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  • 1.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Supporting Learning and Teaching of Chemistry in the Undergraduate Classroom2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is agreement in research about the need to find better ways of teaching chemistry to enhance students’ understanding. This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of how we better support teaching and learning of undergraduate chemistry to make it meaningful and intelligible for students from the outset. The thesis is concerned with examining the interactions between student, specific content and teacher in the undergraduate chemistry classroom; that is, the processes making up the three relations of the didactic triangle. The data consists of observations of students and tutors during problem-solving activities in an introductory chemistry course and interviews with graduate students.

    Systematic analyses of the different interactions between the student, the chemistry content, and the tutor are made using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis. The main findings of the thesis include detailed insights into how undergraduate chemistry students deal with newly encountered content together with didactic models and concrete suggestions for improved teaching and for supporting continuity and progression in the undergraduate chemistry classroom. Specifically, I show how students deal with the chemistry content through a complex interaction of knowledge, experiences, and purposes on different levels invoked by both students and tutors as they interact with each other. Whether these interactions have a positive or negative effect on students’ learning depends on the nature of knowledge, experiences and purposes that were invoked. Moreover, the tutor sometimes invoked other purposes than the ones related to the task at hand for connecting the activity to the subject matter in general. These purposes were not always made continuous with the activity which resulting in confusion among students. The results from these analyses were used for producing hypotheses and models that could support continuity and progression during the activity. The suggested models aim to make the content more manageable and meaningful to students, enabling connections to other experiences and purposes, and helping teachers and tutors to analyze and reflect on their teaching. Moreover, a purpose- and activity-based progression is suggested that gives attention to purposes in chemistry education other than providing explanations of chemical phenomena. The aim of this ‘progression in action’ is to engage students in activities were they can see the meaning of chemical concepts and ideas through their use to accomplish different chemical tasks. A general conclusion is that detailed knowledge about the processes of teaching and learning is important for providing adequate support to both undergraduate students and university teachers in the chemistry classroom.

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    Supporting Learning and Teaching of Chemistry in the Undergraduate Classroom
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  • 2.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    The role of anthropomorphisms in students’ reasoning about chemical structure and bonding2018In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 19, no 2, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropomorphisms are widespread at all levels of the educational system even among science experts. This has led to a shift in how anthropomorphisms are viewed in science education, from a discussion of whether they should be allowed or avoided towards an interest in their role in supporting students’ understanding of science. In this study we examine the role of anthropomorphisms in supporting students’ understanding of chemistry. We analyze examples from undergraduate students’ discussions during problem-solving classes through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Findings suggest that students invoked anthropomorphisms alongside technical relations which together produced more or less chemically appropriate explanations. Also, anthropomorphisms constitute potentially productive points of departure for rendering students’ explanations more chemically appropriate. The implications of this study refer to the need to deal with anthropomorphisms explicitly and repeatedly as well as to encourage explicit connections between different parts of the explanation - teleological as well as causal.

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  • 3.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tutor-student interaction in undergraduate chemistry: a case of learning to make relevant distinctions of molecular structures for determining oxidation states of atoms2018In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 16, p. 2023-2043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore the issues and challenges involved in supporting students’ learning to discern relevant and critical aspects of determining oxidation states of atoms in complex molecules. We present a detailed case of an interaction between three students and a tutor during a problem-solving class, using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). The results show that the ability to make relevant distinctions between the different parts of a molecule for solving the problem, even with the guidance of the tutor, seemed to be challenging for students. These shifts were connected to both purposes that were specific for solving the problem at hand, and additional purposes for general learning of the subject matter, in this case how to assign oxidation states in molecules. The students sometimes could not follow the additional purposes introduced by the tutor, which made the related distinctions more confusing. Our results indicate that in order to provide adequate support and guidance for students the tutor needs to consider how to sequence, move between, and productively connect the different purposes introduced in a tutor-student interaction. One way of doing that is by first pursuing the purposes for solving the problem and then successively introduce additional, more general purposes for developing students’ learning of the subject matter studied. Further recommendations drawn from this study are discussed as well.

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  • 4.
    Abdulla, Tavga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nyanlända elevers svårigheter i algebra: En studie om nyanlända elevers uppfattningar om undervisning i algebra samt textuppgifter inom algebra i introduktionsprogram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka matematiska och språkliga svårigheter nyanlända gymnasieelever har när de arbetar med algebra, både deras uppfattningar om undervisning i algebra och hur de löser textuppgifter inom algebra. Samtliga elever i studien är nyanlända och går ett introduktionsprogram och de har ett annat modersmål än svenska.

    Flera studier visar på att elever som har ett annat modersmålspråk än svenska har svårare att klara matematik i skolan och därmed presterar sämre i matematikundervisningen än andra elever som har svenska som modersmål (Malmer, 2002). I denna studie undersöks vad detta beror på och hur undervisningen kan anpassas för att bättre gynna den berörda elevgruppen.

    För att besvara frågeställningarna gjordes elevintervjuer med åtta elever samt ett test i algebra med eleverna som deltog i intervjuerna. Resultaten i denna studie visar på att eleverna hade språkliga svårigheter som påverkade deras problemlösningsförmåga i algebra. En orsak till detta är språkliga svårigheter och detta kan delvis bero på bristfälliga svenskkunskaper som leder till svårigheter att förstå textuppgifter och svårigheter att uttrycka sig när man kommunicerar inom matematik.

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  • 5. Abdullah, Ailin
    et al.
    Berglund, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    State Neutrality and Islamic Education in Sweden2018In: European Perspectives on Islamic education and Public Schooling / [ed] Jenny Berglund, Sheffield, UK: Equinox Publishing, 2018, p. 312-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public debate about Islam and Muslims often focuses on contradictions, conflicts, and contrasting value systems. Since 9/11, the bombings in Madrid and London and the recent rise of ISIS this debate has to a large extent included a fear that Muslim immigrants will be disloyal to their new Western countries, and thus requires increased surveillance and control. Conversely, others argue that Muslim populations in the West have wrongly suffered from the increasing intolerance and suspicion resulting from terrorist acts committed by a small number of radicals. Such voices point to a need to safeguard religious freedom and the right to equal treatment regardless of a group’s ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or religious background. In many European countries, these discussions have directed attention toward places of Islamic education such as Muslim schools, mosques, and Islamic organizations, focusing on the sometimes controversial manner in which they have been depicted in the media, public discourse, and, within Muslim communities themselves (Aslan 2009; Birt 2006). Religious education is both an essential and a challenging objective for minorities since the “transmission” of religious tradition to future generations is crucial to the survival of any religion. In Sweden as elsewhere in Europe many Muslim children and teenagers and even adults attend privately-run, extra-curricular Islamic classes. Some attend Islamic schools or are taught at home. Publically funded Islamic education options provided by the state are an emergent option in several European countries. These classes lie not only at the heart of debates over religious freedom, equal rights to education, and integration, but are also connected to matters of securitization and the state control of Islam. This paper will present an overview of publicly funded, mainly pre-university Islamic education in Sweden, a European Western secular Christian majority country with a Muslim minority population. Firstly, I will establish a definition of Islamic education and a description of the state funding of education and religion in general. Then, the paper will move on to describe different types of Islamic education that are available in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Ablhad, Reem
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ny teknik i förskolan: En netnografisk studie kring iPad-projekt i tio kommuner i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 7.
    Abou-Gabal, Safaa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Systematiska undersökningar på gott och ont: Om lärandemål och utmaningar med systematiska undersökningar i NO på mellanstadiet samt hur de hanteras2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genomförandet av systematiska undersökningar är ett kunskapskrav och utgör en central del av kursinnehållet i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena, flertalet lärare väljer dock bort arbete med systematisk undersökning. Det finns mycket tidigare forskning kring systematiska undersökningar i hög-och lågstadiet, dock är mellanstadiet dessvärre inte lika utforskat. Syftet med studien är således att undersöka vilka lärandemål och utmaningar NO-lärare i åk 4-6 har vid arbete med systematiska undersökningar samt hur de hanterar dem. Studien baseras på en enkätstudie där datan bearbetades via jämförelse för att finna liknelser, skillnader och samband mellan svaren. Genom att dela in svaren utefter tema undersöks huruvida informantsvaren tyder på att utmaningarna i mellanstadiet i någon grad samstämmer med dem som framkommer i tidigare forskning för andra årskurser. Resultatdelen visade på att lärare har liknande lärandemål vid arbete med systematiska undersökningar men att deras formulering kan vara olika. Vidare visade resultaten på att NO-lärare upplever begränsningar och svårigheter vid val av och arbete med systematiska undersökningar. NO-lärare i mellanstadiet utsätts för utmaningar som liknar dem som framkommit i tidigare forskning, bland annat är de mest framkommande utmaningarna dem av tids-, ekonomi-, resurs- och materialbrist. Studien tillförser således läsaren med kunskap kring vilka lärandemål lärare har vid genomförande av systematiska undersökningar, vilka utmaningar som kan stötas på samt olika förslag på hur utmaningarna kan hanteras. Det finns ett fortsatt behov av mer forskning kring årskurserna 4-6, speciellt av den form där lärar- och elevperspektiv lyfts.

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    Abou-Gabal.Safaa
  • 8.
    Abou-Gabal, Safaa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Alabdali, Zenah
    Systematiska undersökningar i naturvetenskapliga ämnen: Vilka är syftena med att låta elever arbeta med systematiska undersökningar och vilka utmaningar kan lärare ställas inför vid undervisningen?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturstudie ämnar behandla syftet med att undervisa systematisk undersökning i årskurserna 4–6 i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena samt att lyfta potentiella utmaningar som läraren kan ställas inför vid undervisningen. Systematisk undersökning är en positiv arbetsmetod som leder till att eleverna utvecklar sin förståelse för naturvetenskap samt ökar elevernas intresse och motivation för ämnet. I läroplanen framkommer det tydligt att en av de förmågorna eleverna ska utveckla är att genomföra systematiska undersökningar. Däremot undviker många NO-lärare att arbeta med systematiska undersökningar fastän det är ett krav i läroplanen på grund av brist på kunskap om användandet av laborationer. Därför var det intressant att undersöka potentiella syften och utmaningar som läraren stöter på vid undervisningen av systematiska undersökningar för att underlätta deras arbete. Metodens urval av artiklar har skett målstyrt, artiklarna har även bearbetats och analyserats utifrån den tematiska analysen. I resultatdelen framkom de viktiga syftena som ligger bakom arbetet med systematiska undersökningar såsom; att utveckla elevernas begrepp och fenomen. Vidare framkom det även några utmaningar som läraren ska vara medveten om när hen undervisar i systematiska undersökningar såsom; att få tiden att räcka till.  Studien hjälper läsarna att få en helhetsbild och förståelse för viktiga syften och utmaningar som framkommer vid undervisningen av systematiska undersökningar, för att öka intresse och motivation att undervisa mer i ämnet.

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    Safaa_Abou-Gabal
  • 9.
    Aceto, Giulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Att använda eller icke använda förstaspråket, det är frågan: En kvalitativ studie om användningen av engelska respektive svenska för att främja engelskinlärning i årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med globaliseringen har engelskans betydande roll och globala utbredning medfört en utmaning för elever att utveckla sina engelskkunskaper. Tidigare forskning visar att målspråksanvändning (L2) för att maximera L2-exponering är att föredra, men andraspråksforskare anser även att förstaspråket spelar en viktig kognitiv roll vid språkinlärning. Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur målspråk respektive förstaspråk används i engelskundervisning i årskurs 4–6, samt hur lärare upplever att de arbetar med båda språken för att främja engelskinlärningen. Studien utgår från Stephen Krashens monitormodell samt tvåspråkighet, och bygger dessutom på en intervju med en lärare. Resultatet visar att läraren ser målspråksanvändning som språkutvecklande men upplever att exklusiv användning kan vara svårt i de yngre åldrarna. För att stödja elevernas behov för individuella instruktioner växlar läraren mellan engelska och svenska så att engelskan byggs upp successivt och förståelsen ökar på sikt. 

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  • 10. Acher, Andrés
    et al.
    Krabbe Sillasen, Martin
    Febri, Maria I. M.
    Lyngved Staberg, Ragnhild
    Karlström, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    McDonald, Scott
    Teaching Practices in Preservice Science Teacher Education2018In: Electronic Proceedings of the ESERA 2017 Conference: Research, Practice and Collaboration in Science Education / [ed] Odilla Finlayson, Eilish McLoughlin, Sibel Erduran, Peter Childs, Dublin, Ireland: Dublin City University , 2018, p. 1903-1914Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent efforts to design and study Pre-service Science Teacher Education have focused on engaging future teachers in teaching practices. This focus on practices comes with an explicit intention to blend aspects of knowledge and doing that has been historically separate in other efforts to teach novice learners practical aspects of their profession. This intention brings particular challenges to EU preservice teacher preparation programs that need to reconsider how to incorporate aspects of practices into their science education courses. These challenges not only emerge from the novelty and interrelated nature of these practices, but also from lack of clear ways of articulating what these practices are and look like across international teacher educational contexts. This paper brings together four EU studies and an international discussant that explore possibilities to embrace and respond to these challenges and being a cross-contextual conversation about science teacher education. 

  • 11.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Paul, Enni
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lingustic work is care work: Cripping and languaging in adult education of immigrant d/Deaf and hard or hearing students2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation we discuss how linguistic care work (Henner & Robinson, 2021) is manifested in classroom interaction between students and teachers in adult education for immigrant d/Deaf and hard of hearing students in Sweden. The empirical material consists of video- and audio-recordings, images and fieldnotes from classroom interaction and audio-/video-recorded interviews with teachers and students. This is part of an action research project where the aim is to develop teaching practices involving various visual resources to promote student participation and language learning in education, as well as to provide knowledge about teachers’ and adult students’ experiences of visual resources in teaching and learning. 

    By drawing on social semiotics and Crip Linguistics – which provides critical linguistics with a necessary disability lens – we explore how meaning is co-constructed in the classroom, through embodied communication, use of visual resources, technology and translanguaging between signed and spoken languages. We are illustrating and examining conditions forefronting respect and patience for language user’s own linguistic repertoire and resources as the essence of linguistic care work in joint meaning-making in the classrooms. The results illuminate how combined multiple resources support student participation and investment in communication and learning when languaging practices are enmeshed in particular material conditions. This linguistic care is embedded in crip time (Samuels & Freeman, 2021), which we use to problematize how adult education in Sweden, lacking linguistic justice, is framed in ideas of effective language learning with emphasis on quick establishment on the labor market through instrumental ‘language as skill’ acquisition. This stands in stark contrast to what is conducive to relational conditions, as we argue linguistic work is care work.  

    References:

    Henner, J., & Robinson, O. (2021). Unsettling Languages, Unruly Bodyminds: Imaging a Crip Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/7bzaw

    Samuels, E. & Freeman, E. (2021). Introduction: Crip temporalities. South Atlantic Quarterly 120(2). 245–254. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-8915937 

     

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Performing resistance to the native speaker ideal2021In: The 4th International Conference on the Sociolinguistics of Immigration: Language, Power and Resistance in Relation to Migratory contexts of (Im)mobilization, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Stories of mobility and fragility: migration and language use2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Second half part of the apple: Friendship metaphors in second language writing2021In: Metaphor and the Social World, ISSN 2210-4070, E-ISSN 2210-4097, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 279-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the use of friendship metaphors in texts by adult second language writers, in relation to the occurrence and function of metaphor and the writers’ discursive constructions of identity. The texts come from the final assessment in Swedish for Immigrants (SFI), a language program in basic Swedish. The analysis confirmed the initial assumption that the emotional and existentially loaded theme of friendship allows for the use of metaphor. The results also showed that the experience of writers as newcomers in Sweden played out in the metaphors that were used and their contexts.

    In order to categorize the found metaphors, a model was developed to show how systematic metaphors reflect functions and values related to three thematic categories: guidance and help, belonging and inclusion, and sharing and solidarity. For several metaphors, the metaphoricity was created through novel and unidiomatic wording, i.e. a kind of neologism that can be considered a communication strategy.

    The importance of using universal and abstract themes in language testing is emphasized, to enable second language writers to express different facets of experience and knowledge through existential thoughts and attitudes – not only as language learners and newcomers but also as social agents who create and keep transnational relations through friends.

  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Olofsson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bartholdson, Grazyna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Philipsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Engman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Skeppstedt, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bedömning av språkfärdighet inom utbildning i svenska för invandrare2013In: Profession, politik och passion: Inger Lindberg som andraspråksforskare - en vänbok / [ed] Monica Axelsson, Marie Carlson, Qarin Franker, Karin Sandwall, Göteborg: Förlag Göteborgs Universitet, 2013, p. 55-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Reath Warren, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Connection, culture and communication: Teacher trajectories and motivations for teaching in a Vietnamese community language school2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ahlström, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lesant, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    ”Barnen är ju redan där, de är ju hur nyfikna och intresserade som helst”: IKT i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer som är avgörande när det gäller implementering av IKT i förskolan samt hur arbetet med IKT kan integreras på ett kreativt sätt i den pedagogiska verksamheten. För att försöka ta reda på detta har vi genomfört en kvalitativ studie där vi intervjuat medie/IKT-pedagoger för att kunna ta del av deras tankar och erfarenheter. Resultatet visar att ledning och chefer som satsar på och prioriterar IKT är en viktig aspekt. Att tid avsätts för regelbundna reflektionstillfällen är av mycket stor betydelse för att kunna utveckla arbetet med IKT, ett arbete som måste förstås som en ständigt pågående process. Medutforskande pedagoger med ett nyfiket och öppet förhållningssätt är en avgörande faktor för att IKT ska integreras på ett kreativt sätt i förskolans verksamhet. Studien visar även på vikten av att barn ges möjlighet att utveckla digital kompetens för att kunna vara delaktiga i ett digitalt samhälle.

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  • 18.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A Social Semiotic Approach to Teaching and Learning Science2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I will discuss the application of social semiotics to the teaching and learning of university science. Science disciplines leverage a wide range of semiotic resources such as graphs, diagrams, mathematical representations, hands on work with apparatus, language, gestures etc. In my work I study how students learn to integrate these resources to do physics and what teachers can do to help them in this process. Over the years, a number of theoretical constructs have been developed within the Physics Education Research Group in Uppsala to help us to better understand the different roles semiotic resources play in learning university physics. In this presentation I will explain some of these terms and give examples of their usefulness for teasing out how learning is taking place.

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  • 19.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Building on higher education research - How can we take a scholarly approach to teaching and learning2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Linnæus University, Sweden.
    CLIL: Combining Language and Content: Tarja Nikula, Emma Dafouz, Pat Moore and Ute Smit (Eds.). CONCEPTUALISING INTEGRATION IN CLIL AND MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (2016), Bristol: Multilingual Matters2017In: ESP Today, ISSN 2334-9050, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 297-302Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Disciplinary Affordance vs Pedagogical Affordance: Teaching the Multimodal Discourse of University Science2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural sciences have been extremely successful in modeling some specific aspects of the world around us. This success is in no small part due to the creation of generally accepted, paradigmatic ways of representing the world through a range of semiotic resources. The discourse of science is of necessity multimodal (see for example Lemke, 1998) and it is therefore important for undergraduate science students to learn to master this multimodal discourse (Airey & Linder, 2009). In this paper, I approach the teaching of multimodal science discourse via the concept of affordance. Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been debated by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Fredlund, 2015 for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. In the presentation the interrelated concepts of disciplinary affordance and pedagogical affordance will be presented. Both concepts make a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, they refer to the disciplinary community as a whole. Disciplinary affordance is "the agreed meaning making functions that a semiotic resource fulfills for a disciplinary community". Similarly, pedagogical affordance is "the aptness of a semiotic resource for the teaching and learning of some particular educational content" (Airey, 2015). As such, in a teaching situation the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is the process through which students come to use semiotic resources in a way that is accepted within the discipline. In this characterization then, learning can be framed in terms of coming to perceive and leverage the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources. In this paper, I will discuss: the disciplinary affordances of individual semiotic resources, how these affordances can be made “visible” to students and how the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources are ultimately leveraged and coordinated in order to make science meanings.

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  • 22.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden; Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Disciplinary Literacy: Theorising the Specialized Use of Language and other Modes in University Teaching and Learning2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I use the work of Basil Bernstein (Bernstein, 1990, 1999, 2000) to discuss the role of disciplinary differences in university teaching and learning.  Drawing from my own work on the theme of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2012, 2013; Airey & Linder, 2008, 2011) I argue that all university lecturers are teachers of disciplinary literacy—even in monolingual settings. 

    I define disciplinary literacy as appropriate participation in the communicative practices of the discipline (Airey, 2011a, 2011b)and suggest that disciplinary literacy is developed for three specific sites (academy, workplace and society). I will illustrate the multilingual and multimodal nature of disciplinary literacy with empirical evidence from a comparative study of the disciplinary literacy goals of Swedish and South African physics lecturers (Linder, Airey, Mayaba, & Webb, 2014). 

    Finally, I will conclude by demonstrating how two of Bernstein’s dichotomies: disciplinary knowledge structures (hierarchical vs horizontal) and disciplinary classification (singular vs region) can be used together with the disciplinary literacy triangle to better understand the literacy goals of particular disciplines.

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  • 23.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Learning and Sharing Disciplinary Knowledge: The Role of Representations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a large amount of interest in the roles that different representations (graphs, algebra, diagrams, sketches, physical models, gesture, etc.) play in student learning. In the literature two distinct but interrelated ways of thinking about such representations can be identified. The first tradition draws on the principles of constructivism emphasizing that students need to build knowledge for themselves. Here students are encouraged to create their own representations by working with materials of various kinds and it is in this hands-on representational process that students come to develop their understanding.

    The second tradition holds that there are a number of paradigmatic ways of representing disciplinary knowledge that have been created and refined over time. These paradigmatic disciplinary representations need to be mastered in order for students to be able to both understand and effectively communicate knowledge within a given discipline.

    In this session I would like to open up a discussion about how these two ways of viewing representations might be brought together. To do this I will first present some of the theoretical and empirical work we have been doing in Sweden over the last fifteen years. In particular there are three concepts that I would like to introduce for our discussion: critical constellations of representations, the disciplinary affordance of representations and the pedagogical affordance of representations.

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  • 24.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Research on physics teaching and learning, physics teacher education, and physics culture at Uppsala University2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project compares the affordances and constraints for physics teachers’ professional identity building across four countries. The results of the study will be related to the potential consequences of this identity building for pupils’ science performance in school. The training of future physics teachers typically occurs across three environments, the physics department, the education department and school (during teaching practice). As they move through these three environments, trainees are in the process of building their professional identity. However, what is signalled as valuable for a future physics teacher differs considerably in different parts of the education. In educational research, professional identity has been used in a variety of ways (See for example overviews of the concept in Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009; and Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004). In this project we draw on the work of Sfard and Pruzak (2005) who have defined identity as an analytical category for use in educational research. The project leverages this concept of identity as an analytical tool to understand how the value-systems present in teacher training environments and society as a whole potentially affect the future practice of trainee physics teachers. For identities to be recognized as professional they must fit into accepted discourses. Thus the project endeavours to identify discourse models that tacitly steer the professional identity formation of future physics teachers. Interviews will be carried out with trainee physics teachers and the various training staff that they meet during their education (physics lecturers, education lecturers, school mentors). It has been suggested that the perceived status of the teaching profession in society has a major bearing on the type of professional identity teachers can enact. Thus, in this project research interviews will be carried out in parallel across four countries with varying teacher status and PISA science scores: Sweden, Finland, Singapore and England. These interviews will be analysed following the design developed in a pilot study that has already carried out by the project group in Sweden. The research questions for the project are as follows: In four countries where the societal status of the teaching profession differs widely: What discourse models are enacted in the educational environments trainee physics teachers meet? What are the potential affordances and constraints of these discourse models for the constitution of physics teacher professional identities? In what ways do perceptions of the status assigned by society to the teaching profession potentially affect this professional identity building? What are the potential consequences of the answers to the above questions for the view of science communicated to pupils in school? In an extensive Swedish pilot study, four potentially competing discourse models were identified: these are: the critically reflective teacher, the practically well-equipped teacher, the syllabus implementer and the physics expert. Of these, the physics expert discourse model was found to dominate in both the physics department and amongst mentors in schools. In the physics expert discourse model the values of the discipline of physics dominate. Thus, the overarching goal of physics teaching is to create future physicists. In this model, the latest research in physics is seen as interesting and motivating, whereas secondary school subject matter is viewed as inherently unsophisticated and boring—something that needs to be made interesting. The model co-exists with the three other discourse models, which were more likely to be enacted in the education department. These other models value quite different goals such as the development of practical skills, reflective practice, critical thinking and citizenship. We claim that knowledge of the different discourse models at work in four countries with quite different outcomes on PISA science will useful in a number of ways. For teacher trainers, a better understanding of these models would allow informed decisions to be taken about the coordination of teacher education. For prospective teachers, knowledge of the discourse models at work during their education empowers them to question the kind of teacher they want to become.

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  • 25.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Semiotic Resources and Disciplinary Literacy2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research project we focused on the different semiotic resources used in physics (e.g. graphs, diagrams, language, mathematics, apparatus, etc.). We were interested in the ways in which undergraduate physics students learn to combine the different resources used in physics in order to become “disciplinary literate” and what university lecturers do to help their students in this process. Comparative data on the disciplinary literacy goals of physics lecturers for their students was collected at five universities in South Africa and four universities in Sweden.

    One of the main contributions of the project concerned what we termed the disciplinary affordance of a semiotic resource, that is, the specific meaning-making functions a particular resource plays for the discipline. We contrasted these meaning-making functions with the way that students initially viewed the same resource.

    We proposed two ways that lecturers can direct their students’ attention towards the disciplinary affordances of a given resource. The first involves unpacking the disciplinary affordance in order to create a new resource with higher pedagogical affordance. Our second proposal involved the use of systematic variation in order to help students notice the disciplinary relevant aspects of a given resource. A total of 19 articles/book chapters were published as a direct result of this funding.

  • 26.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Concept of Affordance in the Teaching and Learning of Undergraduate Science2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been debated by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman(1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Fredlund, 2015 for a recent example). 

    In the presentation the interrelated concepts of disciplinary affordance and pedagogical affordance will be presented. Both concepts make a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, they refer to the disciplinary community as a whole. Disciplinary affordance is "the agreed meaning making functions that a semiotic resource fulfills for a disciplinary community". Similarly, pedagogical affordance is "the aptness of a semiotic resource for the teaching and learning of some particular educational content" (Airey, 2015). As such, in a teaching situation the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is the process through which students come to use semiotic resources in a way that is accepted within the discipline. In this characterization then, learning can be framed in terms of coming to perceive and leverage the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources. 

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  • 27.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning. Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Thinking About English-Medium Instruction: Do We Need Everything Everywhere All at Once?2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thinking About English-Medium Instruction: Do We Need Everything Everywhere All at Once? 

    Around the world, more and more university courses are being taught in English. Although there are sound economic, social and political reasons for this trend, many questions remain about the pedagogical effects of EMI at university level: How can teachers be prepared for EMI teaching? Will students cope? Are some forms of teaching less suited to EMI? Do different disciplines have different needs? Etc. etc.  In this workshop, I present some of the research I have carried out in Sweden that addresses these questions and make a number of recommendations.  I finish the workshop by proposing a disciplinary literacy discussion matrix (Airey, 2011) as a tool for carrying out disciplinary needs analysis for EMI.  

    References

    Airey, J. (2011). The disciplinary literacy discussion matrix: A heuristic tool for initiating collaboration in higher education. Across the disciplines, 8(3), 1-9.

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  • 28.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Using variation and unpacking to help students decode disciplinary-specific semiotic resources2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I will describe a social semiotic approach (Halliday 1978; van Leeuwen 2005) to the multimodal teaching and learning of a discipline that takes variation theory (Marton & Booth 1997; Runesson 2005) as its theoretical framing. Following Airey and Linder (2017:95) I define social semiotics as “the study of the development and reproduction of specialized systems of meaning making in particular sections of society”

    Learning at university level involves coming to understand the ways in which disciplinary-specific semiotic resources can be coordinated to make appropriate disciplinary meanings (Airey & Linder 2009). Nowhere is this more true than in undergraduate physics where a particularly wide range of semiotic resources such as graphs, diagrams, mathematics and language are essential for meaning making.  In order to learn to make these disciplinary meanings, students need to discover the disciplinary affordances(Fredlund et al. 2012, 2014; Airey & Linder 2017) of the semiotic resources used in their discipline. 

    Fredlund et al. (2015) propose a three-stage process that lecturers can use to help their students:  

    1. Identify the disciplinary relevant aspects needed for a particular task. 

    2. Select semiotic resources that showcase these aspects. 

    3. Create structured variation within these semiotic resources to help students notice the disciplinary relevant aspects and their relationships to each other.

    However, many disciplinary specific semiotic resources have been rationalized to create a kind of disciplinary shorthand(Airey 2009). In such cases the disciplinary relevant aspects needed may no longer be present in resources used, but are rather implied. In such cases the resources will need to be unpacked for students (Fredlund et al. 2014).  Such unpacking increases the pedagogical affordance of semiotic resources but simultaneously decreases their disciplinary affordance. 

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  • 29.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Grundström Lindqvist, Josefine
    Kung, Rebecca
    What does it mean to understand a physics equation?: A study of undergraduate answers in three countries2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in how undergraduate students in the US, Australia and Sweden experience the physics equations they meet in their education. We asked over 350 students the same simple question: How do you know when you understand a physics equation? Students wrote free-text answers to this question and these were transcribed and coded. The analysis resulted in eight themes (significance, origin, describe, predict, parts, relationships, calculate and explain). Each of these themes represents a different disciplinary aspect of student understanding of physics equations. We argue that together the different aspects we find represent a more holistic view of physics equations that we would like all our students to experience. Based on this work we wondered how best to highlight this more holistic view of equations. This prompted us to write a set of questions that reflect the original data with respect to the eight themes. We suggest that when students are working with problem solving they may ask themselves these questions in order to check their holistic understanding of what the physics equations they are using represent. In continuing work we are asking the same question to a cohort of physics lecturers. We are also trialling the themes and related questions that we generated in teaching situations. Here we are interested in whether students perceive the questions as helpful in their learning.

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  • 30.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Grundström Lindqvist, Josefine
    Lippman Kung, Rebecca
    What Does It Mean to Understand a Physics Equation? A Study of Undergraduate Answers in Three Countries2019In: Bridging Research and Practice in Science Education: Selected Papers from the ESERA 2017 Conference / [ed] Eilish McLoughlin, Odilla E. Finlayson, Sibel Erduran, Peter E. Childs, Cham: Springer Nature, 2019, p. 225-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a discipline, physics is concerned with describing the world by constructing models, the end product of this modelling process often being an equation. As such, physics equations represent much more than a finalized, ready-to-use calculation package – to physicists they are the culmination of a whole range of actions, assump- tions, approximations and historical discoveries. Moreover, physics equations are not simply stand-alone entities, rather they are intimately bound up with other equa- tions. Together, this web of equations represents an integrated, coherent whole that signals the way the community of physicists view the world.

    Clearly, such a nuanced, expert-like understanding of physics equations is not spontaneously available to undergraduate physics students when they meet an equa- tion for the first time. In this respect, research suggests that we should not expect students to display conceptually coherent understanding across settings. Rather it has been suggested that understanding is built up from context-dependent knowl- edge in pieces (diSessa 1993, 2018). In this characterization, different aspects, or ways of viewing the same phenomenon, are leveraged in different settings. Students gradually develop their understanding in two ways: by forging links between these separate ‘pieces of knowledge’ and by coming to appreciate the usefulness of a given ‘piece of knowledge’ for a given task. Educationally then, we are interested in identifying these pieces of knowledge – in our case the range of ways that students understand equations. What are students’ default positions with respect to equa- tions? Which aspects of equations do students tend to focus on and which aspects tend to go unnoticed? Once we have documented the range of ways of understand- ing, the next task concerns how to help students discern other aspects of equations than those they may initially notice. Do the tasks that students are presented with in their undergraduate education encourage them to move towards a more nuanced, coherent, holistic understanding of physics equations?

  • 31.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jons, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Braskén, Mats
    What makes a good Physics Teacher? The shared vision of Finnish teacher educators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present findings from an interview study with eleven educators from a Finnish physics teacher training programme. The educators represent the four environments where the education takes place: the Department of Physics, the Department of Mathematics and Science Education, the Department of General Pedagogy, and the Training School. The study is part of a larger Swedish Research Council project comparing the different disciplinary values that are communicated to future physics teachers across four countries (Sweden, England, Singapore and Finland).

    Interviews were coded in TRANSANA software, and analysed using Gee’s (2014, p. 95) theory of figured worlds which he describes as “taken-for-granted theories that are guided, shaped, and normed though social and cultural interactions”. In our study we apply Gee’s concept to descriptions of a ‘good’ physics teacher. Our analysis shows that the educators across the four training environments largely communicate the same figured world. Although working in different settings, the eleven educators appear to be working in concert, each contributing to a shared vision of what is needed to develop the professional physics teacher identities of their trainees.

    The figured world we identify characterizes a ‘good ‘physics teacher in terms of a range of competencies, such as: student centredness, inclusive teaching, pedagogical content knowledge, physics for society, assessment skills, relationships and leadership and teacher professionalism.

    Taken together, the four departments appear to cover all the expressed competencies of a ‘good’ physics teacher and there is mutual trust across the four environments. The training school was seen as the place where all of the desired competencies are brought together, applied and evaluated.

    These findings are in stark contrast to parallel findings for Sweden where four competing models of the goals of the educational programme were identified.

  • 32.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Linder, Anne
    Investigating Undergraduate Physics Lecturers’ Disciplinary Literacy Goals For Their Students2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation we use the concept of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2011a; 2013) to analyse the expressed learning goals of university physics lecturers for their students. We define disciplinary literacy in terms of learning to control a particular set of multimodal communicative practices. We believe it is important to document the expressed intentions of lecturers in this way, since it has previously been suggested that the development of such disciplinary literacy may be seen as one of the primary goals of university studies (Airey, 2011a).

    The main data set used in this presentation comes from a comparative study of 30 physics lecturers from Sweden and South Africa. (Airey, 2012, 2013; Linder et al, 2014). Semi-structured interviews were carried out using a disciplinary literacy discussion matrix (Airey, 2011b), which enabled us to probe the lecturers’ disciplinary literacy goals in the various semiotic resource systems used in undergraduate physics (e.g. graphs, diagrams, mathematics, spoken and written languages, etc.).

    The findings suggest that physics lecturers in both countries have strikingly similar disciplinary literacy goals for their students and hold similar beliefs about disciplinary semiotic resources. The lecturers also agree that teaching disciplinary literacy ought not to be their job. Here though, there were differences in whether the lecturers teach students to handle disciplinary-specific semiotic resources. These differences appear to be based on individual decisions, rather than being specific to a particular country or institution.

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  • 33.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Patron, Emelie
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Wikman, Susanne
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Making the Invisible Visible: The role of undergraduate textbooks in the teaching and learning of physics and chemistry2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As disciplines, undergraduate physics and chemistry leverage a particularly wide range of semiotic systems (modes) in order to create and communicate their scientific meanings. Examples of the different semiotic systems employed are: spoken and written language, mathematics, chemical formulae, graphs, diagrams, sketches, computer simulations, hands-on work with experimental apparatus, computer simulations, etc. Individual semiotic resources within this range of semiotic systems are coordinated in specific constellations (Airey & Linder, 2009) in order to mediate scientific knowledge. In this Swedish Research Council project, we are interested in the representation of scientific phenomena that cannot be seen. The question we pose is: How is scientific knowledge mediated when we cannot directly interact with the phenomena in question through our senses?  We adopt a social semiotic approach (Airey & Linder, 2017; van Leeuwen, 2005), to investigate the ways in which two phenomena—electromagnetic fields and chemical bonds—are presented in undergraduate textbooks. To do this we carried out a semiotic audit (Airey & Erikson, 2019) of eight textbooks (four in each discipline). We note that the individual resources used have a mixture of affordances—whilst the majority retain high disciplinary affordance, others are unpacked (Patron et al. 2021) providing higher pedagogical affordance. We discuss the ways in which the resources have been combined and orchestrated (Bezemer & Jewitt, 2010) in order to attempt to make visible that which is invisible, and identify a number of potential problems. In earlier work, Volkwyn et al. (2019) demonstrated how experimental work with physics devices can make the Earth’s magnetic field accessible to students through chains of transduction. Thus, we propose that encouraging transductions across the semiotic resource systems provided in textbooks may help students to experience the invisible.

    References

    Airey, J. (2006). Physics students' experiences of the disciplinary discourse encountered in lectures in English and Swedish (Licentiate dissertation, Department of Physics, Uppsala University).

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, language, and literacy: Case studies of learning in Swedish university physics (Doctoral dissertation, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis).

    Airey, J. (2015). Social Semiotics in Higher Education: Examples from teaching and learning in undergraduate physics. In In: SACF Singapore-Sweden Excellence Seminars, Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research in   Higher Education (STINT) , 2015 (pp. 103). 

    Airey, J., & Eriksson, U. (2019). Unpacking the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: A social semiotic analysis of the disciplinary and pedagogical affordances of a central resource in astronomy. Designs for Learning, 11(1), 99-107.

    Goodwin, C. (2015). Professional vision. In Aufmerksamkeit: Geschichte-Theorie-Empirie (pp. 387-425). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

    O’Halloran, K. (2007). Mathematical and scientific forms of knowledge: A systemic functional multimodal grammatical approach. language, Knowledge and pedagogy: functional linguistic and sociological perspective, 205-236.

    Patron, E. (2022). Exploring the role that visual representations play when teaching and learning chemical bonding: An approach built on social semiotics and phenomenography(Doctoral dissertation, Linnaeus University Press).

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  • 34.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Simpson, Zachary
    Multimodal Science and Engineering Teaching: Perspectives from 8ICOM2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The previous international conference on multimodality – 8ICOM – featured two sessions devoted to multimodal, social semiotic approaches to science teaching and learning (c.f. Halliday1978; van Leeuwen 2005, Airey & Linder 2017). What the papers in these sessions shared was the argument that such perspectives on science, and science teaching, can, at least in part, respond to calls to ‘democratize’ science education by recognising diverse sets of semiotic resources and, in so doing, seeking to address impediments to equal participation (Burke et al., 2017). 

    The 8ICOM science sessions were particularly noteworthy given the backdrop against which 8ICOM had been organised. In the months leading up to the conference, South Africa (and Cape Town, in particular) had experienced campus unrest aimed at ‘decolonizing’ higher education in that country. As part of this movement, the phrase #ScienceMustFall briefly trended on social media. This emanated from the claim that ‘science’ is a western, colonial construct that needs to be dismantled and replaced with the teaching of indigenous, African knowledge. Although the #ScienceMustFall slogan has since departed from the wider public consciousness, the questions it raises nonetheless remain: why, and how, should science be taught?  Is science more than just a western colonial construction and, if so, why? And, what can the concept of multimodality offer by way of answering these questions? 

    In this paper, we offer an overview of the multimodal science papers presented in the two sessions at 8ICOM in the light of these questions. This is done with a view to assessing where the multimodality community finds itself regarding science education, and how it might address questions of the legitimacy of western science in the future. It is thus an attempt, as the conference theme suggests, to ‘move the theory forward’.      

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  • 35.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Volkwyn, Trevor
    Developing Student Representational Competence2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to make disciplinary meanings, science students need to coordinate a large number of semiotic systems such as graphs, diagrams, spoken and written language, gesture, mathematics, etc. In this respect, it has been suggested that there is a critical constellation of semiotic resources that is necessary for holistic construction of each scientific concept (Airey, 2009). Other actors have discussed this problem in terms of building students' representational competence (Kozma & Russell 2005; Kohl & Finkelstein 2005; De Cock 2012; Linder et al. 2014). Combining this work, Volkwyn et al (2020:91) define representational competence as: “The ability to appropriately interpret and produce a set of disciplinary-accepted representations of real-world phenomena and link these to formalized scientific concepts”. In this paper we first put forward a theoretical proposal for how such student representational competence may be developed, before empirically demonstrating the usefulness of this proposal for a particular representational system (graphs) in a particular area of physics (1-D kinematics). By coordinating kinematics concepts, the three graphs, and real-world movement we show how the students begin to practice their representational competence. We also show the complexity of this apparently simple system in representational terms.

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  • 36.
    Akdag, Selvi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Hur uppfattar förskolans yrkesverksamma en framgångsrik kompetensutveckling?: En konstruktivistisk grundad teori om vad som kan bidra till ett stärkt professionellt lärande i förskolan2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies in the field of professional development research demand more knowledge about the processes that can strengthen professional learning in preschool. The purpose of the present study is to examine professionals' experiences of precisely the processes they are involved in in connection with professional development in preschool and to develop knowledge about professional development strategies. In this context, these are strategies that can constitute conditions and prerequisites for strengthened professional learning. Thus, the study can be a contribution to the development of knowledge about the types of professional development strategies (conditions and prerequisites) required for the development of professional learning among active educators in preschool. The empirical material of the study consists of three focus group interviews with a total of nine informants; three babysitters, five preschool teachers and one principal, in four preschools in two different preschool units. Constructivist theory is used to generate new theoretical understanding of a phenomenon. In this case, what the practitioners themselves mean helps them to strengthen their professional learning. The results show that when the preschool's professionals reason about their experiences of professional development strategies and what prerequisites are required for their professional learning, they refer to different aspects of the preschool's internal organization. The results of the study can be summarized with a statement; The prerequisites for favorable competence development consist of a functioning organization with regard to the form and content of professional development, the organization of time, the organization of learning practices, and the organization of the conditions for professional relationships. All in all, such an organization can provide the conditions for professional learning. When all or more of these aspects of organization are met, conditions are thus provided for preschool educators to strengthen their professional learning. One consequence of this result is that those responsible for planning for competence development need to attach great importance to the planning of organizational aspects, ie the concrete "how" in time, space, relationships, and not just think about the content of professional development. That is, the organization of the process from a knowledge to its implementation in the practical work.

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  • 37.
    Akdag, Selvi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Vad är undervisning?: En grundad teori om att stärka undervisningsuppdraget i förskolan2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att utveckla en teoretisk förståelse för processen att utveckla undervisning som praktik i förskolan. Studien tar inspiration från den netnografiska forskningsansatsen vid datainsamlingen. Grundad teori används för att generera teoretisk förståelse om vad undervisning kan vara. Urvalet av det empiriska materialet i studien kommer från YouTube och består av tre videoklipp som är publicerade av Pedagog Värmland. Från studiens resultat kan härledas att det skett en förändring i processen om att förkroppsliga undervisning i förskolan. Resultatet visar att undervisning i materialet refereras till förskolans pedagogiska uppdrag. Från att tala om att fylla undervisningsbegreppet med innehåll som passar förskolans utbildning hänvisas det till att undervisning är en del av uppdraget, vilket ställer högre krav på förskollärarens kunskap och kompetens. Den grundade teori som tagits fram illustrerar den process de verksammas förhållningssätt och förutsättningar genomgått i strävan att skapa en gemensam förståelse för uppdraget. Undervisning är alltså en del av förskolans uppdrag som ställer krav på förskollärarens roll och ansvar. Därmed blir förutsättningar en viktig aspekt i förskollärarens professionsutveckling för att stärka yrkesrollen. Slutsatsen som kan dras från föreliggande studie pekar på att det behövs mer forskning om hur undervisning kan bedrivas och om den pedagogiska kompetensen kring att bedriva undervisning. Detta i sin tur förutsätter forskning om hur motsättningen mellan det barncentrerade och lärarledda kan synka väl i undervisningen i förskolan.

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  • 38.
    Al Haj Ibrahem, Noor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Kärnkraftsfrågan: Elevers argumentation kring ett socio-vetenskapligt dilem2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect students' decision-making in an SSI (socio-scientific issue) about nuclear power and energy supply. The study explores students' skills in SSI argumentation and aims to clarify the relationship between values, knowledge and experiences in their SSI decision-making. Nine students grade nine participated. Their argumentation and decision-making processes were followed, the participants wrote reports on their decision-making, and data were collected during multiple stages of an instructional module, the Six-Step SSI Instructional Module. The different arguments used by the students were analysed using the framework of the SEE-SEP-model. The analysis focused on the evaluation skills demonstrated by the students during the exercise and the relationships between the knowledge, values, and experiences that they used in their argumentation. Although all the students had access to the same information and agreed on the factual aspects of the issue, they came to different decisions, the difference depending on their background knowledge, values, and experiences. The assessment framework considers the quality indicators presented in the research and focuses on both the content and the structure that can be observed in students’ SSI argumentation and is meant to function as a tool for identifying quality indicators. The implication for SSI teaching and learning is discussed.

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    SOCIO-SCIENTIFIC DILEMMA
  • 39.
    Alam, Karina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Turandar, Feray
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Kan bråklek skapa betydelsefulla förändringar för barns utveckling och lärande?: En kvalitativ studie om hur barn i förskoleåldern bråkleker och dess betydelse2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Leken betraktas som en grundläggande och avgörande del av barnkulturen, och det framhävs både i förskolans läroplan och forskning som en betydelsefull faktor för barns utveckling och lärande. Inom förskoleverksamheten uppkommer och främjas bråklekar regelbundet som en del av barnens lek. Studiens syfte är till att undersöka bråklek bland förskolebarn och dess betydelse för deras utveckling. Frågeställningar som besvaras är hur bråkleker 1–3 åringar respektive 3–5 åringar och vilka lekstämningar och sociala lekregler som framträder i bråkleken. Vi har valt att utgå ifrån en kvalitativ metod och utfört deltagande observationer på två olika förskolor i en större stad för att studera barnens bråklekar i förskolan. Vi observerade barnens bråklekar under alla möjliga situationer och hade en rik data som vi sedan bearbetade utifrån ett hermeneutiskt synsätt. Resultatet av vår studie visar att bråklek kan ha flera fördelaktiga effekter på barns utveckling. Bland annat att det kan hjälpa barn att lära sig sociala lekregler, utveckla förmågan att anpassa sin styrka och förstå vad som är en lämplig nivå av fysisk kontakt, att den kan hjälpa barn att hantera aggression i en trygg och kontrollerad miljö och till och med lära sig att respektera andras gränser och att ta hänsyn till sina kamrater. Sammanfattningsvis visar denna studie att bråklek kan ha flera fördelaktiga effekter på barns utveckling som kommer att vara till nytta för dem senare i livet.

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  • 40.
    Alberto, Greco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    The effect of variable +/– few elements and the mediation of proficiency level on writing task2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet utformas inom TBLT forskningsområdet, dvs. uppgiftsbaserad språkundervisning (Task-based Language Teaching) och utvecklingen av inlärares skriftliga målspråksperformans. TBLT-forskning har bevisat att kognitiv uppgiftskomplexitet manipulation har en tydlig påverkan på inlärares produktions. Detta visas i specifika aspekter i målspråksproduktionen. TBLT-forskning präglas dock av motstridiga studieresultat när det gäller hur den kognitiva manipulationen påverkar lingvistiska dimensioner. I syfte att undersöka effekten av uppgiftskomplexitets manipulation, presenteras detta examensarbete med empiriskt fokus på de lingvistiska dimensionerna korrekthet, komplexitet och flyt (CAF dimensions) i skolelevers skriftliga produktioner. Dessutom undersöker examensarbetet hur elevernas språkliga kompentens ytterligare kan påverka effekten av manipulationen. Examensarbetets bakgrund, diskussion och slutsats grundas på två teoretiska modeller, Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2003, 2005, 2007) och Trade-off Hypothesis (Skehan, 1998, 2015). Dessa förklarar manipulationseffekten i uppgiftskomplexitet på olika och kontrasterande sätt. I detta examensarbete undersöks 72 svenska gymnasieelevers skriftliga produktioner i engelska genom två versioner (enkel vs. komplex) av en argumenterande uppgift. Resultaten visar att den komplexa versionen bara har få skillnader och inom dessa visas en större effekt i lexikalisk komplexitet. Manipulationen av uppgiftskomplexitet visar ytterligare större effekt bland elever med högre språklig kompetensnivå. Sådana resultat innefattar betydelsefulla pedagogiska tillämpningar för klassrummets praktik, för uppgiftsutformning och val, samt för lärares arbete.   

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  • 41.
    Aldenius, Erica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, PRIM-gruppen.
    Franzon, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, PRIM-gruppen.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, PRIM-gruppen.
    Elevers skriftliga räknemetoder i addition och subtraktion2017In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, no 3, p. 19-26Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 42.
    Aldenius, Erica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, PRIM-gruppen.
    Severyd, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, PRIM-gruppen.
    Matematiskt tänkande i förskoleklass - att utforma undervisningen för flerspråkiga elever2021Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lyfta fram språket i matematiken kan stötta många elever i sin förståelse, både elever med svenska som modersmål och flerspråkiga elever. Forskning kring matematik och flerspråkighet visar att elever gynnas av tvåspråkig undervisning tillsammans med exempelvis modersmålslärare eller jämnåriga, såväl som av en matematikundervisning som bedrivs språkutvecklande.

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  • 43.
    Aldén, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Multimodala resurser för meningsskapande: En studie av lärarkognition i språkligt heterogena klassrum2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the foundation of Multiliteracies presented by The New London Group (Cazden m.fl.1996) that calls for recognising students’ multilingualism and multimodality, this study seeks to explore what beliefs in-service teachers in linguistically diverse classrooms express about usage of multimodal resources for meaning making. This study strives in particular at understanding whether teachers view such usage as beneficial for multilingual students’ learn­ing. In addition, this longitudinal qualitative study inspired of both intervention studies and design-based studies seeks to understand the connections between teachers’ beliefs and professional develop­ment programs. My data consists of six teachers’ beliefs expressed in reflections and in their reported teaching during a year of professional develop­ment. Through content analysis, the results show that all teachers view usage of multimodal meaning making resources as giving extended learning opportunities. Five of the teachers also see extended participation through this usage. A significant result is that the teachers view multimodal meaning making as scaffolding, rather than recognizing multimodal resources as an insepar­­­able part of all communication. Accordingly, the implicit meaning making through multimodal resources for scaffolding understanding seems to be more implemented in their teaching design than explicit teaching of multimodal usage for functional communicative purpose. However, four of the teachers aims at building explicit awareness of multimodal choices and its effects through their teaching design. These results show inter­connections between the professional development to both content and form.

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  • 44.
    Aldén, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Design och meningsskapande i förskolan: En multimodal designteoretisk studie av fyra lärandesammanhang kring matematik2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose was, based on a design theoretical multimodal approach to describe, analyze and interpret how three preschool teachers design learning contexts, on the subject of mathematics. Besides, this was also the aim to gain insight on how context of learning designs could be understood and interpreted in terms of learning and meaning. The method I chose was built around a non-participating video observation with a qualitative approach where the goal was to try to understand what took place through the relevant interpretations. The results and conclusions that emerged was that the preschool teachers used a variety of semiotic resources in the form of physical tools along with facial expressions, voice and gestures in their communication with the children. Moreover, it appeared that the children also used a number of different semiotic resources in their work of creating meaning around the different learning situations, designed by the preschool educators, they participated in. It also became clear that the children's previous experiences had a significant role as they also used past experiences as a tool in the meaning-making process.

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  • 45.
    Alexandersson-From, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Miladi, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur beskriver studenter lärares bedömning?: Vad kan lärarstudenten som VFU-handledaren inte kan?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare använder sig av allt från summativ bedömning och fingertoppskänsla till beprövad didaktisk erfarenhet och formativ bedömning, när elevers kunskaper ska bedömas. Forskning visar att den största framgången för elevers lärande och kunskapsutveckling sker då formativ bedömning används.

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera hur blivande lärarstudenter beskriver lärares bedömningspraktiker under den verksamhetsförlagda utbildningen. Vad upplever studenterna i praktiken av lärares bedömning jämfört med teorin från lärarutbildningen?

    Det empiriska materialet, bestående av 18 examinationsuppgifter från lärarstudenter i Didaktik II, sammanställs och tolkas med inspiration utifrån det hermeneutiska tankesättet. Studenttexterna tolkas utifrån de begrepp som studenterna enligt examinationsuppgiften förväntades att studera från sin VFU- verksamhet. Det empiriska materialet beskrivs, analyseras och resultatet jämförs i relation till forskningsfrågorna.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att lärare inte alltid gör som de säger samt att studenterna visar att de ännu inte helt erövrat den praktiska erfarenheten, som en lång lärarpraktik innebär. Studenterna har emellertid med sig de senaste teorierna om bedömning av och för elevers lärande och kunskapsutveckling. Denna studie visar att en viss diskrepans tycks råda mellan teori och praktik.

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  • 46.
    Alfranca Ramón, Cristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The representation of speech acts in EFL textbooks in Sweden: An investigation of greetings, requests and refusals in input and output and teacher insights2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching of pragmatics is often neglected in foreign language classes despite the wellknown importance of pragmatic competence. No matter how well a learner masters thetarget language, errors of a pragmatic nature may lead to major communicative failure orturbulence. Both studies in language teaching and current language educational laws inSweden (following the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) pointtowards the necessity for the learner to be pragmatically proficient. Following these lines,textbooks are expected to mirror curricula and educational laws. The present study aimsto address this very issue and investigates the pragmatic content of ELT books in Swedenwith a specific focus on lower and upper secondary school (year 6, 9 and last year ofupper secondary school). The study has as its primary data set three ELT books from thesame publisher and extensively used in Swedish schools, namely Good Stuff Gold A,Good Stuff Gold D, and Blueprint C 2.0. The presence of pragmatic content isinvestigated through the method of content analysis of the textbooks focusing on threespeech acts - greetings, requests, and refusals. The first part of the study is complementedby semi-structured interviews complemented with two teachers of English in Sweden.The findings point to considerable differences in the representation of the three speechacts in the books, with regression from lower to higher levels, and the interviews with theteachers reveal that teachers' complementary activities often compensate for the lack ofpragmatic content in the books. The findings from the present study reveal shortcomingsof the selected textbooks omitting important information, something that might hinderstudents from developing communicative competence. The findings of the present studyhave the potential to inform the practices of teaching professionals in their efforts to teachpragmatic competence.

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  • 47.
    Ali Rashed, Chra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Hållbar Utveckling i socialisationsinnehåll-Följer du med?: Följemeningsanalys i två läromedel i företagsekonomi 1 med fokus på innovation, entreprenörskap och företaget i samhället2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 48.
    Alisaari, Jenni
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German. University of Turku, Finland.
    Heikkola, Leena Maria
    Harju-Autti, Raisa
    Finnish pre-service teachers' understandings of the role of language(s) in learning mathematics2024In: Language, Culture and Curriculum, ISSN 0790-8318, E-ISSN 1747-7573, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 75-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined Finnish pre-service primary school teachers’ understandings of the role of language(s) in learning mathematics and how these understandings developed during a period of teaching practice. We also examined how the participants experienced the usefulness of the ready-made multilingual digital material Binogi and how the teaching practice period influenced their thoughts on multilingual pedagogies. Our results indicate that the teacher training period increased awareness of linguistic challenges and of the importance of students’ L1s in learning. However, some participants’ views reflected monolingual ideologies, especially regarding the conditional use of L1s. Regarding linguistic support, the participants reported using visual supports and explaining vocabulary and structures. Although many participants perceived Binogi as beneficial and motivating, less than half used it. Some participants emphasised that the practice period reinforced their understanding of the importance of multilingual pedagogies. It is important to critically reflect on the language policies and practices of Finnish teacher education and support the dialogue between research and practice regarding a shared understanding of valuing linguistic diversity in teacher education.

  • 49.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Brickhouse, Nancy
    University of Delaware.
    Lederman, Judith S.
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Lederman, Norman G.
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Ligozat, Florence
    University of Geneva, Schweiz.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sadler, Troy D.
    University of Florida.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Zeidler, Dana L.
    University of South Florida.
    Exploring themes of scientific literacy2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Al-Najem, Makarim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Elevers användning av strategierna specialisering, generalisering, gissning och övertygande2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta forskningsprojekt handlar om att studera processerna för elevers matematiska tänkande på högstadiet under matematiklektionen. Matematiskt tänkande ses som en social aktivitet. Ur ett socialt perspektiv skulle det ses som en händelse, interaktion och kommunikationsmetoder. När elevernas engagerar sig i samtalet för att lösa matematiska problem, tolkas deras aktiviteter, handlingar och förklaringar som synliga tecken eller uttryck för deras matematiska tänkande. Här har jag argumenterat både för relevansen av att fokusera elevernas matematiska tänkande som det utvecklas i deras argumentation när de arbetar med undersökande arbetssätt, och av att använda sig av lärarforskning. Genom klassrumsobservation fick jag titta närmare på aspekter som påverkar tankeprocesserna. Syftet med denna studie är att identifiera och analysera elevernas matematiska tankeprocesser specifikt på specialisering, generalisering, gissning och övertygande, som de uppvisar i sina samtal. Data i studien samlades in i samband med genomförande av fyra aktiviteter som jag utarbetat, elevers samtalsinspelning, en enkätundersökning som hölls efter genomförande av två aktiviteter och genom klassrumsobservationer. Eleverna samtalade lösningar i mindre grupper. Lösningsförslag presenterade grupperna för varandra under matematiklektionen. Elevernas samtal analyserades sedan enligt de specifika egenskaper som identifierats som en nyckel till matematiskt tänkande. Jag fann att eleverna använder processerna för matematisk tänkande i sitt resonemang och att det finns skillnader på aspekterna mellan dessa processer beroende på informationen som är kopplad till problemet, urvalet av illustrationer baserades på ämnesperspektiv och erfarenheter. Resultatet visade också att det finns en koppling mellan dessa processer och ökade medvetenhet och lärande. Genom denna studie kan slutsatser dras om att lära sig specifika processer som specialisering, gissning, generalisering och övertygande ökar medvetenheten om hur eleverna tänker som sedan används för att anpassa undervisning för eleverna. En beskrivande modell för matematiskt tänkande presenteras och används sedan för att ge ett praktiskt svar på forskningsfrågorna. Forskningsresultat kan således används av både lärare och lärarstudenter som en modell när de planerar undervisningen. 

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