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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 2. Blindow, Katrina
    et al.
    Bondestam, Fredrik
    Johansson, Gun
    Bodin, Theo
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sexual and gender harassment in Swedish workplaces: A prospective cohort study on implications for long-term sickness absence2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 466-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate gender harassment and sexual harassment as risk factors for prospective long-term sickness absence (LTSA, >= 21 days). Furthermore, support from colleagues was investigated as a moderating factor of this association.

    Methods Information on gender harassment, sexual harassment and support by colleagues were derived from the biannual Swedish Work Environment Survey 1999-2013, a representative sample of the Swedish working population (N=64 297). Information on LTSA as well as demographic and workplace variables were added from register data. Relative rates of LTSA the year following the exposure were determined using modified Poisson regression.

    Results Monthly to daily exposure to gender harassment was a risk factor for prospective LTSA among women [rate ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.05] and men (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10). Monthly to daily exposure to sexual harassment was also a risk factor for LTSA among women (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and men (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13). Exposure to sexual or gender harassment once in the last 12 months was not associated with LTSA. There was no support for an interaction between either of the exposures and support from colleagues in relation to LTSA.

    Conclusions Sexual harassment and gender harassment appear to contribute to a small excess risk for LTSA among women and men. For both kinds of offensive behaviors, the pervasiveness appears to be important for the outcome. The role of support by colleagues was inconclusive and needs further investigation.

  • 3. Blindow, Katrina J.
    et al.
    Thern, Emelie
    Hernando-Rodriguez, Julio C.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Gender-based harassment in Swedish workplaces and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality: A prospective cohort study2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 395-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study investigated experiences of different types of work-related gender-based harassment (GBH), specifically sexual and gender harassment, as risk factors for alcohol-related morbidity and mortality (ARMM).

    Methods: Information about experiences of (i) sexual harassment (SH-I) and (ii) gender harassment (GH-I) from inside the organization and (iii) sexual harassment from a person external to the organization (SH-E) were obtained from the Swedish Work Environment Survey 1995–2013, a biannual cross-sectional survey, administered to a representative sample of the Swedish working population. The survey responses from 86 033 individuals were connected to multiple registers containing information about alcohol-related diagnoses, treatment, or cause of death. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess hazard ratios (HR) of incident ARMM during a mean follow-up of eight (SH-I and GH-I) and ten (SH-E) years.

    Results: A higher prospective risk estimate of ARMM was found among participants who reported experiences of SH-E [HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–2.52], GH-I (HR 1.33, CI 1.03–1.70), or SH-I (HR 2.37, CI 1.42–3.00). Additional analyses, distinguishing one-time from reoccurring harassment experiences, indicated a dose–response relationship for all three harassment types. Gender did not modify the associations. Under the assumption of causality, 9.3% (95% CI 5.4–13.1) of the risk of ARMM among Swedish women and 2.1% (95% CI 0.6–3.6) among Swedish men would be attributable to any of the three types of GBH included in this study.

    Conclusions: Experiences of GBH in the work context may be a highly relevant factor in the etiology of ARMM.

  • 4. Cedstrand, Emma
    et al.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bodin, Theo
    Augustsson, Hanna
    Johansson, Gun
    Study protocol of a co-created primary organizational-level intervention with the aim to improve organizational and social working conditions and decrease stress within the construction industry: a controlled trial2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Within construction industry, physical work exposures have long been recognized as possible determinants for musculoskeletal disorders, but less attention has been given the increasing organizational and social work hazards and stress within this industry. There is to date a lack of knowledge about how to improve organizational and social working conditions and decrease stress within the construction industry.

    Methods: This paper outlines the design of a controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a co-created organizational-level intervention with the aim to improve role clarity, quantitative demands, staffing, planning, team effectiveness, psychosocial safety climate and stress. Two regions (> 700 employees) within one large construction company in Sweden will participate as intervention and control group. Further we present the design of the process evaluation assessing fidelity, support from managers, readiness for change and contextual factors. We will utilize questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, observations and documentation as means for data collection, hence a mixed methods approach is applied.

    Discussion: The study is expected to contribute to the understanding of how adverse organizational and social working conditions and stress can be improved within the construction industry. By applying co-creation we wish to develop an intervention and implementation strategies that fit to the context, are in line with the needs of end-users and are supported by all management levels - all of which are highlighted features in successful workplace interventions.

  • 5.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Development of job demands, decision authority and social support in industries with different gender composition - Sweden, 1991-20132019In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study aims to explore the development of job demands, decision authority and social support within and between industries with different gender composition in Sweden between 1991 and 2013.

    Methods

    Cross-sectional data from 12 waves of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (1991 to 2013), comprising in total 109,698 respondents, were used. Industries were classified in 7 categories according to its gender composition and main activity, comprising two female-dominated, three gender-mixed and two male-dominated industries. Proportions of workers reporting high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support between 1991 and 2013 were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate variation across time, using 1991 as the reference category, and between industries, using knowledge intensive services as the reference category. Estimates for high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support were presented as average marginal effects (AMEs).

    Results

    The probabilities of reporting low decision authority were higher in education and health and social care during the whole study period, for both genders, compared with the reference category of knowledge intensive services. The probability of having high job demands were higher for men and women in education, and women in health and social care, compared with the reference category. Men in the male dominated industries had increased job demands over time, compared to the beginning of the study period (1991). The probability of reporting poor social support was higher in the later than in the earliest time period for women in the female-dominated industry health and social care as well as in the gender-mixed labour intensive services industry.

    Conclusions

    There has been a negative development of job demands and decision authority in the female-dominated industries education and health and social care in Sweden, whereas social support has developed more negatively for women in health and social care and in labour intensive services.

  • 6.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Development of Organisational and Psychosocial Work Factors Across Industries with Different Gender Composition in Sweden, 2003-20132018In: Book of proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 34-35, article id S2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the development of mental ill-health and sickness absence has been poorer in female-dominated industries compared to others. One possible explanation is the different developments of psychosocial working conditions across industries. Men and women appear to react similarly to the same psychosocial exposures at work, but differences in exposure patterns may prevail. There is to date a lack of studies on the extent to which psychosocial work exposures are associated with the gender segregation on the Swedish labour market at the industry level. This study aims to investigate how organisational and psychosocial work factors have developed over time across industries with different gender composition in Sweden from 2003 to 2013, and to what extent these factors differ between industries.

    Methods: The present study is based on repeated cross-sectional data from the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES). SWES is conducted biennially by Statistics Sweden (SCB) and includes Swedish workers aged 16-64 years. Six waves from 2003 to 2013, comprising a study sample of 45,631 subjects, were analysed, Industries were categorised according to gender composition and divided into seven categories: 1) Goods and energy production; 2) Machine handling; 3) Manual services; 4) Public administration; 5) Knowledge intensive services; 6) Education; 7) Health and social care. Proportions of men and women in each industry who were exposed to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were calculated for each of the six waves. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, educational level and year of response to SWES were performed on the full sample (all six waves), in order to estimate the odds of being exposed to organisational and psychosocial work factors in each industry using the knowledge intensive service industry as the reference category.

    Results: Preliminary results show that in female dominated industries (Education and Health and social care), many organisational and psychosocial work factors developed poorly over the study period. Higher odds of exposure to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were found for several industries when using the industry of Knowledge intensive services as the reference category.

    Conclusion: This study is one of the first of its kind analysing the development of organisational and psychosocial work factors, as well as differences in these factors between industries with different gender compositions in Sweden.

  • 7.
    Drake, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Is combining human service work with family caregiving associated with additional odds of emotional exhaustion and sickness absence?: A cross-sectional study based on a Swedish cohort2020In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine to what extent human service work and family caregiving is associated with emotional exhaustion and sickness absence, and to what extent combining human service work and family caregiving is associated with additional odds. Methods: Data were derived from participants in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, year 2016 (n = 11 951). Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated for the association between human service work and family caregiving, respectively, as well as combinations of the two on one hand, and emotional exhaustion and self-reported sickness absence on the other hand. Interaction between human service work and family caregiving was assessed as departure from additivity with Rothman's synergy index. Results: Human service work was not associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but with higher odds of sickness absence. Providing childcare was associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but lower odds of sickness absence, and caring for a relative was associated with higher odds of both emotional exhaustion and sickness absence. There was no indication of an additive interaction between human service work and family caregiving in relation to neither emotional exhaustion nor sickness absence. Conclusions: We did not find support for the common assumption that long hours providing service and care for others by combining human service work with family caregiving can explain the higher risk of sickness absence or emotional exhaustion among employees in human service occupations.

  • 8.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A Theoretical Development of the Gender Embodiment of Enrichment: A Study of Gender Norms in Enrichment and Factors Related to Enrichment in a Sample of the Swedish Working Population2021In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 6, article id 669789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enrichment is a phenomenon described as the synergistic and beneficial effects of participating in both work and private life. Far too few studies have acknowledged the role of gender in enrichment. By applying a gender theoretical approach, this article has two aims; first, we aim to study the role of gender in enrichment by examining the factorial structure of enrichment in men and women; secondly, we aim to study the relationship between enrichment and work and private life factors in an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis with measurement in variance was performed and this resulted in a two-factor solution for enrichment for both men and women, representing the two directions of enrichment: work-to-life enrichment (WLE) and life-to-work enrichment (LWE). Factor loadings differ across genders, indicating that men and women construct and value items of enrichment differently. Next, linear mixed models were used to answer the second aim. Results show that gendered cultural norms in work and private life manifest in the relationship between factors in the work and home sphere and enrichment. Factors in work and private life with more or less masculine or feminine epithets relate differently to WLE and LWE for men and women. The main conclusion is that masculine and feminine norms are embodied in the values and experiences of enrichment and factors related to enrichment.

  • 9.
    Heming, Meike
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Xu, Tianwei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    The relationship between onset of workplace violence and onset of sleep disturbances in the Swedish working population2021In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 30, no 5, article id e13307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the association between onset of workplace violence and onset of sleep disturbances. We used self-reported data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) collected in 2014, 2016, and 2018. A two-wave design was based on participants who had no exposure to workplace violence or sleep disturbances at baseline (n = 6,928). A three-wave design was based on participants who in addition were unexposed to sleep disturbances in the second wave (n = 6,150). Four items of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire were used to measure sleep disturbances and one question was used to measure the occurrence of workplace violence or threats of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. In the two-wave approach, onset of workplace violence was associated with onset of sleep disturbances after adjustment for sex, age, occupational position, education, and civil status (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.96). The association was no longer statistically significant after further adjustment for night/evening work, demands, control, and social support at work. In the three-wave approach, results were only suggestive of an association between onset of workplace violence and subsequent onset of sleep disturbances after adjustment for sex, age, occupational position, education, and civil status. Onset of frequent exposure to workplace violence was associated with subsequent onset of sleep disturbances in the adjusted analyses, but these analyses were based on few individuals (13 exposed versus 5,907 unexposed). The results did not conclusively demonstrate that onset of workplace violence predicts development of sleep disturbances. Further research could elucidate the role of other working conditions.

  • 10.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population2017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity.

    Methods: Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account.

    Results: We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  • 11.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories in Effort-Reward Imbalance Over Time and their Associations with Health Complaints2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 223-223, article id O23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is one of the predominant models in contemporary stress research. It defines stress as a combination of high efforts at work and low work-related rewards. While ERI has been found to be related to a range of health outcomes, little is known about developments in ERI over time. The aim of this study is to (i) identify long- term patterns (trajectories) of effort-reward imbalance in the Swedish working population, to (ii) describe these trajectories with respect to background and work-related factors, and to (iii) evaluate health complaints associated with these trajectories.

    Methods: The study was based on panel data with four measurement points (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) collected within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Latent class growth modelling was conducted and differences in background and work factors as well as differences in health outcomes, covering self-rated health, sickness absence, depression, musculoskeletal disorder, migraine, cardiovascular heart disease, and blood pressure between trajectories, were analysed.

    Results: Four trajectories were found. A low imbalance trajectory characterised by moderate values of effort and reward comprised the majority of the study population (90%). The next largest trajectory, comprising 4% of all participants, showed the highest baseline value of effort and the lowest baseline value of reward. This trajectory was characterised by a decrease in ERI score followed by an increase and labelled as U-shaped imbalance. The third trajectory, which we called inverted U-shaped, represented 3% of all participants. It was characterised by moderate values of effort matched with moderate values of reward. Its development showed an increase in ERI followed by a decrease. The last trajectory also represented 3% of all participants and was characterised by a rather high mean value in effort in combination with a moderate mean value of reward. This trajectory showed an accelerating increase in ERI over time. We labelled it the increasing imbalance trajectory. The most favourable trajectory was dominated by men working in the private sector, while women were overrepresented in the less favourable ERI trajectories. Also, being in a less favourable trajectory was found to be associated with health complaints and diseases. For the increasing imbalance trajectory, this association remained stable also after controlling for baseline health.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that about 10% of all employees experience an imbalance between efforts and received rewards at work. To a large extent, these workers are women working in the public sector. As effort-reward imbalance is a contributing factor to these workers’ill-health, measures should be taken to increase balance between efforts and rewards, particularly in the most vulnerable groups identified in this study.

  • 12.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories of effort-reward imbalance in Swedish workers: Differences in demographic and work-related factors and associations with health2020In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 238-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.

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  • 13. Li, Jian
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Cost, Gain, and Health Theoretical Clarification and Psychometric Validation of a Work Stress Model With Data From Two National Studies2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 898-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test nonsymmetric effects of cost/gain imbalance at work on depression, based on the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Methods: Study participants were derived from two large national studies from Germany and Sweden. Associations between the ERI scales, including the effort-reward (E-R) ratio in 2016 and depression (in 2016 for German sample, and in 2018 for Swedish sample) were examined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: In both samples, high cost/low gain, but not low cost/high gain, is associated with depression, with a 3- to 5-fold elevated risk in the highest decile of the E-R ratio. Conclusions: The short version of the ERI questionnaire is a psychometrically useful tool for epidemiological research. The finding demonstrating nonsymmetric effects of cost/gain imbalance contributes to a theoretical clarification of this stress-theoretical model.

  • 14.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    Bondestam, Fredrik
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Work related sexual harassment and risk of suicide and suicide attempts: prospective cohort study2020In: The BMJ, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 370, article id m2984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyse the relation between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and suicide, as well as suicide attempts.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Setting: Sweden.

    Participants: 86 451 men and women of working age in paid work across different occupations responded to a self-report questionnaire including exposure to work related sexual harassment between 1995 and 2013. The analytical sample included 85 205 people with valid data on sexual harassment, follow-up time, and age.

    Main outcome measures: Suicide and suicide attempts ascertained from administrative registers (mean follow-up time 13 years).

    Results: Among the people included in the respective analyses of suicide and suicide attempts, 125 (0.1%) died from suicide and 816 (1%) had a suicide attempt during follow-up (rate 0.1 and 0.8 cases per 1000 person years). Overall, 11 of 4095 participants exposed to workplace sexual harassment and 114 of 81 110 unexposed participants committed suicide, and 61/4043 exposed and 755/80 513 unexposed participants had a record of suicide attempt. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for a range of sociodemographic characteristics, workplace sexual harassment was associated with an excess risk of both suicide (hazard ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 5.34) and suicide attempts (1.59, 1.21 to 2.08), and risk estimates remained significantly increased after adjustment for baseline health and certain work characteristics. No obvious differences between men and women were found.

    Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that workplace sexual harassment is prospectively associated with suicidal behaviour. This suggests that suicide prevention considering the social work environment may be useful. More research is, however, needed to determine causality, risk factors for workplace sexual harassment, and explanations for an association between work related sexual harassment and suicidal behaviour.

  • 15.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Det goda chefskapet: Organisatorisk effektivitet och anställdas hälsa, En kunskapsöversikt2008In: Chefskapets former och resultat: Två kunskapsöversikter om arbetsplatsens ledarskap, VINNOVA, 2008 , 2008, p. 113-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernin, Peggy
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leadership and health in four European countries – Sweden, Poland, Italy and Germany2008Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gun
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Status incongruence in human service occupations and implications for mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence: A prospective cohort study2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that negative status incongruence may contribute to explain higher risk of mental ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations (HSO).

    Methods Participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health who responded to questionnaires in both 2014 and 2016 (N=11 814; 42% men, 58% women) were included. Status incongruence between register-based educational level and subjective social status was assessed. The association between employment in a HSO and status incongruence was estimated in linear regression analyses adjusted for age, income, work hours, sickness absence, childcare, and job qualification match. The prospective associations between status incongruence and mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence >= 31 days respectively were estimated with logistic regression analyses in models adjusted for age and outcomes at baseline. All analyses were stratified by gender.

    Results Employment in a HSO was associated with more negative status incongruence in both genders [standardized coefficient men 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.07; women 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.09]. More negative status incongruence was furthermore associated with higher odds of mild-to-severe depressive symptoms (men OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26) and sickness absence >= 31 days (men OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.59; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28) two years later.

    Conclusion Status incongruence is somewhat higher among HSO than other occupations and associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms and sickness absence.

  • 18.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Workplace violence and health in human service industries: a systematic review of prospective and longitudinal studies2021In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 69-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To provide systematically evaluated evidence of prospective associations between exposure to physical, psychological and gender-based violence and health among healthcare, social care and education workers.

    Methods The guidelines on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsycInfo were searched for population: human service workers; exposure: workplace violence; and study type:prospective or longitudinal in articles published 1990–August 2019. Quality assessment was performed based on a modified version of the Cochrane’s ‘Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies’.

    Results After deduplication, 3566 studies remained, of which 132 articles were selected for full-text screening and 28 were included in the systematic review. A majority of the studies focused on healthcare personnel, were from the Nordic countries and were assessed to have medium quality. Nine of 11 associations between physical violence and poor mental health were statistically significant, and 3 of 4 associations between physical violence and sickness absence. Ten of 13 associations between psychological violence and poor mental health were statistically significant and 6 of 6 associations between psychological violence and sickness absence. The only study on gender-based violence and health reported a statistically non-significant association.

    Conclusion There is consistent evidence mainly in medium quality studies of prospective associations between psychological violence and poor mental health and sickness absence, and between physical violence and poor mental health in human service workers. More research using objective outcomes, improved exposure assessment and that focus on gender-based violence is needed.

  • 19.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gender differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being among Swedish managers and non-managers2015In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 88, no 8, p. 1149-1164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To explore differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being between managers and non-managers, female and male managers, and managers in the public and private sectors.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2010, including 602 female managers, 4174 female non-managers, 906 male managers, and 2832 male non-managers. Psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, satisfaction, and well-being were investigated among non-managers and managers and male and female managers, using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, educational level, staff category, and labour market sector.

    RESULTS: Both female and male managers reported high job demands and interference between work and personal life, but also high influence, high satisfaction with work and life, and low amount of sickness absence more often than non-managers of the same sex. However, female managers reported high quantitative and emotional demands, low influence, and work-personal life interference more frequently than male managers. More psychosocial work stressors were also reported in the public sector, where many women work. Male managers more often reported conflicts with superiors, lack of support, and personal life-work interference. Female managers reported poor well-being to a greater extent than male managers, but were more satisfied with their lives.

    CONCLUSION: Lack of motivation due to limited increase in satisfaction and organisational benefits is not likely to hinder women from taking on managerial roles. Managerial women's higher overall demands, lower influence at work, and poorer well-being relative to men's could hinder female managers from reaching higher organisational levels.

  • 20.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Occupational gender composition and mild to severe depression in a Swedish cohort: The impact of psychosocial work factors2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between occupational gender composition, psychosocial work factors and mild to severe depression in Swedish women and men with various educational backgrounds.

    Methods: The study included 5560 participants from two waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals of mild to severe depression in 2014 were estimated for five strata of occupational gender composition with >20-40%, >40-60%, >60-80% and >80-100% women, using 0-20% women as the reference. Analyses were stratified by gender and education. Job strain, organisational injustice, poor social support and effort-reward imbalance in 2012 were added in separate models, and changes in OR of mild to severe depression for strata of occupational gender composition were evaluated.

    Results: Among women, the odds of mild to severe depression did not vary by occupational gender composition. Among men with low to intermediate education, the odds were higher in the stratum with >80-100% women, and among men with high education, the odds were higher in strata with >20-40% and >60-80% women. Psychosocial work factors affected the odds ratios of mild to severe depression, but most of the variation remained unexplained.

    Conclusions: Odds of mild to severe depression appeared to vary by occupational gender composition among Swedish men but not women. This variation seemed only to a small extent to be explained by psychosocial work factors.

  • 21.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0140516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  • 22.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does Work-Personal Life Interference Predict Turnover Among Male and Female Managers, and do Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association?2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 308-309, article id O135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase possibilities for women and men to remain in leadership positions a better understanding of turnover processes among female and male managers appears important. Although the interface between work and personal life has been recognised as a key issue for managers, it has seldom been empirically investigated in relation to turnover. In the present study we used a longitudinal multi-group design to examine associations between work- personal life interference, managerial turnover and depressive symptoms, and their differences with respect to gender. We hypothesised that 1) work-personal life interference predict managerial turnover, 2) depressive symptoms mediate the association, which 3) differ by gender. 

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n=717 men and 741 women). Mediation models within a multilevel SEM framework, in which repeated measures were nested within individuals, were fitted. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables (t and t-1) were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full longitudinal gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference (t-2) and turnover (t) was mediated through depressive symptoms (t-1). Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In accordance with our first hypothesis, significant prospective paths between work- personal life interference and turnover were found among both male and female managers. In line with our second hypothesis, there were furthermore significant prospective associations between work-personal life interference and depressive symptoms as well as between depressive symptoms and turnover in both genders. However, no significant intermediate effect of depressive symptoms in the longitudinal association between work-personal life interference and turnover was found in any gender, and therefore our second hypothesis was not supported. We found gender differences in several of the estimated associations, lending partial support for our third hypothesis.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain male and female managerial talent.

  • 23.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does work-personal life interference predict turnover among male and female managers, and do depressive symptoms mediate the association? A longitudinal study based on a Swedish cohort2018In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the present study we used a longitudinal design to examine if work-personal life interference predicted managerial turnover, if depressive symptoms mediated the association, and if the relationships differed by gender.

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n = 717 men and 741 women). Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework, in which repeated measures (level 1) were nested within individuals (level 2), were fitted to data. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference and turnover was mediated through depressive symptoms. Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In both genders there were significant paths between work-personal life interference and turnover. Depressive symptoms were, however, not found to mediate in the relationship between work-personal life interference and turnover. The models differed significantly between genders.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain both male and female managerial talent.

  • 24.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Socio-economic predictors of depressive symptoms around old age retirement in Swedish women and men2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 558-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate trajectories of depression around old age retirement in Swedish women and men and examine if socio-economic status predicted the trajectoriesMethods: The analytic sample comprised 907 women and 806 men from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. B-spline smoothers and group-based trajectory modelling were used to identify groups of individuals with similar trajectories of depressive symptoms around retirement. Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to investigate if socio-economic factors were associated with odds of belonging to trajectory groups with higher depression scores.Results: Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified in both genders, all showing similar symptom levels across the retirement transition. Low levels of depressive symptoms were observed in the three largest groups. In the last trajectory group among women (2.5%) depression scores were moderate to severe and among men (3.3%) depression scores were persistent moderate. Higher educational level and lower subjectively rated social status were associated with higher odds of belonging to trajectory groups with higher levels of depressive symptoms in both genders. Conclusion: Retirement transition was not associated with symptoms of depression. Higher educational level and lower subjective social status may predict higher depressive symptom levels the years around old age retirement.

  • 25.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does job promotion affect men's and women's health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 1137-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher occupational status has consistently been shown to be associated with better health, but few studies have to date examined if an upward change in occupational status is associated with a positive change in health. Furthermore, very little is known about whether this association differs by sex. Methods: Data were derived from four waves (2008-14) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a follow-up study of a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population. The present study comprises 1410 men and 1926 women. A dynamic panel model with fixed effects was used to analyse the lagged association between job promotion on the one hand and self-rated health (SRH) and symptoms of depression on the other. This method allowed controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders and determining the direction of causality between the variables. Multigroup comparisons were performed to investigate differences between the sexes. Results: The results showed that job promotion was associated with decreased subsequent SRH and increased symptoms of depression among both men and women. Women reported a larger relative worsening of self-rated health following a job promotion than men and men reported a larger relative worsening of depression symptoms. There was limited evidence that SRH and symptoms of depression were associated with subsequent job promotion. Conclusions: The present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men.

  • 26.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Does social and professional establishment at age 30 mediate the association between school connectedness and family climate at age 16 and mental health symptoms at age 43?2019In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 246, p. 52-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim was to use a theoretical framework developed by Bronfenbrenner in order to investigate if the association between school connectedness and family climate at age 16 and mental health symptoms at age 43 is mediated by social and professional establishment at age 30.

    Methods

    Data were drawn from The Northern Swedish Cohort, a prospective population-based cohort. The present study included 506 women and 577 men who responded to questionnaires at age 16 (in year 1981), age 30 (in 1995) and age 43 (in 2008). Mediation was tested by fitting structural equation models (SEM) and estimating direct effects between proximal processes (school connectedness and family climate) and symptoms of depression and anxiety respectively, and indirect effects via social and professional establishment (professional activity, educational level, and civil status).

    Results

    The standardised estimate for the direct path from school connectedness to depression was -0.147 (p = .000) and the indirect effect mediated by professional activity -0.017 (p = .011) and by civil status -0.020 (p = .002). The standardised direct effect between school connectedness and anxiety was -0.147 (p = .000) and the indirect effect mediated by civil status -0.018 (p = .005). Family climate was not significantly associated with the outcomes or mediators.

    Limitations

    Self-reported data; mental health measures not diagnostic; closed cohort; intelligence, personality and home situation before age 16 not accounted for.

    Conclusions

    Professional and social establishment in early adulthood appear to partially mediate the association between adolescent school connectedness and mental health symptoms in middle-age.

  • 27. Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bi-directional associations between gender-based harassment at work, psychological treatment and depressive symptoms2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1278570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the bi-directional associations between experienced and witnessed gender-based harassment (GBH) on the one hand, and depressive symptoms and psychological treatment on the other, in an occupational setting. GBH are behaviors that derogate, demean, or humiliate an individual based on his or her gender.

    Methods: The analyses were based on data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health at 2018 (T1) and 2020 (T2), including 6,679 working participants (60.3% women) with a majority in the age range of 45–64. Using cross-lagged structural equational models, we analyzed experienced and witnessed GBH in relation to depressive symptoms and having received psychological treatment (talked to a counselor or psychological professional) over time.

    Results: Our results showed that neither experienced nor witnessed GBH was prospectively associated with depressive symptoms or psychological treatment over two years. Both higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.002, p ≤ 0.001) and having received psychological treatment (β = 0.013, p = 0.027) weakly predicted experiences of GBH over time. Having received psychological treatment was furthermore weakly associated with witnessed GBH (β = 0.019, p = 0.012).

    Discussion: In conclusion, the hypothesized associations between exposure to GBH and mental health outcomes were not statistically significant, while a weak reverse association was noted. More research addressing bidirectional associations between GBH and mental health outcomes are needed.

  • 28.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    How consistently does sleep quality improve at retirement? Prospective analyses with group-based trajectory models2022In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 31, no 2, article id e13474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing evidence indicates that retiring from paid work is associated, at least in the short-term, with dramatic reductions in sleep difficulties and more restorative sleep. However, much is still not known, in particular how universal these improvements are, how long they last, and whether they relate to the work environment. A methodological challenge concerns how to model time when studying abrupt changes such as retirement. Using data from Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (n = 2,148), we studied difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, premature awakening, restless sleep, a composite scale of these items, and non-restorative sleep. We compared polynomial and B-spline functions to model time in group-based trajectory modelling. We estimated variations in the individual development of sleep difficulties around retirement, relating these to the pre-retirement work environment. Reductions in sleep difficulties at retirement were sudden for all outcomes and were sustained for up to 11 years for non-restorative sleep, premature awakening, and restless sleep. Average patterns masked distinct patterns of change: groups of retirees experiencing greatest pre-retirement sleep difficulties benefitted most from retiring. Higher job demands, lower work time control, lower job control, and working full-time were work factors that accounted membership in these groups. Compared to polynomials, B-spline models more appropriately estimated time around retirement, providing trajectories that were closer to the observed shapes. The study highlights the need to exercise care in modelling time over a sudden transition because using polynomials can generate artefactual uplifts or omit abrupt changes entirely, findings that would have fallacious implications.

  • 29. Romanowska, Julia
    et al.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Developing Leadership and Employee Health Through the Arts: Improving Leader-Employee Relationships2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the problems that a “laissez faire” attitude from managers can create in the workplace, as well as the ensuing illness such problems may cause among employees. The book offers new ideas for dealing with these problems and proposes the use of cultural experiences as an active component in leadership development programmes for managers. It presents the findings from a randomized trial to show how cultural experiences can be deployed, and what the effect on employees is. The book discusses health-promoting leadership and key components in cultural activities for the benefit of workplaces from several points of view, offering a historical, social, psychological, biological, educational and organizational perspective. Finally, it presents new theories on empathy in managers, and on employee effects of good/bad changes in manager behaviour.

  • 30.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Persitera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The role of managerial leadership in sickness absence in health and social care: antecedent or moderator in the association between psychosocial working conditions and register-based sickness absence? A longitudinal study based on a swedish cohort2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 2215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of sickness absence is particularly high among employees in health and social care, where psychosocial work stressors are pertinent. Managerial leadership is known to affect sickness absence rates, but the role leadership plays in relation to sickness absence is not fully understood; that is, whether poor leadership (i) is associated with sickness absence directly, (ii) is associated with sickness absence indirectly through the establishment of poor psychosocial working conditions, or (iii) whether good leadership rather has a buffering role in the association between work stressors and sickness absence.

    Methods: Four biennial waves from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH, 2010–2016, N=2333) were used. Autoregressive cross-lagged analyses within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework were conducted to test hypotheses i)–iii), targeting managerial leadership, register-based sickness absence and psychosocial work stressors (high psychological demands, poor decision authority and exposure to workplace violence).

    Results: A direct association was found between poor leadership and sickness absence two years later, but no associations were found between leadership and the psychosocial work stressors. Finally, only in cases of poor leadership was there a statistically significant association between workplace violence and sickness absence.

    Conclusions: Poor managerial leadership may increase the risk of sickness absence among health and social care workers in two ways: first, directly and, second, by increasing the link between workplace violence and sickness absence.

  • 31.
    Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Cultural activity at work: reciprocal associations with depressive symptoms in employees2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 8, p. 1131-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Several studies have shown that cultural activities may promote health. There are also prospective population studies which show that regular participation in cultural activities could reduce morbidity and mortality. To what extent such associations could be applied to the work arena is not so well known, although findings in a few studies support the assumption that cultural activities organized from the work site might improve employee health. An important question discussed in the literature is the extent to which associations between cultural activity at work and employee mental health could be reversed, for instance, with depressive mood resulting in withdrawal from cultural activity at work (backwords) rather than the opposite (forwards). The present study addresses this question. Methods Using a biennial national job survey with seven waves (SLOSH), we examined 2-year follow-up periods in 7193 men and 9313 women in the years 2006-2018. The question regarding cultural activity at work was examined prospectively (using multilevel structural equation modelling) both forwards and backwards in relation to a standardized score for depressive mood (SCL-CD6) in participants working at least 30% both at start and end of the 2-year period. Results The analyses were made separately for men and women and with age and education level as confounders. The findings show that there are highly significant prospective relationships for both men and women in both directions concomitantly. Conclusions Participation in cultural activity at work may protect employees from worsening depressive feelings, but depressive feelings may also inhibit participation in such activities.

  • 32.
    Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Romanowska, Julia
    Om ledarskap och de anställdas hälsa2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 780-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarna diskuterar med utgångspunkt från sin egen forskning på vilket sätt ledaren på en arbetsplats kan påverka de anställdas hälsa och vilka faktorer som enligt forskningen tycks har störst betydelse. Passiva och auktoritära ledarstilar visar sig i epidemiologiska studier ha samband med dålig psykisk hälsa hos de anställda, särskilt upplevelse av mobbning, depressiva symptom, känslomässig utmattning och ökad sjukskrivning. I en prospektiv studie har man även visat samband mellan vad den anställde upplever som gott ledarskap (bedömt med en standardiserad skala) och minskad hjärtinfarktrisk hos de anställda under en uppföljningstid. I ett par kontrollerade interventionsstudier har det visat sig möjligt att påverka chefsbeteende så att hälsoeffekter för de anställda kan påvisas. Det är dock viktigt att utveckla den typ av interventioner som används. Om man vill öka känsla av ansvar och engagemang (med minskad låt-gå-mentalitet, ”laissez-faire”) hos chefen i relation till de anställda räcker förmodligen inte de pedagogiska metoder som för närvarande används i chefsutvecklingsprogram. Vi föreslår att man utnyttjar den emotionella och etiska potential att öka engagemang som finns i konstnärliga upplevelser.

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