestimated prey size. Cannibalism coincided with the development of acidic digestion and was first evident at 27 DAH as larvae reached about 23% of their maximum size variation. We hypothesize that cannibalism is associated with larval size and condition, but is prompted by physiological and energetic factors. The bivariate morphometric index developed in this study can be used to mitigate cannibalism by controlling larval size variation and improving feed supply. The morphological measurements and morphometric indices that result from this study provide important tools for improving red porgy larvae culture. Received December 13, 2011; accepted July 12, 2012

  • 19. Aronsson, Helena
    et al.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Malmer, Elsa
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Winqvist, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Losses of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen from horse manure left on the ground2022In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 893-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this five-month Swedish field study, we examined losses of nutrients from horse manure over time, in order to examine how regularly manure should be cleared from paddocks in order to minimise the risk of nutrient leaching. Small heaps of manure (400 g) were placed in open cylinders outdoors and samples (five replicates) were taken on 12 occasions from December 2020 to May 2021. The samples were analysed for weight, dry matter content and concentrations of total nitrogen (N), ammonium N, total phosphorus (P), water-extractable P (WEP), potassium (K) and carbon (C). There was a fast decline in P and K concentrations and a strong correlation between accumulated precipitation and losses from the manure into the soil. The mean reduction in total-P was 11 mg P kg−1 manure dry weight per mm accumulated precipitation. Manure N was retained in the manure over the five-month period. In conclusion, this study demonstrated high mobility of P and K, indicating a need for strategies for rapid removal of manure from paddocks. Daily removal of manure from paddocks used year-round would, approximately, save 1.7 kg P and 5.5 kg K per horse per year, which could be recycled to replace non-renewable mineral fertilisers.

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Det medeltida Sverige: 4, Småland. 5, Tjust2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Ayalew Nurihun, Biruk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The relationship between climate, disease and coffee yield: optimizing management for smallholder farmers2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and diseases are threatening global crop production. Agroforestry systems, which are characterized by complex multispecies interactions, are considered to provide nature-based solutions for climate change mitigation and pest and disease regulation. Understanding the role of the abiotic environment and species interactions in shaping diseases and yield in agroforestry systems would enable us to develop effective ecologically-informed pest and disease management under a changing climate, support sustainable agricultural practices, and maximize the benefits gained from agroforestry systems. To gain such a comprehensive understanding of what shapes pest and disease levels and yield in agroforestry systems, we need to investigate how the interactions between agroforestry system components, such as trees, crops and their associated organisms, vary in space and time, and how they are influenced by abiotic factors in terms of pests and diseases and yield. 

    In this thesis, my overarching goal was to understand how microclimate and management impact major coffee pests and diseases, their natural enemies, and coffee yield, as well as farmers’ perceptions of climate change and climate-mediated changes in disease dynamics and yield, with the aim of using these insights to optimize management decisions for smallholder farmers in southwestern Ethiopia. With this aim, I selected 58 sites along a gradient of management intensity, ranging from minimal management in the natural forest to moderate management in smallholder farms and intensive management in commercial plantations. As an approach, I combined observational and interview studies to examine i) the impact of shade tree species identity and canopy cover on coffee pests and diseases, ii) the effect of climate and management on coffee berry disease and yield, iii) the impact of climate on a host-hyperparasite interaction, and iv) farmers’ perceptions of climate change and climate-mediated changes in disease dynamics and yield. 

    I found that tree identity affected the incidence and severity of coffee diseases, whereas insect pests were strongly affected by canopy cover, but in a species-specific way (I).  Both climate and management affected coffee berry disease and yield. Importantly, the effect of climatic variables on disease and yield differed strongly between the developmental stages from flowering to ripening (II). In chapter (III), I found that the climatic niches of coffee leaf rust and its hyperparasite differed, with coffee leaf rust severity preferring high maximum temperatures, whereas the hyperparasite preferred cold nights. The interviews revealed that the majority of farmers perceived long-term changes in one or more aspects of the climate, and the majority of farmers perceived an increase in coffee leaf rust and a decrease in coffee berry disease. Climate data also supported farmers’ knowledge on climate-disease-yield relationships (IV). 

    Taken together, my thesis advances our understanding of the relationship between climate and management of coffee pests, diseases and yield, and this may contribute to the development of ecologically-informed pest and disease management strategies for coffee production and other agroforestry crops.

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  • 22. Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    Iqbal, Zafar
    Emami, S. Noushin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nordlander, Göran
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Mozūratis, Raimondas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Nature Research Centre, Lithuania.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin
    Chemical composition and antifeedant activity of some aromatic plants against pine weevil (Hylobius abietis)2020In: Annals of Applied Biology, ISSN 0003-4746, E-ISSN 1744-7348, Vol. 177, no 1, p. 121-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is an important pest causing severe damage to conifer seedlings in reforestation areas in Europe and Asia. Plants that have no evolutionary history with the pine weevil are of special interest in the search for compounds with a strong antifeedant activity. Thus, the essential oils of nine aromatic plants, viz Amomum subulatum, Cinnamomum tamala, Curcuma longa, Laurus nobilis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum and Trachyspermum ammi were extracted by hydrodistillation. The essential oil constituents were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and antifeedant properties towards the pine weevil were assessed using choice feeding bioassay. The essential oils of C. longa, O. majorana, S. aromaticum and T. ammi showed an excellent antifeedant activity towards the pine weevil for 24 hr, whereas the essential oil of other plants showed the activity for 6 hr. There was a positive correlation between the amount of benzenoid compounds and the antifeedant activity of the essential oils. This study suggests that pine weevil non-host plant compounds have potential to be used for the protection of seedlings against pine weevil feeding. However, further study will be needed to explore the antifeedant activity of individual components and oils in the laboratory as well as in the field.

  • 23. Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    Zaman, Tariq
    Tahir, Muhammad
    Haris, Abdullah
    Iqbal, Zafar
    Binyameen, Muhammad
    Nazir, Abdul
    Shad, Sarfraz Ali
    Majeed, Shahid
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Institute of Ecology, Nature Research Centre, Lithuania.
    Chemical composition and repellent activity of native plants essential against dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti2019In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 140, article id 111609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito is an important vector of chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever. Plant based essential oils may serve as good alternatives to commercially available mosquito repellent, DEET. Steam distillation was used for the extraction of essential oils from fresh collected aerial parts of plants viz Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza sumatrensis, Erigeron canadensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Mentha spicata, Parthenium hysterophorus, and Tagetes minuta. The essential oils were tested for mosquito repellent activity against laboratory reared female Ae. aegypti by human bait technique. Identification of chemical constituents of essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil of M. spicata, E. canadensis, P. hysterophorus, C. sumatrensis, T. minuta, C. ambrosioides, and E. camaldulensis exhibited 100%, 80%, 63.9%, 51.4%, 50.2%, 39.7%, and 13.7% mosquito repellent activity respectively, at the tested dose of 30 mu g/cm(2). The most abundant constituents of M. spicata, E. canadensis, P. hysterophorus, C. sumatrensis and T. minuta essential oils were piperitenone oxide (47.1%), limonene (41.3%), germacrene D (36.6%), cis-lachnophyllum ester (33.3%) and dihydrotagetone (20.9%) respectively. M. spicata essential oil completely inhibited the attractiveness of human hands toward female mosquitoes for more than 45 min thus showed bioactivity comparable to that of commercially used mosquito repellent, DEET. This study suggests that the dilute solution of M. spicata essential oil could be used as potent mosquito repellent against Ae. aegypti alternative to commercially available synthetic mosquito repellents.

  • 24. Balvanera, Patricia
    et al.
    Paz, Horacio
    Arreola-Villa, Felipe
    Bhaskar, Radika
    Bongers, Frans
    Cortés, Sofía
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-campus Morelia, Mexico.
    del Val, Ek
    García-Frapolli, Eduardo
    Gavito, Mayra Elena
    González-Esquivel, Carlos E.
    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel
    Martínez-Yrizar, Angelina
    Mora, Francisco
    Naime, Julia
    Pascual-Ramírez, Fermín
    Pérez-Cárdenas, Nathalia
    Ugartechea-Salmerón, Oscar A.
    Siddique, Ilyes
    Suazo-Ortuño, Ireri
    Swinton, Scott M.
    Social ecological dynamics of tropical secondary forests2021In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 496, article id 119369Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Baraibar Norberg, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Soybean Through World History: Lessons for Sustainable Agrofood Systems2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the changing roles and functions of the soybean throughout world history and discusses how this reflects the complex processes of agrofood globalization.

    The book uses a historical lens to analyze the processes and features that brought us to the current global configuration of the soybean commodity chain. From its origins as a peasant food in ancient China, today the protein-rich soybean is by far the most cultivated biotech crop on Earth; used to make a huge variety of food and industrial products, including animal feed, tofu, cooking oil, soy sauce, biodiesel and soap. While there is a burgeoning amount of literature on how the contemporary global soy web affects large tracts of our planet’s social-ecological systems, little attention has been given to the questions of how we got here and what alternative roles the soybean has played in the past. This book fills this gap and demonstrates that it is impossible to properly comprehend the contemporary global soybean chain, or the wider agrofood system of which it is a part, without looking at both their long and short historical development. However, a history of the soybean and its changing roles within equally changing agrofood systems is inexorably a history about globalization. Not only does this book map out where soybeans are produced, but also who governs, wields power and accumulates capital in the entire commodity chain from inputs in production to consumption, as well as identifying the institutional context the global commodity chain operates within. The book concludes with a discussion of the main challenges and contradictions of the current soy regime that could trigger its rupture and end.

    This book is essential reading for students, practitioners and scholars interested in agriculture and food systems, global commodity chains, globalization, environmental history, economic history and social-ecological systems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    The Soybean Through World History: Lessons for Sustainable Agrofood Systems
  • 26. Barcala, Maximiliano Estravis
    et al.
    van der Valk, Tom
    Chen, Zhiqiang
    Funda, Tomas
    Chaudhary, Rajiv
    Klingberg, Adam
    Fundova, Irena
    Suontama, Mari
    Hallingbäck, Henrik
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Nystedt, Björn
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Sherwood, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Street, Nathaniel
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Nilsson, Ove
    Wu, Harry X.
    Whole-genome resequencing facilitates the development of a 50K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and its transferability to other pine species2024In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 944-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most widespread and economically important conifer species in the world. Applications like genomic selection and association studies, which could help accelerate breeding cycles, are challenging in Scots pine because of its large and repetitive genome. For this reason, genotyping tools for conifer species, and in particular for Scots pine, are commonly based on transcribed regions of the genome. In this article, we present the Axiom Psyl50K array, the first single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array for Scots pine based on whole-genome resequencing, that represents both genic and intergenic regions. This array was designed following a two-step procedure: first, 192 trees were sequenced, and a 430K SNP screening array was constructed. Then, 480 samples, including haploid megagametophytes, full-sib family trios, breeding population, and range-wide individuals from across Eurasia were genotyped with the screening array. The best 50K SNPs were selected based on quality, replicability, distribution across the draft genome assembly, balance between genic and intergenic regions, and genotype–environment and genotype–phenotype associations. Of the final 49 877 probes tiled in the array, 20 372 (40.84%) occur inside gene models, while the rest lie in intergenic regions. We also show that the Psyl50K array can yield enough high-confidence SNPs for genetic studies in pine species from North America and Eurasia. This new genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for high-throughput fundamental and applied research of Scots pine and other pine species.

  • 27. Barros, T.
    et al.
    Conde, P.
    Gonçalves, G.
    Premebida, C.
    Monteiro, M.
    Ferreira, Carla S. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Portugal; Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Nunes, U. J.
    Multispectral vineyard segmentation: A deep learning comparison study2022In: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, ISSN 0168-1699, E-ISSN 1872-7107, Vol. 195, article id 106782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital agriculture has evolved significantly over the last few years due to the technological developments in automation and computational intelligence applied to the agricultural sector, including vineyards which are a relevant crop in the Mediterranean region. In this work, a study is presented of semantic segmentation for vine detection in real-world vineyards by exploring state-of-the-art deep segmentation networks and conventional unsupervised methods. Camera data have been collected on vineyards using an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) equipped with a dual imaging sensor payload, namely a high-definition RGB camera and a five-band multispectral and thermal camera. Extensive experiments using deep-segmentation networks and unsupervised methods have been performed on multimodal datasets representing four distinct vineyards located in the central region of Portugal. The reported results indicate that SegNet, U-Net, and ModSegNet have equivalent overall performance in vine segmentation. The results also show that multimodality slightly improves the performance of vine segmentation, but the NIR spectrum alone generally is sufficient on most of the datasets. Furthermore, results suggest that high-definition RGB images produce equivalent or higher performance than any lower resolution multispectral band combination. Lastly, Deep Learning (DL) networks have higher overall performance than classical methods. The code and dataset are publicly available on https://github.com/Cybonic/DL_vineyard_segmentation_study.git.

  • 28.
    Basnet, Shyam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wood, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Röös, Elin
    Jansson, Torbjörn
    Fetzer, Ingo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Organic agriculture in a low-emission world: exploring combined measures to deliver a sustainable food system in Sweden2023In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 501-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the EU, including Sweden, organic farming is seen as a promising pathway for sustainable production, protecting human health and animal welfare, and conserving the environment. Despite positive developments in recent decades, expanding organic farming to the Swedish national target of 30% of farmland under organic production remains challenging. In this study, we developed two scenarios to evaluate the role of organic farming in the broader context of Swedish food systems: (i) baseline trend scenario (Base), and (ii) sustainable food system scenario (Sust). Base describes a future where organic farming is implemented alongside the current consumption, production and waste patterns, while Sust describes a future where organic farming is implemented alongside a range of sustainable food system initiatives. These scenarios are coupled with several variants of organic area: (i) current 20% organic area, (ii) the national target of 30% organic area by 2030, and (iii) 50% organic area by 2050 for Sust. We applied the ‘FABLE (Food, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Land-use and Energy) Calculator’ to assess the evolution of the Swedish food system from 2000 to 2050 and evaluate land use, emissions and self-sufficiency impacts under these scenarios. Our findings show that expanding organic farming in the Base scenarios increases the use of cropland and agricultural emissions by 2050 compared to the 2010 reference year. However, cropland use and emissions are reduced in the Sust scenario, due to dietary changes, reduction of food waste and improved agricultural productivity. This implies that there is room for organic farming and the benefits it provides, e.g. the use of fewer inputs and improved animal welfare in a sustainable food system. However, changing towards organic agriculture is only of advantage when combined with transformative strategies to promote environmental sustainability across multiple sections, such as changed consumption, better production and food waste practices.

  • 29.
    Bauer, Barbara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Casini, Michele
    Hoff, Ayoe
    Margoński, Piotr
    Orio, Alessandro
    Saraiva, Sofia
    Steenbeek, Jeroen
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Reducing eutrophication increases spatial extent of communities supporting commercial fisheries: a model case study2018In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 1306-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate if eutrophication management has the potential to substantially affect which areas are going to be most suitable for commercial fishing in the future. We use a spatial ecosystem model, forced by a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, to simulate the spatial distribution of functional groups within a marine ecosystem, which depends on their respective tolerances to abiotic factors, trophic interactions, and fishing. We simulate the future long-term spatial developments of the community composition and their potential implications for fisheries under three different nutrient management scenarios and changing climate. The three nutrient management scenarios result in contrasting developments of bottom oxygen concentrations and phytoplankton abundance, with substantial effects on fish production. Nutrient load reduction increases the spatial extent of the areas suitable for the commercially most valuable demersal fish predator and all types of fisheries. This suggests that strategic planning of fishery management strategies could benefit from considering future changes in species distributions due to changes in eutrophication. We show that combining approaches from climate research, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, biogeography, and trophic ecology with economical information provides a strong foundation to produce scientific knowledge that can support a multisectoral management of ecosystems.

  • 30. Beche, Dinkissa
    et al.
    Tack, Ayco J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nemomissa, Sileshi
    Warkineh, Bikila
    Lemessa, Debissa
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Fischer, Joern
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Spatial variation in human disturbances and their effects on forest structure and biodiversity across an Afromontane forest2022In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 493-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Human disturbances can have large impacts on forest structure and biodiversity, and thereby result in forest degradation, a property difficult to detect by remote sensing.

    Objectives To investigate spatial variation in anthropogenic disturbances and their effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

    Methods In 144 plots of 20 x 20 m distributed across a forest area of 750 km2 in Southwest Ethiopia, we recorded: landscape variables (e.g., distance to forest edge), different human disturbances, forest structure variables, and species composition of trees and epiphyllous bryophytes. We then first assessed if landscape variables could explain the spatial distribution of disturbances. Second, we analysed how forest structure and biodiversity were influenced by disturbances.

    Results Human disturbances, such as coffee management and grazing declined with distance to forest edges, and penetrated at least a kilometer into the forest. Slope was not related to disturbance levels, but several types of disturbances were less common at higher elevations. Among human disturbance types, coffee management reduced liana cover and was associated with altered species composition of trees. The presence of large trees and basal area were not related to any of the disturbance gradients.

    Conclusions Although most anthropogenic disturbances displayed clear edge effects, surprisingly the variation in the chosen forest degradation indices were only weakly related to these disturbances. We suggest that the intersection between edge effects and forest degradation is very context specific and relies much on how particular societies use the forests. For example, in this landscape coffee management seems to be a key driver.

  • 31.
    Belyazid, Salim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Giuliana, Zanchi
    Water limitation can negate the effect of higher temperatures on forest carbon sequestration2019In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will bring about a consistent increase in temperatures. Annual precipitation rates are also expected to increase in boreal countries, but the seasonal distribution will be uneven, and several areas in the boreal zone will experience wetter winters and drier summers. This study uses the dynamic forest ecosystem model ForSAFE to estimate the combined effect of changes in temperature and precipitation on forest carbon stocks in Sweden. The model is used to simulate carbon stock changes in 544 productive forest sites from the Swedish National Forest Inventory. Forest carbon stocks under two alternative climate scenarios are compared to stocks under a hypothetical scenario of no climate change (baseline). Results show that lower water availability in the future can cause a significant reduction in tree carbon compared to a baseline scenario, particularly expressed in the southern and eastern parts of Sweden. In contrast, the north-western parts will experience an increase in tree carbon stocks. Results show also that summer precipitation is a better predictor of tree carbon reduction than annual precipitation. Finally, the change in soil carbon stock is less conspicuous than in tree carbon stock, showing no significant change in the north and a relatively small but consistent decline in the south. The study indicates that the prospect of higher water deficit caused by climate change cannot be ignored in future forest management planning.

  • 32.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lan, Thai Huynh Phuong
    Tam, Nguyen Thanh
    Trang, Duong Huyen
    Van, Pham Huynh Thanh
    Duc, Huynh Ngoc
    Da, Chau Thi
    An ecological economic comparison between integrated rice-fish farming and rice monocultures with low and high dikes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2023In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1462-1474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study makes an ecological economic comparison between three different rice farming strategies in the Mekong Delta. Interviews were made with 30 farmers with two crops of rice and low dikes (2RLd), 30 farmers with three crops of rice and high dikes (3RHd) and 18 farmers with two crops of rice and one crop of fish (2RF). 2RF farmers had the highest annual net income and benefit cost ratio, because of low production costs and high yields of rice and fish. 2RLd farmers had the lowest annual net income. 3RHd had the highest annual rice yield, but also used the highest amount of rice seeds and agrochemicals, generating the lowest benefit cost ratio. Most farmers (70%) preferred two crops because of a higher production efficiency. High dikes and frequent use of pesticides and fertilizers were seen to decrease the water and rice quality, connectivity and biodiversity in farms with three crops. It is concluded that rice farming with two crops, and especially if integrated with fish and applying IPM, provides a sustainable alternative to rice farming with three crops and high dikes, because it makes use of the high connectivity within the rice-field ecosystem for an efficient production of healthy food through increased recycling of nutrients and  natural pest control mechanisms. 

  • 33.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Maneas, Giorgos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Salguero Engström, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A Comparison between Organic and Conventional Olive Farming in Messenia, Greece2018In: Horticulturae, E-ISSN 2311-7524, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olive farming is one of the most important occupations in Messenia, Greece. The region is considered the largest olive producer in the country and it is recognized as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) for Kalamata olive oil, which is considered extra fine. In response to the declining trend of organic olive farming in Greece, this study assesses to what extent organic olive farming in Messenia provides a financially and environmentally competitive alternative to conventional olive farming. In this study, 39 olive farmers (23 conventional and 16 organic) participated in interviews based on questionnaires. The results showed that organic olive farming is significantly more profitable than conventional farming, primarily because of a higher price for organic olive oil. Despite this, the majority of the conventional farmers perceived a low profit from organic farming as the main constraint to organic olive farming. All farmers agreed that organic olive farming contributed to a better environment, health and quality of olive oil. Organic farmers used fewer synthetic pesticides and fertilizers and applied more environmentally-friendly ground vegetation management techniques than conventional farmers. Overall, organic farming was found to provide a competitive and sustainable alternative to conventional olive farming in Messenia.

  • 34.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Mulokozi, Deogratias
    Udikas, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A GIS Assessment of the Suitability of Tilapia and Clarias Pond Farming in Tanzania2021In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture production in Tanzania has increased in recent years, responding to an increased demand for fish, but the scale and productivity of smallholder aquaculture remains below the level needed to support significant sector growth in Tanzania. This study assesses, through geospatial analyses, the suitability for freshwater pond farming of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Tanzania, by assessing the geographical distribution of seven criteria (water availability, water temperature, soil texture, terrain slope, availability of farm inputs, potential farm-gate sales, and access to local markets) identified as important for fish pond farming. The criteria were developed and standardized from 15 sub-criteria, which were classified into a four-level suitability scale based on physical scores. The individual weights of the different criteria in the overall GIS suitability assessment were determined through a multi-criteria evaluation. The final results were validated and compared through field observations, interviews with 89 rural and 11 urban aquaculture farmers, and a questionnaire survey with 16 regional fisheries officers. Our results indicate that there is a good potential for aquaculture in Tanzania. Almost 60% of Tanzania is assessed as being suitable and 40% as moderately suitable for small-scale subsistence pond farming, which is the dominating fish farming practice currently. The corresponding figures for medium-scale commercial farming, which many regions expect to be the dominating farming method within ten-years, were 52% and 47% respectively. The availability of water was the most limiting factor for fish pond farming, which was confirmed by both farmers and regional fisheries officers, and assessed as being suitable in only 28% of the country. The availability of farm-gate sales and local markets were moderate suitable to suitable and were seen as a constraint for commercial farms in rural areas. The availability of farm inputs (agriculture waste and manure) was overall good (26% very suitable and 32% suitable), but high-quality fish feed was seen as a constraint to aquaculture development, both by farmers and regional fisheries officers. Soil, terrain, and water temperature conditions were assessed as good, especially at low altitudes and in regions close to the sea and south of Lake Victoria.

  • 35.
    Bergendahl, I. Ahlbeck
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Holliland, Per Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Karlöf, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Feeding range of age 1+year Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis in the Baltic Sea2017In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 2060-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the widespread Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis as a model organism, feeding ranges were investigated using stable-isotope ratios (N-15 and C-13) and body condition. Differences were found between closely located sampling sites in a littoral area without obvious migration barriers, indicating that individual fish had small feeding ranges. Body condition differences between sampled stations were consistent over 4 years. Such sedentary behaviour is important to consider in, e.g. fisheries management and environmental monitoring, as local catch regulations may be meaningful or geographic stability in sampling locations may reduce noise in data.

  • 36. Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hornborg, Sara
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Philis, Gaspard
    Ziegler, Friederike
    Recirculating Aquaculture Is Possible without Major Energy Tradeoff: Life Cycle Assessment of Warmwater Fish Farming in Sweden2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 24, p. 16062-16070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is seen as promising for more sustainable diets. The increasing production in land-based closed Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RASs) has overcome many local environmental challenges with traditional open net-pen systems such as eutrophication. The energy needed to maintain suitable water quality, with associated emissions, has however been seen as challenging from a global perspective. This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance and improvement potentials of a commercial RAS farm of tilapia and Clarias in Sweden. The environmental impact categories and indicators considered were freshwater eutrophication, climate change, energy demand, land use, and dependency on animal-source feed inputs per kg of fillet. We found that feed production contributed most to all environmental impacts (between 67 and 98%) except for energy demand for tilapia, contradicting previous findings that farm-level energy use is a driver of environmental pressures. The main improvement potentials include improved by-product utilization and use of a larger proportion of plant-based feed ingredients. Together with further smaller improvement potential identified, this suggests that RASs may play a more important role in a future, environmentally sustainable food system.

  • 37. Bermudez, Rafael
    et al.
    Feng, Yuanyuan
    Roleda, Michael Y.
    Tatters, Avery O.
    Hutchins, David A.
    Larsen, Thomas
    Boyd, Philip W.
    Hurd, Catriona L.
    Riebesell, Ulf
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Long-Term Conditioning to Elevated pCO(2) and Warming Influences the Fatty and Amino Acid Composition of the Diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0123945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean's environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4 degrees C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO2 can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19 degrees C) and 3 partial pressures of CO2 (180, 380, 750 mu atm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of similar to 3% and similar to 6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO(2) of 750 mu atm (high) compared to the 380 mu atm (intermediate) CO2 treatments at 14 degrees C. Cultures kept at 19 degrees C displayed a similar to 3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO(2), while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO(2) of 180 mu atm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO2 levels at 14 degrees C, but there were no differences in EA at 19 degrees C for any CO2 treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only similar to 20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.

  • 38.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Alimentalities - Food for Sociology2015In: Mat är mer än mat: samhällsvetenskapliga perspektiv på mat och måltider / [ed] Kerstin Bergström, Inger M. Jonsson, Hillevi Prell, Inga Wernersson, Helena Åberg, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2015, p. 247-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39. Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems – participatory action research in Swedish modern agroforestry2014In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies: Proceedings of the 11th European IFSA Symposium, 1-4 April 2014 in Berlin, Germany / [ed] Thomas Aenis; Andrea Knierim; Maja-Catrin Riecher; Rebecka Ridder; Heike Schobert; Holger Fischer, IFSA Europe , 2014, Vol. 2, p. 1950-1959Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

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  • 40. Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a participatory action research project in Sweden2019In: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 1107-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative. Based on studies during the establishment of edible forest gardens in 12 participating farms in Sweden, this paper explores the potential of utilizing multi-strata designs for food production in temperate, high-income countries. Design and species composition of such gardens, types of food they provide, and how they would best fit into the present landscape are discussed. Factors for success and major problems related to the establishment are shared. Potential benefits were found to be closely related to a thorough analysis of the social and ecological contexts before establishment. Characteristics of the site and goals of the garden need to guide species and design choices. If forest garden approaches to food production should contribute to more than local self-sufficiency, the gardens need to increase in scale. Marginal lands and transitions areas between different land uses may be appropriate. Large knowledge gaps concerning potential production, social and economic benefits, and agronomic issues were identified.

  • 41. Björkman, Maria
    et al.
    Hambäck, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtekologi.
    Rämert, Birgitta
    Neighboring monocultures enhance the effect of intercropping in turnip root flies (Delia floralis).2007In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol. 124, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of insect behaviour is essential for accurately interpreting studies of diversification and to develop diversified agroecosystems that have a reliable pest-suppressive effect. In this study, we investigated the egg-laying behaviour of the turnip root fly, Delia floralis (Fall.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in an intercrop-monoculture system. We examined both the main effect of intercropping and the effect on oviposition in the border zone between a cabbage monoculture [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (Brassicaceae)] and a cabbage-red clover intercropping system [Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae)]. To investigate the border-effect, oviposition was measured along a transect from the border between the treatments to the centre of experimental plots. Intercropping reduced the total egg-laying of D. floralis with 42% in 2003 and 55% in 2004. In 2004, it was also found that the spatial distribution of eggs within the experimental plots was affected by distance from the adjoining treatment. The difference in egg-laying between monoculture and intercropping was most pronounced close to the border, where egg-laying was 68% lower on intercropped plants. This difference in egg numbers decreased gradually up to a distance of 3.5 m from the border, where intercropped plants had 43% fewer eggs than the corresponding monocultured plants. The reason behind this oviposition pattern is most likely that flies in intercropped plots have a higher probability of entering the monoculture if they are close to the border than if they are in the centre of a plot. When entering the monoculture, flies can pursue their egg-laying behaviour without being disrupted by the clover. As the final decision to land is visually stimulated, flies could also be attracted to fly from the intercropped plots into the monoculture, where host plants are more visually apparent. Visual cues could also hinder flies in a monoculture from entering an intercropped plot. Other possible patterns of insect attack due to differences in insect behaviour are discussed, as well as the practical application of the results of this study.

  • 42. Björkman, Maria
    et al.
    Hopkins, Richard
    Hambäck, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Rämert, Birgitta
    Effects of plant competition and herbivore density on the development of the turnip root fly (Delia floralis) in an intercropping system2009In: Arthropod-plant interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, Vol. 3, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, interactive effects of plant competition and herbivory on plant quality and herbivore development were examined in a greenhouse experiment where cabbage plants [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (Brassicaceae)] were intercropped with red clover [Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae)]. Cabbages were grown with two red clover densities and attack rates by the root feeding herbivore the turnip root fly, Delia floralis Fall. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Above ground and below ground cabbage biomass was reduced through intercropping and larval damage. Intercropping also resulted in lower nitrogen and higher carbon root levels compared with levels in the roots of monocultured cabbage. Furthermore, both root nitrogen and carbon levels increased with herbivory. Root neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and lignin content increased in response to both increased plant competition and higher egg densities. For lignin, an interaction effect was observed in the form of elevated levels in intercropped plants subjected to larval damage, while levels in roots of monocultured cabbage remained unchanged. The quality changes brought about by clover competition affected D. floralis development negatively, which resulted in reduced pupal weight. In addition, increased egg density also decreased larval growth. The effects on the development of D. floralis in relation to host plant quality are discussed.

  • 43.
    Blandon, Abigayil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ishihara, Hiroe
    Seafood certification schemes in Japan: Examples of challenges and opportunities from three Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) applicants2021In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 123, article id 104279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there has been a global proliferation of marine certification schemes aiming to incentivize sustainable fishing in the last decade, the uptake has been comparatively slow in Japan. Suggested reasons include difficulties assessing Japanese fisheries co-management institutions, and reduced profitability from complex seafood distribution networks and mismatched consumer preferences. However, a few Japanese fisheries have been awarded the international Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification. This paper investigates the motivations and experiences of three such MSC applicants: the Kyoto Danish Seine Fisheries Federation offshore fishery, Ishihara Marine Products skipjack and albacore pole and line fishery, and Maruto Suisan rope grown Pacific oyster fishery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants from each case study and coded into motivations, problems and impacts. It was found that although there were economic motivations to apply for the certification, this mainly involved increasing domestic distribution channels rather than gaining or retaining access to premium-paying foreign markets. The co-management system that governs the Kyoto fisheries hampered the re-certification process of the fishery due to the difficulty of influencing the higher levels of management within the system. It also became clear that the type of applicant was important to consider: the two more recent MSC clients - both seafood processors - are better placed in the value chain to utilize the certification and its logo, and therefore more likely to financially sustain the certification. The study provides an important insight into the applicant experience of certification schemes in countries with lower consumer demand for them, such as Japan.

  • 44.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan; United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, Japan.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Tokunaga, Kanae
    Pittman, Jeremy
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Climate change and marine fisheries: Least developed countries top global index of vulnerability2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework for vulnerability, we first construct aggregate indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity using 12 primary variables. Seven out of the ten most vulnerable countries on the resulting index are Small Island Developing States, and the top quartile of the index includes countries located in Africa (17), Asia (7), North America and the Caribbean (4) and Oceania (8). More than 87% of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states. This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries' adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices. A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities. The index provides a useful tool for prioritizing the allocation of climate finance, as well as activities aimed at capacity building and the transfer of marine technology.

  • 45.
    Bohman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regulatory control of adaptive fisheries: Reflections on the implementation of the landing obligation in the EU common fisheries policy2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 110, article id 103557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most recently revised CFP Regulation, adopted in 2013, includes a number of significant changes with the aim to make fisheries more in tune with concept of the ecosystem approach and to avoid unsustainable exploitation of marine biological resources, including fish, as a natural resource. As part of that the CFP Regulation introduced the landing obligation, an obligation to land all catches as opposed to previous praxis where fisheries have been relying on a system of discarding fish and other marine biological resources in order to optimize their catch. One aim with the landing obligation is to push for new adaptive fishing methods and in a way to implement an ecosystem approach since the fishing strategies are meant to be adjusted to ecosystem factors. To be effective, the system for controlling implementation must be adjusted to take different aspects of the ecosystem approach into account. The paper presents some reflections on the required balance between adaptive approaches connected to the ecosystem approach and the strictness established by principles of rule of law in relation to the so called EU CFP landing obligation. It is concluded that the best way to create a control system adjusted to these factors seems to be by giving more influence to the industry itself. Involving those concerned at all levels, and thus applying all aspects of the regulatory governance under an ecosystem approach, would create an effective adaptive system where the rule of law is also safe-guarded.

  • 46. Bong, Indah Waty
    et al.
    Moeliono, Moira
    Wong, Grace Yee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Brockhaus, Maria
    What is success? Gaps and trade-offs in assessing the performance of traditional social forestry systems in Indonesia2019In: Forest and Society, ISSN 2549-4724, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing interest in social forestry (SF), how much do we understand the social, economic and environmental outcomes and the conditions that enable SF to perform? In this article, we use a content analysis of literature on existing traditional SF practiced throughout Indonesia. It examines the outcomes of these systems and the conditions that enabled or hindered these outcomes to understand possible causal relations and changing dynamics between these conditions and SF performance. We discuss the gaps in how SF is assessed and understood in the literature to understand the important aspects of traditional SF that are not captured or that are lost when the diverse traditional systems are converted into other land uses. It aims to understand the potential trade-offs in the State's push for formalizing SF if these aspects continue to be ignored.

  • 47.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Birnbaum, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The quality of compliance: investigating fishers' responses towards regulation and authorities2017In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 682-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial amount of scientific effort goes into understanding and measuring compliance in fisheries. Understanding why, how and when fishers follow or violate rules is crucial for designing effective fishery policies that can halt overfishing. Non-compliance was initially explained almost exclusively with reference to economic and self-interested motivations. More recently, however, most explanations involve a combination of economic, social, political and environmental factors. Despite this recent development towards more holistic explanations, many scientists continue to frame the issue in binary terms: fishers either follow rules, or they don't. In this article we challenge this binary interpretation and focus attention on the diversity of fishers' dispositions and perceptions that underpin compliant behaviour. To this aim we construct a typology of fishers' responses towards regulation and authorities, thereby developing conceptual tools to understand different motivations and attitudes that underlie compliance outcomes. For this purpose, we identify the motivational postures of 'creativity' and 'reluctance', and then highlight their empirical relevance with an interview study of Swedish fishers. Reasons for studying the quality and diversity of fishers' motivations and responses are not purely academic. Conceptualizing and observing the quality of compliance can help policymakers and managers gauge and anticipate the potentiality of non-compliant fishing practices that may threaten the resilience of marine ecosystems.

  • 48.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Classifying fishers' behaviour. An invitation to fishing styles2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 78-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study and classification of fishers’ behaviour remains a much debated topic. There is a tension between detailed empirical studies, which highlight the variety and diversity of fisheries, and the parsimony and generalization required to satisfy science and policy demands. This study contributes to this debate. The first sec- tion reviews quantitative methods currently used for classifying fishing practices. The review uncovers significant weaknesses in quantitative classification methods, which, we argue, can be improved through the complementary use of qualitative methods. To this purpose, we introduce the concept of ‘fishing style’, which integrates quantitative classification methods with qualitative analysis. We explain the scientific premises of the fishing-style concept, outline a general methodological framework and present a fishing-style analysis of Swedish Baltic Sea fisheries. Based on these results, we conclude that it is possible to classify fishing practices in a rel- atively uniform and limited number of styles that can highlight the rich, empirical diversity of fishers’ behaviour. We therefore propose that fishing-style analysis, based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative methods, can be an impor- tant step towards more effective and sustainable fisheries management.

  • 49. Borg, Saskia
    et al.
    Seubert, Janina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lipids in Eating and Appetite Regulation - A Neuro-Cognitive Perspective2017In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 119, no 12, article id 1700106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foods high in dietary fat provide a particularly energy-rich source of nutrition. A preferred food choice in humans, their intake is thought to contribute substantially to the current obesity epidemic. Fat has recently been proposed to constitute a basic taste; yet, its diverse sensory properties in the olfactory and somatosensory domain, as well as its postingestive effects have made the exact attributes that make its consumption so appealing difficult to disentangle. Recent scientific advances have shed light on the different molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory detection of fat in the periphery, and described their relevance for perceptual experience and eating behavior. However, these different analysis levels are to date poorly integrated, both within each sensory modality, and from a multisensory perspective.

  • 50. Boulet, Anne Karine
    et al.
    Alarcão, Carlos
    Ferreira, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Veiga, Adelcia
    Campos, Lara
    Ferreira, António
    Hessel, Rudi
    Agro-ecological services delivered by legume cover crops grown in succession with grain corn crops in the Mediterranean region2021In: Open agriculture, ISSN 2391-9531, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 609-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grain corn is the main cereal produced in Portugal. It is grown in intensive monoculture cropping systems that may have negative effects on soil quality, affecting long-term fertility and productivity, and, therefore, the sustainability of the production. A promising management practice to mitigate soil degradation is to grow winter cover crops used as green manure. This study examined the effectiveness of six legume cover crops (LCCs) species in providing agro-ecological services for grain corn systems in the Mediterranean region, specifically in terms of nutrient leaching, nutrient recycling, weed control, and soil fertility. The study was performed in Central Portugal during 2 years, and it assessed legumes/weeds dry biomass yield, their nutrients content, and soil organic matter evolution. Results show that, in general, LCC are well adapted to Mediterranean conditions, yielding large amounts of biomass (up to 8 ton/ha for some clover species). In terms of nutrient leaching mitigation, the overall N-P-K nutrient uptake was 176-20-172 kg/ha. Green manure services enabled a reduction of 35% of N, 50% of P, and 100% of mineral fertilizers for a grain corn production of 12 ton/ha. Weed control by LCC was effective only in the second year of the study and for three clover species (crimson, balansa, and arrowleaf) due to their early establishment and/or high biomass production competing with weeds. Soil fertility was not improved in the short term, LCC incorporation into the soil to a slight depletion of the soil organic matter content.

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