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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012In: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 2.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

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    Social-Ecological Urbanism - Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus (Abstract)
  • 3.
    Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0146053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  • 4. Bossio, Deborah
    et al.
    Erkossa, Teklu
    Dile, Yihun
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    McCartney, Matthew
    Killiches, Franziska
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector2012In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 223-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of unused and abundant water resources, as captured in dominant narratives, that drives and justifies both foreign and domestic investments, fails to reflect the more complex reality on the ground. Based on new collections of lease information and crop modelling, we estimate the potential additional water use associated with foreign investments at various scales. As a consequence of data limitations our analyses provide only crude estimates of consumptive water use and indicate a wide range of possible water consumption depending on exactly how foreign direct investment (FDI) development scenarios unfold. However, they do suggest that if all planned FDI schemes are implemented and expanded in the near future, additional water consumption is likely to be comparable with existing water use in non-FDI irrigation schemes, and a non-trivial proportion of the country’s water resources will be effectively utilised by foreign entities. Hence, additional water use as well as local water scarcity ought to be strong considerations in regulating or pricing land leases. If new investments are to increase local food and water security without compromising local and downstream water availability they should be designed to improve often very low agricultural water productivity, and to safeguard access of local populations to water.

  • 5.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Open Access to Rural Landscapes!2014In: Rural Landscapes: Society, Environment, History, E-ISSN 2002-0104, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The academic study of rural landscapes covers a broad range of academic disciplines and thematic, methodological and theoretical concerns and interests; including questions concerned with resource use (e.g. agriculture, forestry, water and mining), settlement, livelihoods, conflicts, conservation, culture and identity. This diversity is clearly a strength (the rich empirical and intellectual base), but also presents a challenge, as the dissemination of research findings is distributed through a plethora of publishing channels, which do not necessarily encourage exchange of results and ideas that are not already perceived as germane to already established academic networks.

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  • 6. Capek, Petr
    et al.
    Diakova, Katerina
    Dickopp, Jan-Erik
    Barta, Jiri
    Wild, Birgit
    Schnecker, Jörg
    Alves, Ricardo Jorge Eloy
    Aiglsdorfer, Stefanie
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Gentsch, Norman
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lashchinsky, Nikolaj
    Gittel, Antje
    Schleper, Christa
    Mikutta, Robert
    Palmtag, Juri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Shibistova, Olga
    Urich, Tim
    Richter, Andreas
    Santruckova, Hana
    The effect of warming on the vulnerability of subducted organic carbon in arctic soils2015In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 90, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic permafrost soils contain large stocks of organic carbon (OC). Extensive cryogenic processes in these soils cause subduction of a significant part of OC-rich topsoil down into mineral soil through the process of cryoturbation. Currently, one-fourth of total permafrost OC is stored in subducted organic horizons. Predicted climate change is believed to reduce the amount of OC in permafrost soils as rising temperatures will increase decomposition of OC by soil microorganisms. To estimate the sensitivity of OC decomposition to soil temperature and oxygen levels we performed a 4-month incubation experiment in which we manipulated temperature (4-20 degrees C) and oxygen level of topsoil organic, subducted organic and mineral soil horizons. Carbon loss (C-LOSS) was monitored and its potential biotic and abiotic drivers, including concentrations of available nutrients, microbial activity, biomass and stoichiometry, and extracellular oxidative and hydrolytic enzyme pools, were measured. We found that independently of the incubation temperature, C-LOSS from subducted organic and mineral soil horizons was one to two orders of magnitude lower than in the organic topsoil horizon, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This corresponds to the microbial biomass being lower by one to two orders of magnitude. We argue that enzymatic degradation of autochthonous subducted OC does not provide sufficient amounts of carbon and nutrients to sustain greater microbial biomass. The resident microbial biomass relies on allochthonous fluxes of nutrients, enzymes and carbon from the OC-rich topsoil. This results in a negative priming effect, which protects autochthonous subducted OC from decomposition at present. The vulnerability of subducted organic carbon in cryoturbated arctic soils under future climate conditions will largely depend on the amount of allochthonous carbon and nutrient fluxes from the topsoil.

  • 7. Da, Chau Thi
    et al.
    Phuoc, Le Huu
    Duc, Huynh Ngoc
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Use of Wastewater from Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Pond Culture for Integrated Rice-Fish-Vegetable Farming Systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2015In: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 580-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the feasibility of reusing wastewater from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) pond culture as nutrient input for integrated rice-Nile tilapia-green bean farming systems, and to what extent this could contribute to decreasing the environmental impacts on water quality from the striped catfish industry in the Mekong Delta. Four treatments in triplicates were used to investigate the growth of rice and green bean varieties under different combinations of inorganic fertilizer and water from the river and a striped catfish pond culture. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at low density without feeding in a canal adjacent to the rice field. Rice yields ranged from 3,514 to 4,023 kg ha(-1) with no significant differences between treatments (p > 0.05). The yield of green bean ranged from 2,671 to 3,282 kg ha(-1) (p < 0.05), with the highest yields for beans only receiving water from the striped catfish pond. The water quality concentrations decreased significantly when passing through the rice plots for almost all treatments (p < 0.05). Total phosphorus and nitrogen levels in the outflowing water were reduced by almost 50% compared to the inflowing water from the striped catfish pond. Overall, the results indicated that an integrated system generates both economic and environmental benefits as compared to monocultures.

  • 8.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Easton, Zachary M.
    Walter, M. Todd
    Steenhuis, Tammo S.
    Field test of the variable source area interpretation of the curve number rainfall runoff equation2012In: Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, ISSN 0733-9437, E-ISSN 1943-4774, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is a widely used empirical rainfall-runoff equation. Although the physical basis of the method has been debated, several researchers have suggested that it can be used to predict the watershed fraction that is saturated and generating runoff by saturation excess from variable source areas (VSAs). In this paper, we compare saturated runoff-contributing areas predicted with the VSA interpretation of the SCS-CN method with field-measured VSAs in a 0.5 ha hillslope in central New York State. We installed a trench below a VSA and simultaneously recorded water flux from different soil layers at the trench face and water table dynamics upslope of the trench. This setup allowed us to monitor runoff initiation and saturation-excess overland flow in response to rainfall and different water table depths in the hillslope during 16 storm events. We found that the SCS-CN method accurately predicted the observed VSA and showed best agreement if the VSA was defined as the area where the water table was within 10 cm of the soil surface. These results not only demonstrate that the VSA interpretation of the SCS-CN method accurately predicts VSA extents in small watersheds but also that the transient water table does not necessarily need to intersect the land surface to cause a storm runoff response. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000380.

  • 9.
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University.
    Natural and pollution induced factors affecting the reproduction in amphipods2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 10. Galli, Francesca
    et al.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oxford, UK; Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Carroll, Bridin
    Addressing food poverty in systems: governance of food assistance in three European countries2018In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1353-1370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency food poverty relief is one of the possible entry points to understanding food poverty in affluent societies, whereas the visibility of food poverty relief initiatives has evolved, together with large-scale food recovery organizations and networks aiming at reducing and valorising surplus in food systems. There is a substantial diversity of actors and resources involved, resulting in differently shaped initiatives and programs. It can be described as a continuum encompassing third sector initiatives, large and small businesses, and institutional intervention programs: by bringing together institutions, companies, organisations and civil society, public-private food assistance addresses food poverty in a way that is not viable by any of these actors alone and by adopting context specific governance arrangements. This paper contributes to this debate with the analysis of governance relations in food assistance initiatives across different European countries (Italy, The Netherlands and Ireland). By approaching food assistance from a systems perspective, we further the understanding of these initiatives and their modes of governance. The case studies offer a mapping of food assistance by identifying functions and outcomes, actors and resources involved, and the links the initiatives have to those elements, thus highlighting where collaborative food poverty reduction takes place that goes beyond traditional boundaries. Food assistance initiatives are a civil initiated response shaped by and complementing the social welfare and food systems in which they are embedded. The interpretation of food assistance functions leads to challenging the boundaries of food assistance and potentially triggering innovative approaches to improving food and nutrition security. Discussions show that while they have managed to find innovative and collaborative governance solutions to address the very immediate issues rather effectively, they do not negate the need for food system transformation to address the ultimate reasons for food poverty.

  • 11.
    Gill, Tom
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Davis, Marion
    Stockholm Environment Institute, USA.
    SEI annual report 20112012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Guerrero Lara, Leonie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How to “flip the tortilla”: Exploring opportunities for a more sustainable food system in Spain through TEK-driven innovation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The modern global food system is a main driver of the Anthropocene: Food production entails profound global environmental changes from greenhouse gas emissions to biodiversity loss. Shifting diets further impact planetary and human health. Innovative approaches are needed to shift towards more sustainable, equitable and healthy food systems. Following the ‘Seeds of Good Anthropocenes’ project, this thesis analyses innovative initiatives that have the potential to make the food system more sustainable. More specifically, building on the increasing recognition of the importance of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in sustainable food systems, this thesis explores initiatives that are using TEK to improve food systems in Spain. This study conceptualizes the food system as a complex social-ecological system and builds on transformations theory, the concepts of social-ecological innovation, leverage points and TEK. It uses a case-study approach and is set in three different regions in Mediterranean Spain, where I conducted and analyzed 12 semi-structured interviews with food seed initiatives. I found that the initiatives’ main drive was towards enhancing food values that are linked to traditional food production, which are not currently widely appreciated. The presence of TEK can inspire different innovations within the food system, whereas the absence of TEK can present barriers to innovation. Most importantly, the absence of gastronomic knowledge among consumers on how to process and prepare local varieties and species was found to hinder the implementation of shorter value chains, that are recognized as an efficient approach for sustainable food systems. By reintroducing gastronomic TEK, direct consumer-producer links were strengthened. Such innovative applications of TEK can help to safeguard biocultural diversity that is crucial for the transformation of food systems towards sustainability. I suggest that taking into account the presence of TEK can enhance the success of conventional systems of innovation that emphasize scientific and technological knowledge.

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  • 13. Guerry, Anne D.
    et al.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Lubchenco, Jane
    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Griffin, Robert
    Ruckelshaus, Mary
    Bateman, Ian J.
    Duraiappah, Anantha
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Feldman, Marcus W.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Hoekstra, Jon
    Kareiva, Peter M.
    Keeler, Bonnie L.
    Li, Shuzhuo
    McKenzie, Emily
    Ouyang, Zhiyun
    Reyers, Belinda
    Ricketts, Taylor H.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tallis, Heather
    Vira, Bhaskar
    Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 24, p. 7348-7355Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.

  • 14. Haase, Dagmar
    et al.
    Larondelle, Neele
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Artmann, Martina
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breuste, Jürgen
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Gren, Åsa
    Hamstead, Zoé
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Kremer, Peleg
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Lorance Rall, Emily
    McPhearson, Timon
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Qureshi, Salman
    Schwarz, Nina
    Voigt, Annette
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Quantitative Review of Urban Ecosystem Service Assessments: Concepts, Models, and Implementation2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 413-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of comprehensive reviews have examined global ecosystem services (ES), few have focused on studies that assess urban ecosystem services (UES). Given that more than half of the world's population lives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provision of and need for UES is of critical importance. Which UES are the focus of research, and what types of urban land use are examined? Are models or decision support systems used to assess the provision of UES? Are trade-offs considered? Do studies of UES engage stakeholders? To address these questions, we analyzed 217 papers derived from an ISI Web of Knowledge search using a set of standardized criteria. The results indicate that most UES studies have been undertaken in Europe, North America, and China, at city scale. Assessment methods involve bio-physical models, Geographical Information Systems, and valuation, but few study findings have been implemented as land use policy.

  • 15.
    Hallengren, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas.
    Operation Hades: växtbekämpningsmedel i jordbruk och krig1981Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on the use of herbicides in agriculture and warfare, and its consequences based upon recent investigations and written sources worldwide. With an extensive list of references.

  • 16.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Shaping sustainable food systems: Local participation in addressing global challenges2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current unsustainable trajectory of food systems puts the social and ecological processes and functions on which human flourishing depends at risk. This last decade has seen, on one hand, continued insistence on transformative action and on the other, uncertainty and instability with respect to traditional, established institutions, such as the state. As a response, new configurations of actors are aiming to participate in food system governance. New governance arrangements that increasingly lean on civic actors are considered as windows of opportunity, but their possible pitfalls have received less attention. This thesis seeks to understand and explain how the participation of new actors in the food system contributes to transformative change towards sustainable food systems. In order to achieve this, this thesis develops and applies a novel interdisciplinary approach, which combines: a food systems perspective, theories concerning food system governance, transformation, participation and the creation of transformative futures.

    The four papers each investigate essential elements for transformative change towards sustainable food systems. Each paper represents different empirical cases, but the papers’ theories build on each other. Paper I starts by setting out a transdisciplinary understanding of food systems in terms of structure and dynamics beyond existing frameworks, built on co-design through a science-policy dialogue. It unpacks the idea of sustainable food systems across four elements: nutrition and diet, economic impacts, environmental impacts, and social equity. Paper II explores food systems change, through the case of food banks in Europe; civil initiatives that address food poverty by handing out surplus food parcels. By comparing initiatives from the Netherlands, Italy and Ireland, their transformative impact on food systems is reviewed. Paper III goes on to interrogate the role of participation in change processes. It does this through an assessment of the extent to which participation is properly executed in policy processes that aim to democratise and ‘open-up’ the making of an Urban Food Strategy. It does so by comparing the case of Eindhoven, the Netherlands and Exeter, United Kingdom. Finally, paper IV is focused on how imagined futures affect participatory change processes. It focuses on the use of future-oriented participatory methods, foresight, and their implications for transformative change. The paper contributes to the field of foresight by formulating several levels of ambition for transformative change associated with foresight processes, and a number of different roles for the researcher to take in processes of change. 

    The papers establish a new understanding of food systems, followed by insights into food systems change, the role of participation in change processes, and how imagined futures affect this participation. Together, they demonstrate the benefits of buildingon food system knowledges from, from different spheres – i.e. public, private and civil as well as across different scientific research disciplines. The thesis concludes that a concrete, actionable understanding of how participatory processes focused on present and future food systems, contribute to transformative change in food systems.

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  • 17.
    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Belton, Ben
    Murshed-e-Jahan, Khondker
    Rico, Andreu
    Measuring the potential for sustainable intensification of aquaculture in Bangladesh using life cycle assessment2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 12, p. 2958-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food production is a major driver of global environmental change and the overshoot of planetary sustainability boundaries. Greater affluence in developing nations and human population growth are also increasing demand for all foods, and for animal proteins in particular. Consequently, a growing body of literature calls for the sustainable intensification of food production, broadly defined as producing more using less. Most assessments of the potential for sustainable intensification rely on only one or two indicators, meaning that ecological trade-offs among impact categories that occur as production intensifies may remain unaccounted for. The present study addresses this limitation using life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify six local and global environmental consequences of intensifying aquaculture production in Bangladesh. Production data are from a unique survey of 2,678 farms, and results show multidirectional associations between the intensification of aquaculture production and its environmental impacts. Intensification (measured in material and economic output per unit primary area farmed) is positively correlated with acidification, eutrophication, and ecotoxicological impacts in aquatic ecosystems; negatively correlated with freshwater consumption; and indifferent with regard to global warming and land occupation. As production intensifies, the geographical locations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, acidifying emissions, freshwater consumption, and land occupation shift from the immediate vicinity of the farm to more geographically dispersed telecoupled locations across the globe. Simple changes in fish farming technology and management practices that could help make the global transition to more intensive forms of aquaculture be more sustainable are identified.

  • 18. Jansson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Andersen, Hans Estrup
    Hasler, Berit
    Höglind, Lisa
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can investments in manure technology reduce nutrient leakage to the Baltic Sea?2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1264-1277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, quantitative models of the agricultural sector and nutrient transport and cycling are used to analyse the impacts in the Baltic Sea of replacing the current Greening measures of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy with a package of investments in manure handling. The investments aim at improving nutrient utilization and reducing nitrogen leaching, based on the assumption that lagging farms and regions can catch up with observed good practice. Our results indicate that such investments could reduce nitrogen surpluses in agriculture by 18% and nitrogen concentrations in the Baltic Sea by 1 to 9% depending on the basin. The Greening measures, in contrast, are found to actually increase nitrogen leaching.

  • 19.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Risk Management Under Uncertainty: Strategies for protecting health and the environment1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with problems related to the management of environmental and health risks and problems. The general hypothesis of this work was that there are possibilities of making considerable improvements in the decision analysis and management of complicated environmental and health risks and problems. Specific attention has been paid to decision-situations involving great uncertainty and to how different decision-makers handle these extraordinarily difficult risk management situations. The studies focus on the risk management of the threat of anthropogenic climate change and chemical hazards, and on the legal and administrative risk management system in Sweden.

    A general conclusion is that there is room for considerable improvement in the risk management of environmental and health risks in the investigated areas. Increased use of decision theory and development of priority-setting strategies are two important tools for such improvement. Further, increased attention to the following issues will also contribute to improved risk managment: 1) the demarcation of the analysis, 2) surprises and worst cases, 3) separation and identification of scientific and non-scientific issues, 4) the distribution of the burden of proof, and 5) the scientists' and regulators' different roles.

    It can be concluded from the experience reported in the four papers in this thesis that it is fruitful to combine different perspectives when studying risks and the management of risk in a comprehensive approach. Three perspectives have been identified and used: (I) the actor perspective, (II) the cause perspective and (III) the risk/problem perspective. The three perspectives complement each other by giving different kinds of information eventhough they are closely linked together. A general model applicable to all kinds of risks has been developed. It serves to conceptualize the three perspectives and the three levels where it is possible to take action against risks/problems. Papers II and IV are detailed studies of more narrow issues compared to the other two more comprehensive studies.

    In paper (I) we compare three legal and administrative systems of risk management in Sweden, namely those responsible for work environment, environmental protection, and chemicals control. Large differences were found in terms of the organizational structures and the general modi operandi of government activities in the three areas. Many of these differences seem to be the result, not of deliberate choice but rather of the lack of coordination between policy areas. It is concluded that systematic comparisons of experiences from different areas can be helpful in improving the efficiency of risk management.

    Paper (II) is a case study of how the Government, governmental agencies and private companies acted when a dye stuff and a chemical marking agent were introduced to the Swedish market. Their activities are compared to the Swedish act and ordinance on chemical products. The introduction of these chemicals was given big attention in the Swedish newspapers and other media during the winter of 1993/94 when several health problems were reported and related to these substances. It is concluded that the introduction of the chemicals did not comply with the Swedish chemicals legislation. The responsibility to make risk assessments and the reversed burden of proof principle are two fundamental bases of the legislation which were set aside. It is also concluded that the unusual actions and role of the Government in this decision process may explain the actions and positions of the authorities and the companies.

    Paper (III) is a decision-theoretical study of an extraordinary complex risk management and decision problem - the threat of an anthropogenic climate change. The problem involves a multitude of both natural and social causal factors and a large amount of scientific uncertainty. We found that the method used in all economic decision-studies of global warming that we are aware of is more risk-taking than the standard method used in risk analysis - the expected utility method. We argue that more attention should be paid in the scientific community to less probable but more serious effect scenarios and that a less risk-taking method of analysis should be used. We also argue that the standard method of discounting future costs is inadequate, misleading, and probably not consistent with the concept of sustainable development. We conclude that the principle of sustainable development, the scientific uncertainty, the risk of irreversible damages and the long time lag from negotiations to the point in time when most of the reversible damages will be gone, all together imply that we should reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and that we should act as soon as possible.

    Paper (IV) examines reasons for and the importance of analysing worst case scenarios and surprises in the area of anthropogenic climate change. Three main reasons are given for assuming that a worst case scenario may be realised: 1) The unpredictibility of the climate system, 2) historical experiences, and 3) conceivable severe scenarios and mechanisms. Although the uncertainty of surprises is huge by definition, and the probability of worst case scenarios cannot be assessed, there are reasons for and ways of incorporating them into the risk analysis. Not including them in the analysis could very well mean that the largest risk is excluded and that decision makers make a more risk-taking decision than they would otherwise have made. However, the IPCC (Intergovernmental panel on climate change) have avoided analysis of the possibility of worst case scenarios and major factors that could give rise to such scenarios. Possible reasons why the IPCC have not included them in their analysis are discussed.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Livsey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Guasconi, Daniela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Long-term soil organic carbon changes after cropland conversion to grazed grassland in Southern Sweden2024In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 40, no 1, article id e13004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing awareness of the potential value of agricultural land for climate change mitigation. In Sweden, cropland areas have decreased by approximately 30% over recent decades, creating opportunities for these former croplands to be managed for climate change mitigation by increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. One potential land-use change is conversion of cropland to grazed grasslands, but the long-term effect of such change in management is not well understood and likely varies with soil type and site-specific conditions. Through sampling of mineral and peatland soils within a 75-year chronosequence of land converted from crop production to grazed grassland, we assessed how time since conversion, catenary position, and soil depth affected SOC storage. The SOC stocks calculated at an equivalent soil or ash mass increased through time since conversion in mineral soils at all topographic positions, at a rate of ~0.65% year−1. Soils at low topographic positions gained the most carbon. Peat SOC stock gains after conversion were large, but only marginally significant and only when calculated at an equivalent ash mass. We conclude that the conversion of mineral soil to grazed grassland promotes SOC accumulation at our sites, but climate change mitigation potential would need to be evaluated through a full greenhouse gas balance.

  • 21.
    Kapás, Rozália E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Grassland restoration: Connectivity, plant community change and cows2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological significance of semi-natural grasslands is high because these habitats provide a home for a diverse flora and fauna and support a range of associated ecosystem services. Due to large-scale land-use changes the extent of grassland habitat has declined. Hence, restoration efforts to mitigate grassland losses are now being prioritized across the globe and there is an increasing need to understand the drivers behind the recovery of degraded habitats. Since many restoration initiatives rely on spontaneous dispersal of plant species from sources at both local- and landscape-scales, community assembly is influenced by a range of factors which interact both over time and across spatial scales. Given this complexity over the scales, gaps remain in our understanding of how post-restoration management can be designed to facilitate the effective dispersal and establishment of target species in restored grasslands.

    In this thesis, I examined colonization patterns in Swedish grasslands by comparing plant communities in both ancient and restored grasslands and under contrasting management regimes. At small spatial scales and over the short-term following restoration, I investigated species recruitment sources and their relative contribution to colonization and regeneration. At larger temporal and spatial scales, I examined how the composition of vegetation and seed bank communities is determined by local environmental factors together with distance to species pool and presence of grazing livestock.

    I found that species mostly colonized spatially from local species sources through seed rain. The seed bank contributed to species colonization to a greater extent in ancient grasslands than in restored grasslands. Management through livestock grazing and shorter distance to species pool were positively associated with the number of species found in grasslands. Grazing livestock facilitated target species establishment into restored sites and the differences between ancient and restored grassland communities were smaller when grazing was active, highlighting that ancient sites can provide a source of colonizing species for restored sites. I found that plant species associated with former land-use declined immediately following restoration, while the occurrence of target species generally increased. However, there was a high initial stochasticity in the establishment of the target species and communities in restored grasslands were still distinct from continuously managed sites even after several decades.

    These results demonstrate that species presence in nearby ancient grasslands and potential dispersal from the local seed sources drives species colonization in restored and ancient grasslands. Livestock grazing was shown to be an important driver of grassland recovery, either by mediating spatial dispersal of seeds or improving site conditions for establishment. Target species are able to accumulate in the vegetation and seed bank over the long-term, as restored grasslands age. This accumulation will ensure an increasing resilience of grassland communities against future disturbances or changes in the climate. However this depends upon active management, for example by implementing management plans which include continued livestock grazing, and upon conserving remaining ancient grasslands as hotspots for biodiversity within the wider landscape.

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  • 22. Karpa, Daniel S.
    et al.
    Mendenhall, Chase D.
    Callaway, Elizabeth
    Frishkoff, Luke O.
    Kareiva, Peter M.
    Ehrlich, Paul R.
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stanford University, USA.
    Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 35, p. 11132-11137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity's most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation.

  • 23.
    Lansing, J. Stephen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Santa Fe Institute, USA; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Complexity Science Hub Vienna, Austria.
    Thurner, Stefan
    Chung, Ning Ning
    Coudurier-Curveur, Aurelie
    Karakas, Cagil
    Fesenmyer, Kurt A.
    Chew, Lock Yue
    Adaptive self-organization of Bali's ancient rice terraces2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 25, p. 6504-6509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial patterning often occurs in ecosystems as a result of a self-organizing process caused by feedback between organisms and the physical environment. Here, we show that the spatial patterns observable in centuries-old Balinese rice terraces are also created by feedback between farmers' decisions and the ecology of the paddies, which triggers a transition from local to global-scale control of water shortages and rice pests. We propose an evolutionary game, based on local farmers' decisions that predicts specific power laws in spatial patterning that are also seen in a multispectral image analysis of Balinese rice terraces. The model shows how feedbacks between human decisions and ecosystem processes can evolve toward an optimal state in which total harvests are maximized and the system approaches Pareto optimality. It helps explain how multiscale cooperation from the community to the watershed scale could persist for centuries, and why the disruption of this self-organizing system by the Green Revolution caused chaos in irrigation and devastating losses from pests. The model shows that adaptation in a coupled human-natural system can trigger self-organized criticality (SOC). In previous exogenously driven SOC models, adaptation plays no role, and no optimization occurs. In contrast, adaptive SOC is a self-organizing process where local adaptations drive the system toward local and global optima.

  • 24. Liang, Kongqiu
    et al.
    Zhong, Junwei
    Zhao, Wanfu
    Song, Yinxian
    Chang, He
    Zhang, Shitao
    Chen, Zhong
    Zhou, Weiwei
    Ji, Junfeng
    Ayoko, Godwin A.
    Frost, Ray L.
    Belyazid, Salim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A modified critical load assessment method of heavy metals in paddy soil at large scale2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 416, article id 137825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental capacity of agro-ecosystem is the basis of sustainable development of agriculture, but this is hard to evaluate quantitatively due to complex input and output processes of heavy metals. Therefore, in this study, leaching of heavy metals based on PROFILE weathering model were integrated into the steady-state critical load (SSCL) of heavy metals. The results showed that the leaching rates of Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn in paddy soil were 0.08, 4.69, 0.22, 44.31, 18.13, 21.96 and 64.42 g/ha ‧a, respectively, while the leaching rates were significantly correlated with pH, CaO, TFe2O3 and Corg.. Atmospheric deposition was the main input source of heavy metals in agricultural soil, while rice plant uptake and leaching were the main output pathways. The spatial distribution of SSCL were mainly affected by the content of heavy metals in soil, Aw (specific area of soil mineral), and ρ (bulk density). Values of SSCL hardly changed after about 40 years (Hg≈0.02 kg/ha, As≈0.60 kg/ha, Cd≈0.07 kg/ha, Cr≈ 5.59 kg/ha, Pb≈3.55 kg/ha, Cu≈1.49 kg/ha and Zn≈4.45 kg/ha). However, the sensitivity analysis indicated that soil leaching had 24.30%-27.90% positive effects on SSCL model. Based on the relationship among leaching, pH, standard limit and SSCL of heavy metals, the standard limit could be appropriately raised to cope with the increased human activities on the premise of the ecological capacity. Thus, the SSCL model provides a new insight for the establishment of environment management in agricultural soils.

  • 25.
    Lindgren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Small remnant habitats: Important structures in fragmented landscapes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world-wide intensification of agriculture has led to a decline in species richness due to land use change, isolation, and fragmentation of natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural and forestry landscapes. As a consequence, there is a current landscape management focus on the importance of green infrastructure to mitigate biodiversity decline and preserve ecosystem functions e.g. pollination services and pest control. Even though intensification in agriculture has been ongoing for several hundreds of years, remnant habitats from earlier management practices may still be remaining with a surprisingly high plant richness. Preserving these habitats could help conserving plant species richness in agricultural landscapes, as well as other organisms that are dependent on plants for food and shelter.

    In this thesis I focus on two small remnant habitats; midfield islets and borders between managed forest and crop field in southeastern Sweden. In the past, both habitats were included in the grazing system and therefore often still have remnant population of grassland specialist species left today. I have used these two remnant habitats as model habitats to investigate the effect of landscape factors and local factors on species richness of plants, flower morphologies and plants with fleshy fruits. Additively, I analysed the effect of surrounding landscape and local openness on the functions; pollination success, biological pest control of aphids and seed predation on midfield islets.

    One of my studies showed that spatial distribution and size of the habitat affected plant species richness. Larger habitat size and higher connectivity between habitats increased species richness of plants in the habitats. Openness of the habitats was shown to be an important factor to increase species richness and richness of flower morphologies, both on midfield islets and in forest borders. Even though midfield islets had the highest species and morphology richness, both habitat types are needed for habitat complementary as forest borders have more plants with fleshy fruits and a higher richness of plant species that flowers in spring/early summer. It was also shown that a more complex forest border, not just with gaps in the canopy, but also with high variation in tree stem sizes increases plant species richness in the field layer. The conclusion is that by managing small remnant habitats to remain or become more semi-open and complex in their structure, would increase species richness of plants, grassland specialist species, and flower morphologies. It would also increase some ecosystem functions as seed predation and biologic pest control of aphids are more effective close to trees. If both midfield islets and forest borders would be managed to be semi-open, the area and connectivity of semi-open habitat would increase in the agricultural landscape, which may also improve pollination success as the connectivity between populations has a possibility to increase. Grassland specialist species are clearly abundant in the small remnant habitats. As the decline of semi-natural grasslands is causing a decline in grassland specialists’ species, not only plants, I recommend that small remnant habitats are included in conservation and management plans and strategies to improve habitat availability and connectivity for grassland species in agricultural landscapes.

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  • 26.
    Malmborg, Katja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How on Earth?: Operationalizing the ecosystem service concept for sustainability2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production landscapes are at the center of many of the sustainability challenges that we face. The ecosystem service concept has risen in prominence over the last decades as a tool to support sustainable landscape management. Stewardship has been suggested as an approach that individuals and groups of actors can practice when striving for sustainability in complex situations. In this thesis, I explore how the ecosystem service concept can be used as a tool to support the stewardship practices of various local actors who are engaging in sustainable landscape management. The core of this thesis is a participatory resilience assessment conducted together with a diverse group of actors, all involved in different forms of landscape management in the Helgeå catchment in Southern Sweden. In Paper I, I describe the participatory ecosystem service bundles analysis that was part of the process. In Paper II, I describe the process as a whole and show how participating supported learning and articulation of complexity thinking. In Paper III, I compare this process with three other knowledge co-production processes from the Helgeå catchment, and trace how different theoretical approaches led to both similar and diverging ecosystem service knowledge outputs. Finally, in Paper IV, I use a photo elicitation exercise to articulate different narratives of how sense of home motivates private, non-industrial forest owners in the Helgeå catchment to engage in stewardship practice.

    Together, these four papers show that the ecosystem service concept can support sustainability by facilitating knowledge co-production processes about complex challenges in landscape management. In such settings, it can function as a pedagogical tool and bridging concept. For participating civil servants, ecosystem service knowledge and terminology were also used strategically when communicating with actors in their own organizations, effectively influencing their situated agency to practice stewardship. Finally, the ecosystem service concept has the potential to be useful in the dialogue between private land owners and other actors. However, some pathways to stewardship, such as those rooted in a sense for history and community, would be better represented by other, more relational human-nature conceptualizations. This means that while the operationalization of the ecosystem service concept can contribute to stewardship practices in pursuit of sustainability, there are also important limitations that need to be taken into account in each context of use.

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  • 27.
    Malmborg, Katja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sinare, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ouedraogo, Issa
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multi-functionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  • 28.
    Nikkanen, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A wealth of soil: Social-ecological traps, economy and agency on Finnish farms2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food systems are facing increasing pressure to adapt to the local, regional and global implications of the climate crisis while reducing the environmental impacts of food production and retaining their competitiveness on increasingly connected agri-food markets. Many suggested aspects of a more resilient, sustainable model of food production are directly linked to decisions made on individual farms. However, there are known social-ecological traps that limit farmers’ capacity to break away from unsustainable paths. This thesis investigates the impact of trap dynamics on the incidence of sustainability transitions on Finnish farms – for example, transitions from animal to plant agriculture, or from monoculture to crop diversity. I use national tax records and interviews with regenerative farmers to identify patterns and circumstances that preclude farmers’ ability to carry out sustainability transitions, and to describe strategies used by regenerative farmers to enhance their agency and avert traps. My findings indicate that rigid governance and market structures, an increasing burden of debt and intensifying ecological pressures converge to create, sustain and exacerbate social-ecological traps. Finally, this thesis suggests that the existence of farm-level traps may hamper attempts to address food system lock- ins across scales, diminishing the system’s capacity to respond to shocks and changing circumstances.

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  • 29.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rickne, A.
    Governing innovation for sustainable technology: introduction and conceptual basis2012In: Paving the road to sustainable transport: governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson; Karl Hillman; Annika Rickne; Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30. Obia, Alfred
    et al.
    Borresen, Trond
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Mulder, Jan
    Vertical and lateral transport of biochar in light-textured tropical soils2017In: Soil & Tillage Research, ISSN 0167-1987, E-ISSN 1879-3444, Vol. 165, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field experiments were conducted in Arenosols (loamy fine sand) and Acrisols (sandy loam) in Zambia to quantify vertical and lateral transport of biochar (BC) using the BC and soil C-13 isotope signatures and total organic carbon contents. There were three experimental treatments composing of no BC, <= 0.5 and 0.5-1 mm BCs each with three replicates arranged in completely randomized design. The applied BCs were made from rice husk, except 0.5-1 mm BC in sandy loam, which was from maize cob. One year after mixing BC homogeneously in the 0-5 cm surface layer, soil down to 20 cm depth was sampled. The downward migration of BC was significant down to 8 cm depth in sandy loam and down to 6 cm in loamy fine sand. Below these depths, there was no significant difference in BC amounts between the BC amended and the reference plots. There was a general tendency for greater downward migration for the <= 0.5 mm than for 0.5-1 mm BC. Total BC recovery at 0-5 cm depth in the BC-treated soils amounted to 45-66% of the total applied amount of BC. As only 10-20% was recovered in the deeper soil layers, 24-45% of the applied BC could not be accounted for in the soil profile. Although, decomposition and downward migration to below 20 cm depth may contribute to the loss of BC from the surface soil, much can be attributed to lateral transfer through erosion. This is the first study that explicitly focuses on the theme of BC dispersion and shows that in Arenosols and Acrisols of the tropics, the downward migration of BC is limited.

  • 31. Obia, Alfred
    et al.
    Mulder, Jan
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Borresen, Trond
    In situ effects of biochar on aggregation, water retention and porosity in light-textured tropical soils2016In: Soil & Tillage Research, ISSN 0167-1987, E-ISSN 1879-3444, Vol. 155, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar (BC) has been reported to improve soil physical properties mainly in laboratory and greenhouse pot experiments. Here we study, under field conditions, the effect of BC and its particle sizes on soil aggregate stability, bulk density (BD), water retention, and pore size distribution in two experiments in Zambia. A) Farmer practice experiment in sandy loam with maize cob BC in conservation farming planting basins under maize and soybeans crops. B) Maize cob and rice husk BC particle size experiments (<= 0.5, 0.5-1 and 1-5 mm particle sizes) in loamy sand and sand. In the farmer practice experiment, BC increased aggregate stability by 7-9% and 17-20% per percent BC added under maize and soybeans crops respectively (p < 0.05) after two growing seasons. Total porosity and available water capacity (AWC) increased by 2 and 3% respectively per percent BC added (p < 0.05) under both crops, whereas BD decreased by 3-5% per percent BC added (p < 0.01). In the maize cob BC particle size experiment after one growing season, dose was a more important factor than particle size across the soils tested. Particle size of BC was more important in loamy sand than in sand, with <= 0.5 and 1-5 mm sizes producing the strongest effects on the measured properties. For example, BD decreased while total porosity increased (p < 0.01) for all BC particle sizes in sand whereas only 1-5 mm BC significantly decreased BD and increased total porosity in loamy sand (p < 0.05). However, AWC was significantly increased by only <= 0.5 and 1-5 mm BCs by 7-9% per percent BC added in both loamy sand and sand. Rice husk BC effect after one year followed similar pattern as maize cob BC but less effective in affecting soil physical properties. Overall, reduced density of soil due to BC-induced soil aggregation may aid root growth and with more water available, can increase crop growth and yields.

  • 32. Rahmati, Omid
    et al.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece; Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Chen, Wei
    Soleimanpour, Seyed Masoud
    Kapović-Solomun, Marijana
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kazemabady, Nader Kazemi
    Contribution of physical and anthropogenic factors to gully erosion initiation2022In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 210, article id 105925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Losses of large volumes of soil through gully formation lead to serious environmental, societal, and economic problems for human societies. This study establishes a framework based on an artificial intelligence approach to investigate the impact of geo-environmental and topo-hydrological factors on gully occurrences in the Biram region, Iran. The maximum entropy, random forest, and boosted regression trees machine-learning models were applied. The relative importance of variables (RIV) was then determined and gully erosion susceptibility maps were generated. Model results were evaluated using cutoff-dependent and -independent metrics. All models identified road construction as the main cause of gully formation in the study region (RVI ranged between 27% and 34%), and a medium contribution of distance from stream (RVI = 15-18%), lithology (RVI = 12-15%) and land use (RVI = 8-12%). Other factors such as drainage density, topographic wetness index, aspect, slope, profile curvature, elevation and plan curvature showed lower relative importance (RIV < 10%). Planners should pay attention to minimizing gully erosion along roads, so that river systems and downstream communities are adequately protected.

  • 33.
    Rocha, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Biggs, Oonsie
    Global Change Drivers of Regime ShiftsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abrupt ecological changes or regime shifts have been identified in many ecosystems, but there has been no systemic review to compare regime shifts and their drivers. We use network analysis to perform a comparative analysis of relationships among global change drivers and major ecological regime shifts. We assembled a database of 20 regime shifts and their drivers that spans marine, terrestrial and polar ecosystems. Our analysis reveals that regime shifts typically have multiple drivers (ranging from 2 to 19 in our dataset) that interact in a structured fashion: only 11 drivers cause from 25-60% of the regime shifts and interact with 50-85% of other drivers. Of the 55 drivers recorded, 11 drivers cause 25-60% of the regime shifts and interact with 50-85% of other drivers. Drivers related to agricultural activities and climate change are the most frequent drivers of regime shifts. Although equally important, indirect drivers seem to be underreported. We find that regime shifts in marine systems operate at similar scales due to similar feedback processes, while terrestrial regime shifts occur across a wider range of scales and are more context dependent. Regime shifts differ greatly in the scales at which their drivers can be managed, but most regime shifts are at least partially driven by global change drivers which cannot be managed locally, highlighting the importance of new scale-bridging polycentric approaches to avoid unwanted regime shifts.

  • 34.
    Rodil, Iván F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Attard, Karl M.
    Norkko, Joanna
    Glud, Ronnie N.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Towards a sampling design for characterizing habitat-specific benthic biodiversity related to oxygen flux dynamics using Aquatic Eddy Covariance2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0211673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aquatic Eddy Covariance (AEC) technique has emerged as an important method to quantify in situ seafloor metabolism over large areas of heterogeneous benthic communities, enabling cross-habitat comparisons of seafloor productivity. However, the lack of a corresponding sampling protocol to perform biodiversity comparisons across habitats is impeding a full assessment of marine ecosystem metabolism. Here, we study a range of coastal benthic habitats, from rocky-bed communities defined by either perennial macroalgae or blue mussel beds to soft-sediment communities comprised of either seagrass, patches of different macrophyte species or bare sand. We estimated that the maximum contribution to the AEC metabolic flux can be found for a seafloor area of approximately 80 m(2) with a 5 meter upstream distance of the instrument across all the habitats. We conducted a sampling approach to characterize and quantify the dominant features of biodiversity (i.e., community biomass) within the main seafloor area of maximum metabolic contribution (i.e., gross primary production and community respiration) measured by the AEC. We documented a high biomass contribution of the macroalgal Fucus vesiculosus, the seagrass Zostera marina and the macroinvertebrate Mytilus edulis to the net ecosystem metabolism of the habitats. We also documented a significant role of the bare sediments for primary productivity compared to vegetated canopies of the soft sediments. The AEC also provided insight into dynamic short-term drivers of productivity such as PAR availability and water flow velocity for the productivity estimate. We regard this study as an important step forward, setting a framework for upcoming research focusing on linking biodiversity metrics and AEC flux measurements across habitats.

  • 35.
    Sanchez Garcia, Paula Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology Education. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Political Economy of Deforestation of the Northwestern Colombian Amazon2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Amazon has experienced rapid forest loss in the past decades due to the growing colonization, infrastructure development and commercial agriculture expansion. Understanding the underlying social, political and economic drivers of deforestation is key to curb deforestation of the Amazon basin. However, analysis of deforestation has primarily been conducted in Brazil and there is a need to study this phenomenon in other countries such as Colombia. This research intends to contribute to this growing body of knowledge to better understand drivers and processes of deforestation in the Northwestern Colombian Amazon by unpacking the causal mechanism underpinning deforestation. To achieve this, I a used Theory-building Process-tracing approach to conceptualize the underlying logics of deforestation in the region. Data collection included qualitative text analysis of policy documents, articles, reports, and grey literature, and virtual semi-structured interviews with key national, regional and local actors. Interviews’ format was adapted due to current travelling and social restrictions. Findings indicate that the power vacuum resulting from FARC guerrilla demobilization acted as a window of opportunity for peasants, squatters, narco-traffickers, cattle ranchers, landlords and other investors to access public lands and capitalize from converting forests to coca crops and pastures for cattle ranching. Capital accumulation has increased actors’ ability to reshape the landscape and societal organization by accumulating different forms and sources of power. Traditional elites, and old and emerging narco-bourgeoisie have capitalized on preexisting power asymmetries by disproportionally accumulating different social power seeking to consolidate territorial hegemony. Powerful actors exercise attained sources and forms of power to dispose historically marginalized groups – such as indigenous communities, peasants, and squatters – from their means of subsistence and production, resulting in the instauration of a capitalist economy based on land rent and drug trafficking. All this has deepened forest loss, inequalities and conflict over land access between actors.

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  • 36. Schaeffer, Andreas
    et al.
    Groh, Ksenia J.
    Sigmund, Gabriel
    Azoulay, David
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Bertram, Michael G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Monash University, Australia.
    Almroth, Bethanie Carney
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Ford, Alex T.
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Guida, Yago
    Hansson, Maria C.
    Jeong, Yunsun
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Michaels, David
    Mueller, Leonie
    Muncke, Jane
    Oberg, Gunilla
    Orellana, Marcos A.
    Sanganyado, Edmond
    Schaefer, Ralf Bernhard
    Sheriff, Ishmail
    Sullivan, Ryan C.
    Suzuki, Noriyuki
    Vandenberg, Laura N.
    Venier, Marta
    Vlahos, Penny
    Wagner, Martin
    Wang, Fang
    Wang, Mengjiao
    Soehl, Anna
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Diamond, Miriam L.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Conflicts of Interest in the Assessment of Chemicals, Waste, and Pollution2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 48, p. 19066-19077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution by chemicals and waste impacts human and ecosystem health on regional, national, and global scales, resulting, together with climate change and biodiversity loss, in a triple planetary crisis. Consequently, in 2022, countries agreed to establish an intergovernmental science-policy panel (SPP) on chemicals, waste, and pollution prevention, complementary to the existing intergovernmental science-policy bodies on climate change and biodiversity. To ensure the SPP's success, it is imperative to protect it from conflicts of interest (COI). Here, we (i) define and review the implications of COI, and its relevance for the management of chemicals, waste, and pollution; (ii) summarize established tactics to manufacture doubt in favor of vested interests, i.e., to counter scientific evidence and/or to promote misleading narratives favorable to financial interests; and (iii) illustrate these with selected examples. This analysis leads to a review of arguments for and against chemical industry representation in the SPP's work. We further (iv) rebut an assertion voiced by some that the chemical industry should be directly involved in the panel's work because it possesses data on chemicals essential for the panel's activities. Finally, (v) we present steps that should be taken to prevent the detrimental impacts of COI in the work of the SPP. In particular, we propose to include an independent auditor's role in the SPP to ensure that participation and processes follow clear COI rules. Among others, the auditor should evaluate the content of the assessments produced to ensure unbiased representation of information that underpins the SPP's activities.

  • 37.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 24, p. 7369-7374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  • 38.
    Singh, Chandrakant
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rooting for forest resilience: Implications of climate and land-use change on the tropical rainforests2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical rainforests in the Amazon and Congo River basins and their climate are mutually dependent. Evaporation from these forests help regulate the regional and global water cycle. Furthermore, these rainforests themselves depend on precipitation to sustain their structure and functions. However, the rapid increase in human activities (such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation) has significantly changed the rainforests’ climate. Due to the effect of human-induced perturbations on moisture feedbacks (i.e., precipitation and evaporation patterns), these rainforests risk tipping to a savanna or treeless state.

    Understanding how these forests respond to climate change will aid in assessing their resilience to water-induced perturbations as well as in anticipating and preparing for potential tipping risks in the future. However, our understanding of how vegetation responds to climate change is fragmented, which limits our capacity to predict these risks. Previous studies have primarily relied on precipitation data to understand these forest-to-savanna transitions. However, ecosystem transition risks are also associated with water-stress, which depends on the vegetation’s capacity to adapt to drier conditions by storing water in its root zone. This thesis investigates the effect of hydroclimatic changes on root zone adaptation and its implications for forest resilience.

    Paper I uses remote sensing data to analyse water-stress and drought coping strategies across the rainforest-savanna transects. Paper II uses the root zone storage capacity to quantify the resilience of forest ecosystems. Using the empirical understanding of root zone forest dynamics and hydroclimatic estimates from Earth System Models, Paper III projects future forest transitions and estimates tipping risks by the end of the 21st century under four different shared socio-economic pathways. Paper IV uses atmospheric moisture tracking data to investigate the leverage landholders in South America have over precipitation and the resilience of forest ecosystems. 

    Papers I and II reveal the non-linear relationship between the ecosystem’s above-ground structure and root zone storage capacity. These studies indicate that, under hydroclimatic changes, the ecosystem’s root zone storage capacity is much more dynamic than its above-ground forest structure and is more representative of the ecosystem’s transient state than precipitation. Ignoring this root zone adaptive capacity can underestimate forest resilience, primarily observed in the Congo rainforest. Paper III projects that the risk of forest-savanna transition will increase with climate change severity, most prominently observed in the Amazon rainforest. Paper IV finds that all landholders have equal leverage over the moisture precipitating locally and over farther-downwind land systems. According to this study, smallholders have a disproportionately larger influence over forest rainfall. However, large landholders have a larger influence on forest resilience as well as over the moisture precipitating on croplands and pastures. These results warrant the need for policies to factor in the impact of deforestation on downwind actors and promote effective ecosystem stewardship. The insights from this thesis highlight the importance of understanding and assessing ecosystem dynamics under a rapidly changing climate for strengthening management and conservation efforts across the globe. 

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  • 39. Springmann, Marco
    et al.
    Clark, Michael
    Mason-D'Croz, Daniel
    Wiebe, Keith
    Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon
    Lassaletta, Luis
    de Vries, Wim
    Vermeulen, Sonja J.
    Herrero, Mario
    Carlson, Kimberly M.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden..
    DeClerck, Fabrice
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Zurayk, Rami
    Scarborough, Peter
    Rayner, Mike
    Loken, Brent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. EAT, Norway.
    Fanzo, Jess
    Godfray, H. Charles J.
    Tilman, David
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Willett, Walter
    Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits2018In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 562, no 7728, p. 519-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50-90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity. We analyse several options for reducing the environmental effects of the food system, including dietary changes towards healthier, more plant-based diets, improvements in technologies and management, and reductions in food loss and waste. We find that no single measure is enough to keep these effects within all planetary boundaries simultaneously, and that a synergistic combination of measures will be needed to sufficiently mitigate the projected increase in environmental pressures.

  • 40. Teixeira, Fernando
    et al.
    Lemann, Tatenda
    Ferreira, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece; Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Glavan, Matjaž
    Zoltán, Tóth
    Hermann, Tamás
    Lipiec, Jerzy
    Frąc, Magdalena
    Reintam, Endla
    Xu, Minggang
    Fan, Hongzhu
    Ritsema, Coen
    Evidence of non-site-specific agricultural management effects on the score of visual soil quality indicators2023In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 474-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates 11 agricultural management practices (AMPs) and their effects on seven visual soil quality indicators and soil aggregate stability. The survey carried out across eight pedoclimatic zones in Europe and China was based on visual soil assessments (New Zealand VSA method) performed on soils subject to different soil management practices and nearby similar soils, under similar farming features, without the distinctive soil management practice (control). Fisher's exact test was used to test if the management treatment was independent of the score of each visual soil quality indicator and to test if the management treatment produced a higher frequency of the score ‘good’. The results showed a statistically significant (α < .05) higher frequency of the score ‘good’ for ‘soil structure and consistency’ and/or ‘soil porosity’ for six AMPs. For no-till AMP, the null hypothesis can also be rejected for ‘susceptibility to erosion’ and ‘soil stability’ and for ‘mulching + permanent soil cover’ AMP, for the ‘presence of tillage pan’ and ‘soil colour’. The hypothesis that the management treatment was independent of the score of each indicator was rejected for ‘soil structure and consistency’ of three AMPs, for ‘soil porosity’ of three AMPs, for ‘soil colour’ of one AMP and for the ‘presence of tillage pan’ of one AMP. This study demonstrates that farming systems sharing a common influential soil management practice at different locations and with different soil types significantly affect the score of some visual soil quality indicators. 

  • 41. Temesgen, Melesse
    et al.
    Savenije,, H. H. G.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hoogmoed, W. B.
    Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield, water balance and water productivity2012In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 47-48, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Maresha, the traditional Ethiopian plow, requires repeated cross-plowing which causes increased surface runoff, less infiltration and hence lower water availability to crops. The main reasons for increased surface runoff and reduced infiltration are plowing along the slope and the formation of a plow pan at shallow depths. Conservation tillage is seen as a way to alleviate these problems. The widely advocated zero-tillage, however, is not feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining adequate soil cover, the practice of communal grazing, and high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems, on the other hand, may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems and to evaluate the impacts of new tillage systems on the water balance and grain yields of maize. Experiments have been conducted in a semi-arid area called Melkawoba in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems involved cultivation along planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) or without subsoiling (ST). Results have been compared with traditional tillage involving 3–4 overpasses with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture has been monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) while surface runoff has been measured using a specially designed rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs = 18 mm season−1) and the highest grain yields (= 2130 kg ha−1) followed by ST (Qs = 26 mm season−1, = 1840 kg ha−1) and CONV (Qs = 43 mm season−1, = 1720 kg ha−1) provided sowing was carried out within a week after subsoiling. Thus, STS resulted in the highest water productivity, WP = 0.60 kg m−3, followed by ST (WP = 0.52 kg m−3) and CONV (WP = 0.48 kg m−3). The main conclusion of the paper is that even in dry areas reasonable yields can be obtained provided moisture conservation in the root zone is guaranteed. In this regard subsoiling is essential. Moreover, it is concluded that the time between subsoiling and planting is a key factor and should not exceed one week.

  • 42.
    Thedvall, Renita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Does the Stakeholder Need to be a Member? The Case of Fairtrade International (FLO)2011In: Workshop Constructing Stakeholders: Organising, Categorising, and Mobilising the Legitimate Participants, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within various forms of decision-making and rule-setting, such astransnational standard setting,the notion of stakeholder involvement has a stronghold (see, for example, Boström & Tamm Hallström 2009). The idea of stakeholder involvement is widespreadbut its effects will vary across different usages and contexts. This paper draws on the result of a study on the Fairtrade International (FLO) and their work developing criteria, standards and principles forthe Fairtrade label.In this case, thestakeholder category involves those who are affected or can be affected by FLO’s action; theyhave a stakein the issues discussed and decided by FLO. Thus,stakeholderscould potentially referto a very large group ofpeople. Still, what is a stakeholder in practice? In this paper Idiscuss the notion of a stakeholder in relation to membership in the FLO. Within the FLO organisation stakeholdershave eventually been involved as members of FLO.I discussthe implications of this shift in meaning by looking atthe inclusion of the producer networks in Africa, Asia and Latin America as members in 2008. This meant that theseproducer networksmoved from the category of stakeholder to the category of member/stakeholder. Furthermore, I show how the stakeholder consultations on the New Standards Framework of FLO during the summerof 2010,in practice,meant consultation between the members. Sincestakeholders may involve actors both within andoutside an organisation, this paper discusseswhat it means when theonlystakeholdersthat are authorizedby FLO,in practice,are the same as the members. Furthermore, it discusses the relation between stakeholder and member and how the conditions for stakeholder involvementchange when stakeholdersbecome members. The issues explored in this paper relate to:the requirements for becoming a memberand what membership means in terms of loyalty or critical capacity towards FLO; as well as issues related to the double membershipof stakeholder members, being members of FLO and the company/organization they work forat the same time.

  • 43.
    Thorslund, Josefin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    Jawitz, James W.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Creed, Irena F.
    Rains, Mark C.
    Badiou, Pascal
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Solute evidence for hydrological connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 3954-3962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological connectivity describes the water-mediated transfer of mass, energy, and organisms between landscape elements and is the foundation for understanding how individual elements such as wetlands and streams integrate to support ecosystem services and nature-based solutions in the landscape. Hydrological connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs)-that is, wetlands without persistent surface water connections-is particularly poorly understood. To better understand GIW hydrological connectivity, we use a novel chloride mass-balance approach to quantify the local runoff generation (defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, assuming negligible long-term water storage) for 260 GIW subcatchments across North America. To evaluate hydrological connectivity, we compare the estimated local runoff from GIW subcatchments with the catchment-average runoff. These comparisons provide three novel insights regarding the magnitude and variability of GIW hydrological connectivity. First, across 10 study regions, GIW subcatchments generate runoff at 120% of the mean catchment rate, implying they are well-connected elements of the larger hydrologic landscape. Second, there is substantial heterogeneity in runoff generation among GIW subcatchments, which may enable support for a wide array of ecosystem functions and services. Finally, observed heterogeneity in runoff generation was largely uncorrelated to simple linear geographic predictors, indicating that GIW landscape position cannot reliably predict hydrological connectivity. In stark contrast to a priori legal assumptions that GIWs exhibit low or no hydrological connectivity, our results suggest that GIW subcatchments are active landscape features in runoff generation.

  • 44.
    Waldén, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Restoration of semi-natural grasslands: Impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem services and stakeholder perceptions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans play a major role shaping the living conditions for not only ourselves, but also all other species on Earth. In fact, some species-rich habitat types require human management to uphold the biodiversity and related ecosystem services. One of the world’s most biodiverse habitats on small spatial scales, semi-natural grasslands, have been formed over the course of centuries through extensive grazing and mowing. However, due to political and economic reasons, up to 90% of the European semi-natural grasslands have been lost during the 20th century. To counteract these drastic losses, restoration actions are implemented in environmental policies across Europe. Yet, knowledge of the long-term restoration effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services is still limited. The vast need for future restoration also requires a better understanding of how different pre-conditions affect the restoration outcome, as well as how stakeholders perceive restoration, to be able to prioritise between sites and recognise the limitations of the restoration process. In this thesis, I examine restoration outcomes in Swedish semi-natural grasslands, in terms of plant diversity, associated ecosystem services and from the farmers’ and land-owners’ perspective. The outcome is also analysed in relation to environmental factors at the local and landscape scale. I found that the overall community composition recovered to resemble intact reference communities, but it took relatively long time (12-20 years). Moreover, the reference sites still had higher species richness both at large and small spatial scales, more grassland specialist species and a higher abundance of plant species important to the five tested ecosystem services (meat production, pollination, water retention, temperature regulation and cultural heritage). My results show that prioritising large, unfertilised, newly abandoned grasslands situated in landscapes containing a large grassland specialist species pool and high amounts of intact and remnant semi-natural grasslands, could speed up the plant recovery. However, prioritising fast results does not necessarily ensure long-term success at a larger spatial scale. Since restoration success can be interpreted differently depending on evaluation measure used, pre-defined, clear and realistic goals are essential. While the surveyed farmers and landowners overall perceived the restoration as successful, 40% were unsure whether the grasslands will be managed in the future. Low profitability still poses a threat to their maintenance and thus, also to the coupled biodiversity and ecosystem services. Policy changes are therefore urgently needed to facilitate incentives for sustained management of restored and intact European semi-natural grasslands in a long-term perspective.

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