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  • 1. Aaberge, Rolf
    et al.
    Bourguignon, François
    Brandolini, Andrea
    Ferreira, Francisco H. G.
    Gornick, Janet G.
    Hills, John
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jenkins, Stephen P.
    Marlier, Eric
    Micklewright, John
    Nolan, Brian
    Piketty, Thomas
    Radermacher, Walter J.
    Smeeding, Timothy M.
    Stern, Nicholas H.
    Stiglitz, Joseph
    Sutherland, Holly
    Tony Atkinson and his Legacy2017In: The Review of Income and Wealth, ISSN 0034-6586, E-ISSN 1475-4991, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 411-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tony Atkinson is universally celebrated for his outstanding contributions to the measurement and analysis of inequality, but he never saw the study of inequality as a separate branch of economics. He was an economist in the classical sense, rejecting any sub-field labelling of his interests and expertise, and he made contributions right across economics. His death on 1 January 2017 deprived the world of both an intellectual giant and a deeply committed public servant in the broadest sense of the term. This collective tribute highlights the range, depth and importance of Tony's enormous legacy, the product of almost fifty years’ work.

  • 2.
    Aalto, Aino-Maija
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Müller, Dagmar
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN Stockholm), Sweden.
    Tilley, Lucas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    From Epidemic to Pandemic: Did the COVID-19 Outbreak Affect High School Program Choices in Sweden?2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study whether the onset of the COVID-19 crisis affected the program choices of highschool applicants in Sweden. Our analysis exploits the fact that the admission processconsists of two stages: a preliminary round in which applicants rank programs in orderof preference and a final round in which they have full flexibility to alter their preliminaryrankings. In 2020, the timing of the two rounds happened to provide a unique pre- and post-crisis snapshot of applicants’ preferences for various fields of study. Using school-leveldata on applicants’ top-ranked programs for all admission rounds between 2016 and 2020,we implement a difference-in-differences method to identify the immediate effect of thecrisis on program preferences. We find no change in preferences for academic programs,but a decline in top-ranked applications to some of the vocational programs. The declinesare most pronounced and robust for several service-oriented programs, in particular thoserelated to hotel and restaurant, which was the most adversely affected industry during thecrisis. This finding suggests that labor market considerations influence the study choicesmade by relatively young students.

  • 3.
    Abril-Ojeda, Galo
    Stockholm University.
    The role of disaster relief for long-term development in LDCs: with special reference to Guatemala after the 1976 earthquake1982Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 4. Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bursztyn, Leonardo
    Hemous, David
    The Environment and Directed Technical Change2012In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 131-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. The final good is produced from dirty and clean inputs. We show that: (i) when inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable growth can be achieved with temporary taxes/subsidies that redirect innovation toward clean inputs; (ii) optimal policy involves both carbon taxes and research subsidies, avoiding excessive use of carbon taxes; (iii) delay in intervention is costly, as it later necessitates a longer transition phase with slow growth; and (iv) use of an exhaustible resource in dirty input production helps the switch to clean innovation under laissez-faire.

  • 5.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    MIT.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bursztyn, Leonardo
    Harvard.
    Hemous, David
    Harvard.
    The Environment and Directed Technical Change2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the case where the inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable long-run growth can be achieved with temporary taxation of dirty innovation and production; (ii) optimal policy involves both “carbon taxes” and research subsidies, so that excessive use of carbon taxes is avoided; (iii) delay in intervention is costly: the sooner and the stronger is the policy response, the shorter is the growth transition phase; (iv) the use of an exhaustible resource in dirty input production helps the switch to clean innovation under laissez-faire when the two inputs are substitutes. Under reasonable parameter values and with sufficient substitutability between inputs, it is optimal to redirect technical change towards clean technologies immediately and optimal environmental regulation need not reduce long-run growth.

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  • 6.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    MIT Department of Economics.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Griffith, Rachel
    UCL.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence2010In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 989-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    Agency Costs in the Process of Development1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze an economy where production is subject to moral hazard. The degree of the incentive (agency) costs introduced by the presence of moral hazard naturally depends on the information structure in the economy; it is cheaper to induce correct incentives in a society which posesses better ex post information. The degree of ex post information depends on the number of projects and entrepreneurs in the economy; the more projects, the better the information. This implies that at the early stages of development, the range of projects and the amount of information are limited and agency costs are high. Since the information created by a project is an externality on others, the decentralized economy is constrained inefficient; in particular, it does not 'experiment' enough. The analysis of the role of information also opens the way to an investigation of the development of financial institutions. We contrast the information aggregation role of stock markets and information production role of banks. Because the amount of available information increases with development, our model predicts the pattern of financial development observed in practice; banks first and stock markets later.

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  • 8.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Masachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Information Accumulation in Development1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a model in which economic relations and intritutions in advanced and less developed countries differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developed economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of manager, and leads to high "agency costs". Differences in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate information partly because the scarcity of capital restricts the repetition of various activities. Two implications of our model are: (i) as an economy develops and generates more information, it achieves better risk-sharing at a given level of effort, but because agents are exerting more effort and the types of activities are changing, the overall level of risk-sharing may decline; (ii) with development, the share of financial intermediation carried out through market institutions should increase.

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  • 9.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Productivity Differences1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many technologies used by the LDCs are developed in the OECD economies, and as such, are designed to make optimal use of the skills of these richer countries' workforces. Due to differences in the supply of skills, some of the tasks performed by skilled workers in the OECD economies will be carried out by unskilled workers in the LDCs. Since the technologies in these tasks are designed to be used by skilled workers, productivity in the LDCs will be low. Even when all countries have equal access to new technologies, this mismatch between skills and technology can lead to sizable differences in total factor productivity and output per worker. Our theory also suggests that productivity differences should be highest in medium-tech sectors, and that the trade regime and the degree of intellectual property right enforcement in the LDCs have an important effect on the direction of technical change and on productivity differences.

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  • 10. Ade, Florian
    et al.
    Freier, Ronny
    Odendahl, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Incumbency effects in government and opposition: Evidence from Germany2014In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 36, p. 117-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do district incumbents in an election have an advantage, and if so, do these advantages depend on which party is in government? We estimate the incumbency effect for the direct district candidates in German federal and state elections using a regression discontinuity design (RDD). When studying the heterogeneity in these effects, we find that incumbents from both large parties, the center-right CDU and the center-left SPD, have an advantage only if the SPD is in government. This effect is robust and shows even in state elections that are unrelated to federal elections.

  • 11. Adenfelt, Oskar
    et al.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    ”Vi har tre förslag på hur ensamkommande flickors etablering i samhället kan stärkas”2018In: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12. Adolfson, Malin
    et al.
    Laseen, Stefan
    Linde, Jesper
    Svensson, Lars E. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; NBER, United States.
    Monetary policy trade-offs in an estimated open-economy DSGE model2014In: Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, ISSN 0165-1889, E-ISSN 1879-1743, Vol. 42, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the trade-offs between stabilizing CPI inflation and alternative measures of the output gap in Ramses, the Riksbank's estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model of a small open economy. Our main finding is that the trade-off between stabilizing CPI inflation and the output gap strongly depends on which concept of potential output in the output gap between output and potential output is used in the loss function. If potential output is defined as a smooth trend this trade-off is much more pronounced compared to the case when potential output is defined as the output level that would prevail if prices and wages were flexible.

  • 13. Adolfson, Malin
    et al.
    Laséen, Stefan
    Lindé, Jesper
    Svensson, Lars E. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Optimal Money Policy in an Operational Medium-Sized DSGE Model2011In: Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, ISSN 0022-2879, E-ISSN 1538-4616, Vol. 43, p. 1287-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how to construct optimal policy projections in Ramses, the Riksbank's open-economy medium-sized dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model for forecasting and policy analysis. Bayesian estimation of the parameters of the model indicates that they are relatively invariant to alternative policy assumptions and supports our view that the model parameters may be regarded as unaffected by the monetary policy specification. We discuss how monetary policy, and in particular the choice of output gap measure, affects the transmission of shocks. Finally, we use the model to assess the recent Great Recession in the world economy and how its impact on the economic development in Sweden depends on the conduct of monetary policy. This provides an illustration on how Rames incoporates large international spillover effects.

  • 14.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Fiscal Policy when Monetary Policy is Tied to the Mast1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the time inconsistency problem of both exchange rate and fiscal policy in a small open economy. The equilibrium under discretion is characterised by inflation and a deficit. Commitment of the exchange-rate instrument only, e.g., through membership in a European monetary union with low inflation, contributes to price stability but increases the deficit. Whether the government will prefer this outcome to the discretionary one depends on the structure of the economy: commitment appears more favourable, the more open is the economy. The time-consistency arguments strengthen the case for simultaneous commitment of monetary and fiscal policy for inflation-prone countries joining a monetary union.

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  • 15.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dillén, Mats
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Macroeconomic Externalities: Are Pigovian Taxes the Answer?1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic welfare economics tells us that many types of externalities can be remedied by proper use of corrective taxes and subsidies. This paper shows that this notion also extends to the macroeconomic externalities discussed in recent Keynesian literature on nominal price rigidities. The derived policy rules are lindred in spirit to standard Keynesian policy prescriptions: Progressive income taxes may serve a useful role in combating wasteful economic fluctuations. However, unlike older fix-price models of automatic stabilizers, progressive taxes work in our monopolistic economy because they directly affect the pricing mechanism.

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  • 16.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lommerud, Kjell Erik
    Department of Economics, University of Bergen.
    Egalitarianism and Growth1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Are competitive wage premia an obstacle to growth? The answer of the architects of the Scandinavian "model" in the 1950s and 60s was in the affirmative: By punishing expansive and growth enhancing sectors of the economy competitive wage premia put an unwarranted drag on the rate of structural change. We formalize this intuition using a two sector endogenous growth model, considering both open and closed economy cases. We also show that egalitarian pay compression, combined with active labor market policies, works exactly in the same way as an industrial policy of subsidizing sunrise industries.

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  • 17.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lundborg, Per
    Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research.
    Wage Fairness and International Trade Theory and Policy1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how an extended theory of fair wages, in which workers also care about the functional distribution of income, can be incorporated in the two-by-two Heckscher-Ohlin model. An important feature of the model is the existence of involuntary unemployment. Several results stand out. First, there is no longer a simple relation between measures of factor abundance and trade patterns. First, there is no longer a simple relation between measures of factor abundance and trade patterns. Second, factor-price equalization will generally not occur. Third, differences in social norms explain why terms of trade shocks produce nonuniform adjustments in real wages and unemployment across otherwise similar countries. Fourth, losses from trade may occur. Finally, in countries where fairness considerations are important, tariffs may increase overall employment.

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  • 18.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Asset Markets, Tax Arbitrage, and the Redistributive Properties of Progressive Income Taxation1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that tax arbitrage is anti-egalitarian. The present paper shows that this is not necessarily true; tax arbitrage might actually reduce inequality as well as increase efficiency. It is also shown that the introduction of tax arbitrage will linearize the tax system. Thus complicated, non-linear tax scedules in the spirit of Mirrlees (1971) cannot be sustained.

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  • 19.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Does Debt Management Matter?1989Report (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    On the Analytics of the Dynamic Laffer Curve2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze government budget balance within a simple model of endogenous growth. For the AK model, simple analytical conditions for a tax cut to be self-financing can be derived. The critical variable is not the tax rate per se, but the "transfer-adjusted tax rate". We discuss some conceptual issues in dynamic revenue analysis, and we explain why previous studies have arrived at seemingly contradictory results. Finally, we perform an empirical study of the transfer-adjusted tax rates of the OECD countries to see which country has the highest potential for fiscal improvements; it turns out that only a few countries have any potential for such "dynamic scoring".

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  • 21.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Tax Arbitrage and Labor Supply1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the basic labor supply model. We show that tax arbitrage has potentially dramatic implications for positive, normative and econometric analysis of how taxes affect work incentives.

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  • 22.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Sacklén, Hans
    Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
    Labor Supply Prediction when Tax Avoidance Matters1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the emipircal study of labor supply. We discuss the implications for tax policy analysis, and we show that a failure to account for avoidance responses may lead to huge errors when predicting how tax reform affects labor supply, tax revenue, and the welfare cost of taxation. in conclusion we argue that our model may explain a number of otherwise hard to understand dimensions of tax payer response.

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  • 23. Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Håfström Dehdari, Sirus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Does Election Salience Affect Immigrant Voter Turnout?2020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rising levels of cross-border migration, many democratic countries have extended local voting rights to non-naturalized immigrants in recent decades. However, the low turnout of enfranchised immigrants in these elections has come as a disappointment to the advocates of such reforms. In this study, we examine whether the low turnout can be explained by the low salience of local elections. Based on a regression discontinuity design and using high-quality Swedish registry data, we find this to be the case. According to our results, the average likelihood of voting increases by 10-20 percentage points once immigrants become eligible to vote in national elections. We demonstrate too that this effect is not driven by the acquisition of citizenship per se, and that the individual characteristics of immigrants cannot explain their overall lower rate of voter turnout.

  • 24. Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Erixson, Oscar
    Jans, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Öhman, Mattias
    Toxic Metal Injustice? Socioeconomic Status at Birth and Proximity to Airborne Contamination2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     We study airborne levels of three toxic metals -- arsenic, lead, and mercury -- and ask whether geographical closeness to contamination of these metals is unequally distributed within the population of newborn children. We answer this question by applying registry data from Sweden and data on airborne pollution for the years 1992--2014. Exposure to arsenic, lead, and mercury has previously been linked to negative health effects including worse cognitive development. However, we find no evidence that closeness to contamination is associated with socioeconomic status at the place of residence at birth. This leads us to conclude that environmental injustice with regard to mercury, lead or arsenic contamination is negligible. The likely explanation is that contamination is not visible enough, and therefore not sufficiently salient, to result in residential sorting.

  • 25.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Algan, Yann
    Sciences Po.
    Cahuc, Pierre
    Ecole Polytechnique.
    Civil Society and the State: The Interplay between Cooperation and Minimum Wage Regulation2011In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 3-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Algan, Yann
    Department of Economics, Sciences Po.
    Cahuc, Pierre
    Ecole Polytechnique.
    Schleifer, Andrei
    Harvard Economics Department.
    Regulation and Distrust2010In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 1015-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Bergeaud, Antonin
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Klenow, Peter J.
    Li, Huiyu
    A Theory of Falling Growth and Rising Rents2023In: The Review of Economic Studies, ISSN 0034-6527, E-ISSN 1467-937X, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 2675-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth has fallen in the U.S. amid a rise in firm concentration. Market share has shifted to low labour share firms, while within-firm labour shares have actually risen. We propose a theory linking these trends in which the driving force is falling overhead costs of spanning multiple products or a rising efficiency advantage of large firms. In response, the most efficient firms (with higher markups) spread into new product lines, thereby increasing concentration and generating a temporary burst of growth. Eventually, due to greater competition from efficient firms, within-firm markups and incentives to innovate fall. Thus our simple model can generate qualitative patterns in line with the observed trends. 

  • 28.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dewatripont, Mathias
    ECARES, Free U Brussels.
    Kolev, Julian
    Harvard University.
    Murray, Fiona
    MIT.
    Stern, Scott
    Northwestern University.
    The Public and Private Sectors in the Process of Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Mouse Genetics Revolution2010In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 153-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Holden, Richard
    University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
    Incomplete Contracts and the Theory of the Firm: What Have We Learned over the Past 25 Years?2011In: Journal of Economic Perspectives, ISSN 0895-3309, E-ISSN 1944-7965, Vol. 25, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Ahlin, Christian
    et al.
    Gulesci, Selim
    Madestam, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stryjan, Miri
    Loan contract structure and adverse selection: Survey evidence from Uganda2020In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 172, p. 180-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While adverse selection is an important theoretical explanation for credit rationing it is difficult to quantify empirically. Many studies measure the elasticity of credit demand of existing or previous borrowers as opposed to the population at large; other studies use cross-sectional approaches that may confound borrower risk with other factors. We circumvent both issues by surveying a representative sample of microenterprises in urban Uganda and by measuring their responses to multiple hypothetical contract offers, varying in interest rates and collateral requirements. The two seminal theories on selection provide contradicting predictions following a change in the contractual terms. Under adverse selection, a lower interest rate or a lower collateral obligation should increase take up among less risky borrowers. By contrast, advantageous selection implies that take up should increase among the riskier borrowers. We test these two predictions by examining if firm owners respond to changes in the interest rate or the collateral requirement and whether higher take up varies by firms' risk type. We find support for the presence of adverse selection as contracts with lower interest rates or lower collateral obligations increase hypothetical demand - especially for less risky firms. Our results imply that changes to the standard loan product available to microenterprises may have substantial effects on credit demand.

  • 31.
    Ahlinder, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Centre for Commercial Law.
    Granath Hansson, Anna
    Hur kan förutsättningarna för att fler ska kunna bo i socialt hållbara bogemenskaper förbättras? En litteraturgenomgång av potentiella initiativtagare, samarbetspartners och legala förhållanden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker möjligheten att utveckla bogemenskaper till en ekonomiskt mer åtkomlig och socialt inkluderande boendeform för en bredare del av befolkningen i Sverige. Syftet är att bidra med ökad kunskap om hur de svenska förutsättningarna för att fler ska kunna bo i socialt hållbara bogemenskaper kan förbättras. Studien baseras på en systematisk litteraturöversikt och fokuserar på tre teman: potentiella initiativtagare, samarbetsaktörer och juridiska förutsättningar. Studien redovisas i denna rapport. Rapporten inleds med en redogörelse av bogemenskapers utveckling över tid i Sverige. Därefter ges en sammanställning av vilka hinder och potentiella lösningar för att utveckla boendeformen till en mer socialt och ekonomiskt hållbar boendeform som diskuterats i svenska rapporter, utredningar och forskningsprojekt. Utifrån den lösnings- och problembild som identifierats genom den svenska sammanställningen analyseras sedan frågorna utifrån hur de behandlats i europeisk samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, samt rättsvetenskaplig forskning i andra västerländska rättsordningar.

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  • 32. Ahlquist, John S.
    et al.
    Downey, Mitch
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    The Effects of Import Competition on Unionization2023In: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, ISSN 1945-7731, E-ISSN 1945-774X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 359-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study direct and indirect effects of Chinese import competition on union membership in the United States, 1990–2014. Import competition in manufacturing induced a modest decline in unionization within manufacturing industries. The magnitude is small because unionized manufacturers competed in higher-quality product segments. Manufacturers in right-to-work states experienced more direct competition with low-quality Chinese imports. Outside of manufacturing, however, import competition causes an important increase in union membership, as less educated women shift away from retail and toward jobs in health care and education where unions are stronger. We calculate that Chinese imports prevented 26 percent of the union density decline that would have otherwise occurred.

  • 33. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Lundahl, Mats
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ethnic Discrimination During the Covid-19 Pandemic2023In: Migration and Integration in a Post-Pandemic World: Socioeconomic Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Lin Leopold; Örjan Sjöberg; Karl Wennberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2023, p. 291-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic discrimination is common in labor and housing markets. It leads to lower wages and higher unemployment for ethnic minorities, to segregation in the labor market, and to residential segregation. Several studies show that the Covid-19 pandemic increased the extent of ethnic discrimination. The prejudice against hiring migrants may have increased because people from countries where the epidemic started or from countries with a lower vaccination coverage were blamed for the spread. It may also have increased in the cases where the Covid-19 pandemic led to higher unemployment making it less costly for employers to discriminate.

  • 34. Ahmed, Imaduddin
    et al.
    Parikh, Priti
    Munezero, Parfait
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Ericsson, Sweden.
    Sianjase, Graham
    Coffman, D'Maris
    The impact of power outages on households in Zambia2023In: Economia Politica, ISSN 1120-2890, E-ISSN 1973-820X, no 40, p. 835-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As global average temperatures rise, so does the frequency and intensity of El Niño-induced droughts, which in turn threaten the reliability of hydropower. 1.4 billion people live in countries where hydropower constitutes more than a quarter of the electricity production and which have experienced El Niño droughts, meaning many more power outages can be expected around the world. Little research has been conducted on the impact of power outages on mental health. This study takes Zambia as its case study to examine the impact that El Niño droughts have had on the lives of householders connected to a highly hydropower-dependant electricity grid, and includes the impact it has had on their physical and self-reported mental health. Using 54 online responses to a survey, we found that the greatest impacts of outages spoiled food, compromised entertainment, compromised ability to work and limitation in cooking options. More than a fifth of respondents reported experiencing self-reported depression to a major degree or all of the time due to power outages, with individuals writing their own responses that they felt debilitated, experienced reduced communication and reduced activities, and stress. Using Bayesian inference, we found that changes in sleeping patterns arising from power outages was a statistically significant predictor of self-reported depression. 63% of surveyed households were willing to pay approximately USD 0.10/kWh as of the end of 2019, about double the tariff that they did, to ensure reliable electricity supply. Household income was a statistically significant predictor of willingness to pay more.

  • 35.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kasinoekonomins fall2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Ahrsjö, ulah0325
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Identity in Court Decision-Making*2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the role of identity along multiple dimensions in high-stakes decisionmaking.Our data contain information about demographic and socioeconomic indicatorsfor randomly assigned jurors and defendants in a Swedish court. Our results showthat defendants are 15 percent less likely to get a prison sentence if they and the jurorsbelong to the same identity-forming groups. Socioeconomic background and demographicattributes are at least as important, and combining several identities producesstronger e ects.

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    fulltext
  • 37.
    Ahrsjö, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Economic Disadvantage: Criminal Justice, Gender and Social Mobility2022Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth Crime, Community Service and Labor Market Outcomes

    Can lifetime trajectories of youth offenders be improved through criminal justice policy? I evaluate the effects of a youth justice reform in Sweden that sharply increased the share of juveniles assigned to court-ordered community service --- i.e. unpaid, low-skilled work. On average, the reform did not affect post-conviction recidivism or labor market outcomes, but these average effects mask considerable heterogeneity depending on the most likely alternative sanction. In particular, post-reform recidivism and incarceration rates are lower for individuals for whom community service replaces fines. Applying a machine learning method for causal inference, I then evaluate the net financial effect of the policy conditional on observable characteristics and analyze how the program could be targeted for improved efficiency. The results suggest that community service can benefit youth offenders, but that it is not suitable as a universal program.

    Intergenerational Mobility Trends and the Changing Role of Female Labor

    We present new evidence on the existence and drivers of trends in intergenerational income mobility using administrative income data from Scandinavia along with survey data from the United States. Harmonizing the data from Sweden, Denmark and Norway, we first find that intergenerational rank associations in income have increased uniformly across Scandinavia for cohorts of children born between 1951 and 1979. Splitting the trends by gender, we find that father-son mobility has been stable in all three countries, while correlations involving females display substantial trends. Similar patterns are confirmed in the US data, albeit with slightly different timing. Utilizing information about individual occupation, education and income in the Scandinavian data, we find that intergenerational mobility in latent economic status has remained relatively constant for all gender combinations. This is found to be driven by increased female labor market participation at the intensive as well as the extensive margin. The observed decline in intergenerational mobility in Scandinavia is thus consistent with a socially desirable development where female skills are increasingly valued in the labor market.

    Wage Inequality, Selection and the Evolution of the Gender Earnings Gap in Sweden 

    We estimate the change in the gender wage gap between 1968 and 2019 in Sweden accounting for (1) changes in the intensive margin of labor supply; (2) changes in the overall wage inequality; (3) changes in selection into the labor market using parametric and non-parametric selection corrections. Our results show that between 1968 and 1991, about half of the changes in the gender wage gap can be attributed to changes in the overall wage distribution. Conversely, changes in the wage distribution from 1991 to 2019 mask a larger closure of the gender wage gap. Our corrections for selection into the labor force suggest that uncorrected estimates miss about half of the around 20 percentage points decrease in the gender wage gap over the 1968-2019 period.

    Identity in Court Decision-Making

    We explore the role of identity along multiple dimensions in high-stakes decision-making. Our data set contains information about gender, ethnic background, age and socioeconomic indicators for randomly assigned jurors and defendants in a Swedish district court. Our results show that defendants are significantly less likely to get a prison sentence if they and the jurors belong to the same identity-forming group. For example, a defendant is 15 percent less likely to get a prison sentence if he or she has the same level of education as all three jurors compared to if none of them have the same educational attainments.

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    Essays on Economic Disadvantage
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  • 38.
    Ahtiala, Pekka
    Northwestern University.
    A Synthesis of the Macroeconomic Approaches to Exchange Rate Determination1983Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper develops a general model with the goods, money, bond, and labor markets. The special assumptions needed to generate the predictions of the Keynesian, monetarist, and portfolio balance approaches from the model are then found. It turns out that the assumtion of perfect capital mobility essentially generates the monetarist predictions, and perfect monetary sterilization by the central bank at a fixed interest rate the predictions of the elasticity-absorption approach. The supply side regime and purchasing-power parity assumptions fix income but do not qualitatively affect the exchange rate responses. The approaches turn out to be independent, rather than contradictory parts of the general model, each approach abstracting from what the other is analysing. This is technically done by dichotomizing the general model, the monetarists making the money market equation, and the Keynesians the goods market and balance payments equations the independent ones. The orthodox neutral monetary policy version of the Keynesian approach generates the predictions of the whole model.

    While the Keynesian and monetarist approaches differ in their policy regime assumptions, the portfolio balance approach differs in its equilibrium condition, by constraining the trade balance to equilibrium.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Akin, Serdar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Do Riksbanken produce unbiased forecast of the inflation rate?: and can it be improved?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate if forecast produced by the Central Bank of Sweden (Riksbanken) for the 12 month change in the consumer price index is unbiased? Results shows that for shorter horizons (h < 12) the mean forecast error is unbiased but for longer horizons its negatively biased when inference is done by Maximum entropy bootstrap technique. Can the unbiasedness be improved by strict ap- pliance to econometric methodology? Forecasting with a linear univariate model (seasonal ARIMA) and a multivariate model Vector Error Correction model (VECM) shows that when controlling for the presence of structural breaks VECM outperforms both prediction produced Riksbanken and ARIMA. However Riksbanken had the best precision in their forecast, estimated as MSFE

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  • 40. Albin, M
    et al.
    Bodin, T
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    National report: Sweden, Market2015In: Understanding employment participation of older workers: creating a knowledge base for future labour market challenges / [ed] Hans Martin Hasselhorn and Wenke Apt, Berlin: Berlin Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs , 2015, p. 88-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41. Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Bodin, Theo
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ageing workers and an extended working life2017In: Arbetslivet och socialförsäkringen: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 13–14 januari 2016, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2017, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42. Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Bodin, Theo
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ska alla behöva arbeta längre?2020In: Förlängt arbetsliv – förutsättningar, utmaningar och konsekvenser: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 15–16 januari 2020, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2020, p. 72-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns flera skäl till att öppna för att människor skall ha möjlighet att arbeta längre. Hit hör en i allmänhet förbättrad folkhälsa, behovet av arbetskraft och att ett gott och meningsfullt arbete kan berika livet för den enskilde samtidigt som det bidrar till samhällets välstånd och finansieringen av välfärdssystemen. Men ett arbetsmedicinskt svar på om alla ska behöva arbeta längre är klart Nej. Det grundar sig på: • folkhälsans ojämlika utveckling • att de fysiska kraven fortfarande är höga i många yrken, främst arbetaryrken • att arbetets fysiska krav är det som främst är begränsande vid högre åldrar • att många rapporterar att arbetets fysiska krav överstiger deras förmåga • den sjunkande tillgången till kvalificerad arbetsanpassning genom exempelvis företagshälsovård, särskilt för kvinnor och i arbetaryrken.

  • 43. Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Bodin, Theo
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sustainable work for health and job longevity2021In: European Journal of Workplace Innovation, ISSN 2387-4570, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While improved public health in groups with high or middle socioeconomic status (e.g. educational level) permits many to work for more years, the gap is widening for less advantaged groups, such as those with only compulsory level education. Within manual jobs, individual health status and the challenges of physical demands exceed the physical capacity of many middle-aged, and with a low bargaining power, constitute major threats to job longevity. Artificial intelligence and digitization are also rapidly transforming the labour market, especially for low-mid grade (level) white-collar workers. Young workers often have insecure job contracts, while older workers may have a permanent position but have a fear of leaving a safe position for a new one, and ultimately may be forced to leave their job when they are unable to meet the demands.

    Current economic incentives to prolong working life – often combined with more restrictive unemployment and disability benefits – may overall increase work participation but may also decrease sustainability in the more disadvantaged part of the labour market.

    Recent research suggests that unemployment is the most important factor behind lost working years among workers with less education, and that primary prevention focused on the work environment rather than individual health promotion (lifestyle habits), will enhance sustainability together with inclusive welfare systems. Resilience, or reduced vulnerability, in the workforce on a macro- and workplace level can be achieved by well-established societal measures.

  • 44. Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Liljefrost, Emilia
    Parmsund, Marianne
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Äldre i arbetslivet – en omvärldsanalys2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45. Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Arbetsmiljöns många dimensioner2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Löner och andra former av ersättningar som till exempel avtalsförsäkringar för anställda är ofta i fokus för såväl nyhetsflödet som statistik och forskning baserad på den. Regelbundet publiceras statistik om löner för olika grupper, arbetsmarknadens parter bevakar utvecklingen för egna och andra grupper, medlare arbetar för en nå lösningar och jämförelser görs av lönenivåer och andra villkor mellan länder. Officiell lönestatistik publiceras regelbundet. Den goda tillgången på statistik underlättar forskningen vad gäller löner. När det finns konflikter mellan parterna på arbetsmarknaden, blir uppmärksamheten mycket stor speciellt då inte bara de direkt involverade påverkas utan också allmänheten. Ett av många exempel är den konflikt som SAS och piloternas fackförening hade tidigare i år.

  • 46.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Georgetown University.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vroman, Susan
    Georgetown University.
    Unionization and the Evolution of the Wage Distribution in Sweden: 1968 to 20002011In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1039-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the 1968, 1981, and 2000 Swedish Level of Living Surveys, the authors examine the evolution of the wage distribution in Sweden over the periods 1968–1981 and 1981–2000. The first period was the heyday of the Swedish solidarity wage policy with strong equalization clauses in the central wage agreements. During the second period, there was more flexibility for firms to adjust wages to reflect conditions such as labor shortages in particular fields. The authors find a remarkable narrowing of the wage distribution in the first period, but in the second period, wages grew more equally across the distribution. The authors decompose these changes in wages across the distribution into two components—those due to changes in the distribution of characteristics such as education and experience and those due to changes in the distribution of returns to those characteristics. They find that the wage compression between 1968 and 1981 was driven by changes in the distribution of returns, but between 1981 and 2000, the change in the distribution of returns had less of an effect on wage compression. 

  • 47.
    Albrecht, James W.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Georgetown University.
    Vroman, Susan B.
    Department of Economics, Georgetown University.
    Dual Labor Markets, Efficiency Wages, and Search1991Report (Other academic)
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  • 48. Albrecht, Konstanze
    et al.
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Parys, Juliane
    Szech, Nora
    Updating, self-confidence, and discrimination2013In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 60, p. 144-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this laboratory experiment, we show that people incorporate irrelevant group information when evaluating others. Individuals from groups that perform badly on average receive low evaluations, even when it is known that the individuals themselves perform well. This group-bias occurs both in a gendered setup, where women form the worse performing group, and in a non-gendered setup. The type of discrimination that we identify is neither taste-based nor statistical; it is rather due to conservatism in updating beliefs, and is even more pronounced among women. Furthermore, self-confident men overvalue male performers. When our data is used to simulate a job promotion ladder, we observe that women are driven out quickly.

  • 49. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Strøm, Marte
    Vanhala, Pekka
    Better Late Than Never? How Late Completion Affects the Early Careers of Dropouts2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the OECD countries, dropouts from upper secondary schooling fare worse in the labor market, with higher NEET rates more spells of unemployment and lower earnings. Among the dropouts, there are however significant shares who complete at a later age. In this paper, we thus ask the question: Does it pay for young adults who do not complete upper secondary schooling by the age of 21, to do so at some point during the subsequent 7 years, that is, before turning 28? In all four Nordic countries under scrutiny, we find that late completion lowers the probability of being outside employment, education or training (NEET) at age 28. Moreover, the exact age of completion does not seem to matter. Our estimates are robust to the inclusion of extensive controls for socioeconomic background and early schooling paths, and similar to the ones produced by event history analysis with individual fixed effects. This indicates that late completion of upper secondary schooling plays an important role for the labor market inclusion of young dropouts.

  • 50. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Von Simson, Kristine
    Vanhala, Pekka
    Youth unemployment and inactivity: a comparison of school-to-work transitions and labour market outcomes in four Nordic countries2015Book (Other academic)
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