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  • 1. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Exhaustion and Impaired Work Performance in the Workplace: Associations With Presenteeism and Absenteeism2019Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, nr 11, s. 438-444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    Methods: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    Results: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    Conclusions: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 2. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Jensen, Irene
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    What is Number of Days in Number of Times?: Associations Between, and Responsiveness of, Two Sickness Presenteeism Measures2020Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. e180-e185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the associations between sickness presenteeism (SP) reported as number of days with SP reported as number of times and to evaluate their responsiveness.

    Methods: The study population (n = 454) consisted of employed individuals, at risk of long-term sickness absence. Correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between the two SP measures and external constructs such as work performance, general health, and registered sick leave. Both SP constructs were measured several times to examine responsiveness.

    Results: The SP measures are moderately correlated. They moderately correlated with work performance and health status measures. SP reported as number of times seems to be more sensitive than number of days in detecting changes after rehabilitation.

    Conclusions: Numerical or categorical constructs are valid sources of data on SP. However, categorized SP seems to be more responsive.

  • 3.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The mediating effect of work-life interference on the relationship between work-time control and depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 469-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Evidence shows that work-time control (WTC) affects health but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Work-life interference (WLI) might be a step on the causal pathway. The present study examined whether WLI mediates effects on mental and physical health and contrasted these to other causal pathways.

    Methods Four biennial waves from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH, N=26 804) were used. Cross-lagged analyses were conducted to estimate if WLI mediated effects from WTC (differentiating between control over daily hours and time off) to subsequent depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms. Other causal directions (reversed mediation, direct and reversed direct effects) and robustness of mediation (by including covariates) were examined.

    Results WLI partially mediated the relationship of WTC (control over daily hours/time off) with both health outcomes. Indirect effect estimates were small for depressive symptoms (-0.053 for control over time off and -0.018 for control over daily hours) and very small for musculoskeletal symptoms (-0.007 and -0.003, respectively). While other causal directions were generally weaker than causal mediational pathways, they played a larger role for musculoskeletal compared to depressive symptoms. Estimates relating to control over time off were in general larger than for control over daily hours.

    Conclusions Our results suggest that WLI mediates part of the effect from WTC to mental/musculoskeletal symptoms, but small estimates suggest that (i) WTC plays a small but consistent role in effects on health and (ii) particularly regarding musculoskeletal disorders, other causal directions and mediators need to be further examined.

  • 4.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study2017Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, s. 143-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways.

    METHODS: The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested.

    RESULTS: Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048.

    LIMITATIONS: Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high.

    CONCLUSION: Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance.

  • 5.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers2023Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested whether gender moderates the mediating role of overtime. Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models. Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen= −0.117; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.237 to 0.003; βwomen= −0.253; 95% CI: −0.386 to −0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen= −0.199; 95% CI: −0.347 to −0.051; βwomen= −0.271; 95% CI: −0.443 to −0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 min/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours. Conclusions: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC owing to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may help prevent work–life interference and burnout.

  • 6.
    Albrecht, Sophie Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ojajärvi, Anneli
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Association of work-time control with sickness absence due to musculoskeletal and mental disorders: An occupational cohort study2020Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 62, nr 1, artikel-id e12181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Work-time control is associated with lower sickness absence rates, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by type of diagnosis and sub-dimension of work-time control (control over daily hours and control over time off) and whether certain vulnerable groups benefit more from higher levels of work-time control.

    Methods: Survey data from the Finnish 10-town study in 2004 were used to examine if baseline levels of work-time control were associated with register data on diagnose-specific sickness absence for 7 consecutive years (n = 22 599). Cox proportional hazard models were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational status, shift work including nights, and physical/mental workload.

    Results: During follow-up, 2,818 individuals were on sick leave (>= 10 days) due to musculoskeletal disorders and 1724 due to mental disorders. Employees with high (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87; HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.82, respectively) and moderate (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90; HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91, respectively) levels of control over daily hours/control over time off had a decreased risk of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Sub-group analyses revealed that especially workers who were older benefitted the most from higher levels of work-time control. Neither sub-dimension of work-time control was related to sickness absence due to mental disorders.

    Conclusions: Over a 7-year period of follow-up, high and moderate levels of work-time control were related to lower rates of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders, but not due to mental disorders.

  • 7.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 320-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

  • 8.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workersManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested if gender moderates the mediating role of overtime.

    Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models.

    Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen=-0.117; CI95%: -0.237 to 0.003; βwomen=-0.253; CI95%: -0.386 to -0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen=-0.199; CI95%: -0.347 to -0.051; βwomen=-0.271; CI95%: -0.443 to -0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 minutes/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours.

    Conclusion: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC due to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may aid to prevent work–life interference and burnout.

  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Hagberg, J.
    Björklund, Christina
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Marklund, S.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Health and motivation as mediators of the effects of job demands, job control, job support, and role conflicts at work and home on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism2021Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 94, nr 3, s. 409-418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The first objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the contrasting and paradoxical results in studies of work environment factors and sickness presence and sickness absence. A second objective was to examine if, and under what conditions, employees choose to replace sickness absence with sickness presence, i.e., so-called substitution.

    Methods: The study utilizes a large body of cross-sectional questionnaire data (n = 130,161) gathered in Sweden from 2002 to 2007 in connection with a comprehensive health promotion initiative. Health and motivation were analyzed as mediators of the effects of five job factors, job control, job support, job demand, role conflict and “work to family conflict” on sickness presence and absence.

    Results: The results concerning job demands indicate substitution in that increased job demands are associated with increased presenteeism and reduced absenteeism. The direct effect of higher job support was increased absenteeism, but via the health and motivation paths, the total effect of more social support was health-promoting and associated with a reduction in sickness absence and sickness presence. High job control emerged as the most pronounced health-promoting factor, reducing sickness presenteeism as well as absenteeism. More role conflicts and work-to-family conflicts were directly and indirectly associated with decreased health and increased absenteeism as well as presenteeism. earlier research.

    Conclusion: The mediation analyzes shed light on some of the paradoxes in research on sickness presenteeism and sickness absenteeism, especially regarding job demands and job support. The substitution effect is important for workplace policy and occupational health practice.

  • 10.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    The changing nature of work - Job strain, job support and sickness absence among care workers and in other occupations in Sweden 1991-20132021Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 15, artikel-id 100893Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined exposure changes in three psychosocial dimensions - job demands, job control, and social support - and the associations between these dimensions and sickness absence throughout the period 1991-2013. The analyses covered periods of economic ups and downs in Sweden and periods involving major fluctuations in sickness absence. Data on care workers (n = 16,179) and a comparison group of employees in other occupations (n = 82,070) were derived from the biennial Swedish Work Environment Survey and linked to register data on sickness absence. Eight exposure profiles, based on combinations of demands, control, and support, were formed. The proportion of individuals with work profiles involving high demands doubled among care workers (14%-29%) while increasing modestly in the comparison group (17%-21%) 1991-2013. The work profile that isolated high-strain (iso-strain), i.e., high demands, low control, and low social support, was more prevalent among care workers, from 4% in 1991 to 11% in 2013. Individuals with work profiles involving highdemand jobs had the highest number of days on sickness absence during the study period and those with the isostrain work profile had the highest increase in sickness absence, from 15 days per year during 1993-1994, to 42 days during 2000-2002. Employees with a passive work profile (low job demands and low job control) had the lowest rate and the lowest increase in sickness absence. Individuals with active work profiles, where high demands are supposed to be balanced by high job control, had a rather high increase in sickness days around 2000. A conclusion is that there is a long-term trend towards jobs with high demands. This trend is stronger among care workers than among other occupations. These levels of job demands seem to be at such a level that it is difficult to compensate for with higher job control and social support.

  • 11.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 310-317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Comparing Depressive Symptoms, Emotional Exhaustion, and Sleep Disturbances in Self-Employed and Employed Workers: Application of Approximate Bayesian Measurement Invariance2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 598303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating differences in mental health problems between self-employed and employed workers have provided contradictory results. Many of the studies utilized scales validated for employed workers, without collecting validity evidence for making comparisons with self-employed. The aim of this study was (1) to collect validity evidence for three different scales assessing depressive symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disturbances for employed workers, and combinators; and (2) to test if these groups differed. We first conducted approximate measurement invariance analysis and found that all scales were invariant at the scalar level. Self-employed workers had least mental health problems and employed workers had most, but differences were small. Though we found the scales invariant, we do not find them optimal for comparison of means. To be more precise in describing differences between groups, we recommend using clinical cut-offs or scales developed with the specific purpose of assessing mental health problems at work.

  • 13. Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Marklund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Björklund, Christina
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    A Resourceful Work Environment Moderates the Relationship between Presenteeism and Health: A Study Using Repeated Measures in the Swedish Working Population2020Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 13, artikel-id 4711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the psychosocial work environment moderates the proposed negative impact of presenteeism on future general health. We expect that the negative impact of presenteeism on general health is weaker if the psychosocial work environment is resourceful, and more pronounced if the environment is stressful. Data were derived from the 2008-2018 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted ofn= 15,779 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results from the autoregressive GEE models showed statistically significant interaction terms between presenteeism and all four investigated moderators, i.e., job demands, job control, job support and job strain. The results indicate that the psychosocial work environment moderates the negative association between presenteeism and general health and illustrates a buffering effect of the psychosocial work environment. A possible explanation for these results may be that psychosocially resourceful work environments give room for adjustments in the work situation and facilitate recovery. The results also indicate that by investing the psychosocial work environment employers may be able to promote worker health as well as prevent reduced job performance due to presenteeism.

  • 14.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Ingår i: , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15. Bernhard-Oettel, C.
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The temporaries, the self-employed and the permanent staff: A Swedish study comparing work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bergman, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time - associations with business success2019Ingår i: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, s. 207-207Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Around 9% of the working population in Sweden consists of self-employed business owners, but a considerable amount of them struggle to consolidate or expand their businesses. Among the factors predicting business success the decisive role of long-term health of business owners has been acknowledged only recently, but longitudinal studies testing this assumption are scarce. Based on the conservation of resources theory, good health can be seen as a resource that helps business owners to tackle high workloads and make business succeed.

    Design: Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey is used. Starting in 2012, N=554 self-employed have answered three or more times in the biannual data collection. Latent growth curve modelling is employed to study general and mental health trajectories and their associations with business survival over time.

    Results: Preliminary descriptive analyses on biannual changes suggest that roughly one in ten self-employed leaves self-employment at follow-up. Job demands and emotional exhaustion are higher among those who leave compared to those who remain in business. After integrating new data collected in 2018, growth curve analyses are run over the whole longitudinal sample, and associations of health trajectories to business survival will be tested.

    Limitations: Data is collected with questionnaires, and business success is operationalized as business survival only.

    Research/Practical Implications: Study results increase knowledge on the self-employed’s health developments, vulnerable groups with poor health and risk of business failure can be detected.

    Originality/Value: This is one of few studies on longitudinal developments of health in selfemployed business owners.

  • 17.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Eib, Constanze
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    How do Job Insecurity and Organisational Injustice relate to Mental Health Problems? A Multilevel Study on Synchronous and Delayed Effects2018Ingår i: Book of Proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2018, s. 216-217, artikel-id O15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the continuous changing world of work towards more automatisation, and global competition that requires organisations to cut costs wherever possible, job insecurity is a concern of workers across many different occupations. Job insecurity is a stressful experience and its negative impact on wellbeing and health is well-documented. However, the exact mechanisms for the link between job insecurity and health need further study.

    We argue that job insecurity is a breach of the psychological contract for permanent workers, leading to perceptions that the employer acts unfairly, which is related to immediate (synchronous) and long-term (two years delayed) negative health effects. Thus, we firstly hypothesise indirect effects between job insecurity on depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties via organisational injustice at the within person level. Furthermore, because employees who often experience job insecurity may no longer have security expectations in their psychological contract, we suggest that the strength of the job insecurity-injustice relationship differs between individuals, such that the relationship is weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity over time. Finally, we hypothesised that the relationship between organisational injustice and depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties is stronger for individuals who experience more over time-variation in organisational injustice. We expect this pattern because recent research shows that injustice has stronger effects for individuals whose justice experiences vary as opposed to relatively stable injustice perceptions.

    Method: The study population consisted of participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey. We selected only permanent workers over four consecutive data waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) and analyzed the data with multilevel analysis.

    Results: At the within-person level, we found significant direct effects of job insecurity on organisational injustice. Job insecurity and organisational injustice displayed direct synchronous effects on both health outcomes, but few delayed effects were found. The indirect effects were significant for synchronous but not for delayed health outcomes. Significant cross-level interactions were found for between-individual differences in job insecurity, but not for between- individual differences in organisational justice. In particular, as hypothesised, the link between job insecurity and organisational injustice at each wave was weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity perceptions but stronger for those who rarely experienced job insecurity during the time of the study.

    Discussion: This study is one of the few studies investigating within- and between-person mechanisms that link feelings of job insecurity to the experience of organisational injustice and health outcomes over time. It also adds to the debate whether job insecurity and organisational injustice associate with health via mediation or moderation mechanisms by showing that both mechanisms may operate simultaneously yet on different levels. Furthermore, this study highlights that permanent workers view their organisation as less fair when they experience job insecurity, the more so if their psychological contract is largely intact and builds on security expectations. Both job insecurity and injustice have rather direct effects for health.

  • 18.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    How Do Job Insecurity and Organizational Justice Relate to Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Difficulties: A Multilevel Study on Immediate and Prolonged Effects in Swedish Workers2020Ingår i: Applied Psychology: an international review, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 1271-1300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity-justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice-health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two-year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within- and between-person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within-person job insecurity-justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within-person justice-health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within- and between-person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

  • 19.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 215-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 20.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Östergren, P.-O.
    Stuck at a workplace: What’s work control, demands and learning got to do with it? A longitudinal multilevel study on Swedish permanent employees in situations of ‘workplace locked-in’2020Ingår i: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 31, nr 14, s. 1771-1792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst health consequences of being locked-in at the workplace have been documented in several research studies, it is largely unknown how work characteristics and their changes over time relate to risks for becoming locked-in at a certain workplace. Accordingly, this paper studied how perceived control, learning opportunities and quantitative demands at work associate with workplace-locked-in (WPLI). The study included permanent employees who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study in wave 3 through 5 (n = 2918 individuals; n = 7460 observations). Results from multi-level analysis show that there was significant individual variation in WPLI changes over time, even though on average, WPLI decreased slightly. Differences in work characteristics between individuals (L2) and across time (L1) associated significantly with WPLI: higher levels of job control and learning opportunities related to lower odds ratios for WPLI, whereas higher quantitative job demands associated with higher odds ratios of WPLI. Moreover, differences in quantitative job demands, number of job changes and educational achievements explained the individual variations of WPLI developments over time. The result shows that WPLI can – to some extent – be prevented or reduced through good work design, and implications for HR managers and organizations are discussed.

  • 21. Brenner, M. Harvey
    et al.
    Andreeva, Elena
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Imbernon, Ellen
    Bonnaud, Sophie
    Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id e97063Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizational downsizing has become highly common during the global recession of the late 2000s with severe repercussions on employment. We examine whether the severity of the downsizing process is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms among displaced workers, internally redeployed workers and lay-off survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving telephone interviews was carried out in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The study analyzes data from 758 workers affected by medium-and large-scale downsizing, using multiple logistic regression. Main Results: Both unemployment and surviving layoffs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as compared to reemployment, but the perceived procedural justice of a socially responsible downsizing process considerably mitigated the odds of symptoms. Perception of high versus low justice was assessed along several downsizing dimensions. In the overall sample, chances to have depressive symptoms were significantly reduced if respondents perceived the process as transparent and understandable, fair and unbiased, well planned and democratic; if they trusted the employer's veracity and agreed with the necessity for downsizing. The burden of symptoms was significantly greater if the process was perceived to be chaotic. We further tested whether perceived justice differently affects the likelihood of depressive symptoms among distinct groups of workers. Findings were that the odds of symptoms largely followed the same patterns of effects across all groups of workers. Redeploying and supporting surplus employees through the career change process-rather than forcing them to become unemployed-makes a substantial difference as to whether they will suffer from depressive symptoms. Conclusions: While depressive symptoms affect both unemployed and survivors, a just and socially responsible downsizing process is important for the emotional health of workers.

  • 22.
    Brulin, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Work–Life Enrichment and Interference Among Swedish Workers: Trends From 2016 Until the COVID-19 Pandemic2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, artikel-id 854119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has altered workers' possibilities to combine work and private life. Work and private life could either interfere with each other, that is, when conflicting demands arise, or enrich, that is, when the two roles are beneficial to one another. Analyzing data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health through individual growth models, we investigated time trends of interference and enrichment between work and private life from 2016 through March to September 2020, which is during the first wave of the pandemic. The sample included workers who had remained in the same workplace throughout the study period and worked at least 30% of full time, reaching 5,465 individuals. In addition, we examined trends in level of interference and enrichment across gender and industries. Results showed that Life-to-work interference increased over time in the Swedish working population, but neither did work-to-life interference nor enrichment. We observed only marginal differences across gender. Also, in the industries of fine manufacturing and real-estate activities, a decrease in interference, work-to-life interference, and life-to-work interference, respectively, was observed. In the human health and social care industry, an increase in interference and life-to-work interference was seen. Our conclusion is that overall changes to the possibilities to balance work and private life have occurred for workers in Sweden during the first period of the pandemic. Further studies are needed to study development time trends throughout the pandemic and across different occupations.

  • 23. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, s. 516-524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 24. Deter, Hans-Christian
    et al.
    Meister, Reinhard
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lohse, Lukas
    Orth-Gomér, Kristina
    Fem-Cor-Risk Study group,
    Behavioral factors predict all-cause mortality in female coronary patients and healthy controls over 26 years – a prospective secondary analysis of the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study2022Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 12, artikel-id e0277028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is related to its severity and cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. In women, social isolation, marital stress, sedentary lifestyle and depression predicted CAD progression and outcome within 3 to 5 years. We hypothesised that these behavioral factors would still be associated with all-cause mortality in female patients after 26 years.

    Methods

    We examined 292 patients with CAD and 300 healthy controls (mean age of 56 ± 7 y) within the Fem-Cor-Risk-Study at baseline. Their cardiac, behavioral, and psychosocial risk profiles, exercise, smoking, and dietary habits were assessed using standardized procedures. Physiological characteristics included a full lipid profile, the coagulation cascade and autonomic dysfunction (heart rate variability, HRV). A new exploratory analysis using machine-learning algorithms compared the effects of social and behavioral mechanisms with standard risk factors. Results: All-cause mortality records were completed in 286 (97.9%) patients and 299 (99.7%) healthy women. During a median follow-up of 26 years, 158 (55.2%) patients and 101 (33.9%) matched healthy controls died. The annualized mortality rate was 2.1% and 1.3%, respectively. After controlling for all available confounders, behavioral predictors of survival in patients were social integration (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99–1.0) and physical activity (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37–0.79). Smoking acted as a predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03–2.36). Among healthy women, moderate physical activity (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.74) and complete HRV recordings (≥50%) were found to be significant predictors of survival.

    Conclusions

    CAD patients with adequate social integration, who do not smoke and are physically active, have a favorable long-term prognosis. The exact survival times confirm that behavioral risk factors are associated with all-cause mortality in female CAD patients and healthy controls.

  • 25.
    Drake, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Is combining human service work with family caregiving associated with additional odds of emotional exhaustion and sickness absence?: A cross-sectional study based on a Swedish cohort2020Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 55-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine to what extent human service work and family caregiving is associated with emotional exhaustion and sickness absence, and to what extent combining human service work and family caregiving is associated with additional odds. Methods: Data were derived from participants in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, year 2016 (n = 11 951). Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated for the association between human service work and family caregiving, respectively, as well as combinations of the two on one hand, and emotional exhaustion and self-reported sickness absence on the other hand. Interaction between human service work and family caregiving was assessed as departure from additivity with Rothman's synergy index. Results: Human service work was not associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but with higher odds of sickness absence. Providing childcare was associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but lower odds of sickness absence, and caring for a relative was associated with higher odds of both emotional exhaustion and sickness absence. There was no indication of an additive interaction between human service work and family caregiving in relation to neither emotional exhaustion nor sickness absence. Conclusions: We did not find support for the common assumption that long hours providing service and care for others by combining human service work with family caregiving can explain the higher risk of sickness absence or emotional exhaustion among employees in human service occupations.

  • 26. Edvall, Niklas K.
    et al.
    Mehraei, Golbarg
    Claeson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lazar, Andra
    Bulla, Jan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Canlon, Barbara
    Cederroth, Christopher R.
    Alterations in auditory brain stem response distinguish occasional and constant tinnitus2022Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0021-9738, E-ISSN 1558-8238, Vol. 132, nr 5, artikel-id e155094Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND. The heterogeneity of tinnitus is thought to underlie the lack of objective diagnostic measures.

    METHODS. Longitudinal data from 20,349 participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) cohort from 2008 to 2018 were used to understand the dynamics of transition between occasional and constant tinnitus. The second part of the study included electrophysiological data from 405 participants of the Swedish Tinnitus Outreach Project (STOP) cohort.

    RESULTS. We determined that with increasing frequency of the occasional perception of self-reported tinnitus, the odds of reporting constant tinnitus after 2 years increases from 5.62 (95% CI, 4.83–6.55) for previous tinnitus (sometimes) to 29.74 (4.82–6.55) for previous tinnitus (often). When previous tinnitus was reported to be constant, the odds of reporting it as constant after 2 years rose to 603.02 (524.74–692.98), suggesting that once transitioned to constant tinnitus, the likelihood of tinnitus to persist was much greater. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) from subjects reporting nontinnitus (controls), occasional tinnitus, and constant tinnitus show that wave V latency increased in constant tinnitus when compared with occasional tinnitus or nontinnitus. The ABR from occasional tinnitus was indistinguishable from that of the nontinnitus controls.

    CONCLUSIONS. Our results support the hypothesis that the transition from occasional to constant tinnitus is accompanied by neuronal changes in the midbrain leading to a persisting tinnitus, which is then less likely to remit.

  • 27.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Näswall, Katharina
    You can't always get what you want: Mechanisms and consequences of intra-organizational job change among middle managers in Sweden2022Ingår i: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 33, nr 15, s. 2961-2990Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An intra-organizational change process involving all middle managers was studied in a public sector organization in Sweden over three time points, spanning two years in total. Using sensemaking and the person-environmental fit literature as well studies on promotion and demotion, hypotheses about the effects of managerial status loss and being offered a non-preferred role (non-preference) on change reactions (job satisfaction, turnover intentions, mental health) are made. Data from 140 middle managers was analyzed with path models, where two process factors (perceived organizational support during the change, procedural justice of the change) and two job characteristics (job demand, job control) were tested simultaneously as mediators. Results revealed that managerial status loss had negative effects on work attitudes but mental health was positively affected over time through decreased job demands. Non-preference had negative consequences for all outcome variables and these effects were mediated through lower procedural justice of the change, lower job control, and for some outcomes, lower perceived organizational support during the change. The results provide insight into how middle managers react to change, and suggest that process justice and job characteristics play an important part in shaping these reactions.

  • 28. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Time to leave? Organizational justice as predictor of early or late retirement2019Ingår i: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, s. 1036-1036, artikel-id 300Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Research has highlighted that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with early retirement, which constitutes a drain of knowledge and resources. Organizational justice is one aspect of the work environment that can be addressed by management representatives. In this study, we focus on organizational justice as important job resource with substantial relations to work and health outcomes. Justice theories suggest that organizational justice communicates to employees that they are valued members of the work group. Also, when feeling fairly treated, employees are more likely to want to reciprocate fairness, with, for instance, keep working with the company. The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and early and late retirement.

    Methodology: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey (SLOSH) was used. A total of 1570 retirees were available who retired in 2012, 2014 or 2016. Of these, 509 retired before they were 65 years old, 551 when they were 65 years old, and 510 above 65 years of age. Procedural justice was assessed with 7 items from a validated scale.

    Results: Preliminary findings show that those who retired after the statutory retirement age of 65 years reported higher procedural justice one year before they retired than the other two groups.

    Implications: Results suggest that organizational justice may be a good predictor to gauge whether employees want to continue working after their statutory retirement age.

    Originality: One of the few studies investigating how organizational justice relates to actual retirement using longitudinal data in Sweden.

  • 29. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 553-567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined.

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  • 30.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Trajectories of Procedural and Interactional Justice as Predictors of Retirement among Swedish Workers: Differences between Three Groups of Retirees2021Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 12, artikel-id 6472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice is an important aspect of the psychosocial work environment, but there is a lack of studies on whether justice perceptions also predict retirement decisions. The aim of this study is to examine trajectories of procedural and interactional justice perceptions prior to retirement of three groups of retirees while considering self-rated health and important demographics. Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (2006-2018, N = 3000) were used. Respondents were grouped into early retirement, normative retirement and late retirement. Latent growth curve models and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to test whether trajectories of justice perceptions prior to retirement differed between retirement groups while controlling for self-rated health development and demographic variables. Late retirees had higher intercept levels of interactional justice and higher intercept levels of self-rated health prior to retirement, compared to early retirees. Late retirees also showed a slower decrease in procedural justice compared to early retirees. Only intercept levels of self-rated health differed between early retirees and normative retirees, such that early retirees had lower levels of self-rated health prior to retirement. Keeping employees in the workforce is a major challenge for any aging society. Organizational justice perceptions in the years prior to retirement seem particularly influential for delaying retirement.

  • 31. Ervasti, Jenni
    et al.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sørensen, Jeppe K.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Suominen, Sakari
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Long working hours and risk of 50 health conditions and mortality outcomes: a multicohort study in four European countries2021Ingår i: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 11, artikel-id 100212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on the association between long working hours and health have captured only a narrow range of outcomes (mainly cardiometabolic diseases and depression) and no outcome-wide studies on this topic are available. To achieve wider scope of potential harm, we examined long working hours as a risk factor for a wide range of disease and mortality endpoints.

    Methods: The data of this multicohort study were from two population cohorts from Finland (primary analysis, n=59 599) and nine cohorts (replication analysis, n=44 262) from Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, all part of the Individual-participant Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) consortium. Baseline-assessed long working hours (≥55 hours per week) were compared to standard working hours (35-40 h). Outcome measures with follow-up until age 65 years were 46 diseases that required hospital treatment or continuous pharmacotherapy, all-cause, and three cause-specific mortality endpoints, ascertained via linkage to national health and mortality registers.

    Findings: 2747 (4·6%) participants in the primary cohorts and 3027 (6·8%) in the replication cohorts worked long hours. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, working long hours was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 1·68; 95% confidence interval 1·08-2·61 in primary analysis and 1·52; 0·90-2·58 in replication analysis), infections (1·37; 1·13-1·67 and 1·45; 1·13-1·87), diabetes (1·18; 1·01-1·38 and 1·41; 0·98-2·02), injuries (1·22; 1·00-1·50 and 1·18; 0·98-1·18) and musculoskeletal disorders (1·15; 1·06-1·26 and 1·13; 1·00-1·27). Working long hours was not associated with all-cause mortality.

    Interpretation: Follow-up of 50 health outcomes in four European countries suggests that working long hours is associated with an elevated risk of early cardiovascular death and hospital-treated infections before age 65. Associations, albeit weak, were also observed with diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. In these data working long hours was not related to elevated overall mortality.

  • 32.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Zins, Marie
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University College London, United Kingdom.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Väänänen, Ari
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Sabia, Séverine
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Pentti, Jaana
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Nordin, Maria
    Nielsen, Martin L
    Marmot, Michael G
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kumari, Meena
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Koskinen, Aki
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Kittel, France
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Joensuu, Matti
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Dragano, Nico
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Burr, Hermann
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Hamer, Mark
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women The IPD-Work Consortium2012Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 176, nr 12, s. 1078-1089Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

  • 33.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jokela, Markus
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kumari, Meena
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pentti, Jaana
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Väänänen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Zins, Marie
    Britton, Annie
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job strain and the risk of stroke: an individual-participant data meta-analysis2015Ingår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 557-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain.

    METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke.

    RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05;1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75;1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94;1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status.

    CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.

  • 34. Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Batty, G. David
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kittel, France
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nordin, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University College London, UK.
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium2012Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, artikel-id 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  • 35. Germeys, Lynn
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Divergent concurrent and lagged effects of the reciprocal relation between work-nonwork interactions and sleep disturbance2019Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 42, nr 3, artikel-id zsy255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives

    Work-nonwork interactions and sleep disturbances are found to be important predictors of well-being and job performance outcomes. However, little is known about the mutual interrelations of the interactions between life domains and disturbed sleep over short and long periods of time.

    Methods

    In total, 4079 representative individuals of the Swedish working population completed three subsequent waves of surveys with a time interval of 2 years (i.e. longitudinal design).

    Results

    Concurrent, cross-lagged, and reverse directionality effects were simultaneously examined using autoregressive longitudinal path analysis. Contemporarily, interference between work and nonwork increased sleep disturbances, whereas work-nonwork enhancement decreased sleep disturbances. From one time point to the other, work-nonwork interference negatively related to sleep disturbances, and work-nonwork enhancement was mostly no longer (or positively) related to sleep disturbances. Over time sleep disturbances, in turn, predicted more interference and less enhancement between both life domains.

    Conclusions

    The results highlight that problematic work-nonwork interactions (i.e. high work-nonwork interference and low work-nonwork enhancement) disturb an individual's sleep in the short term (i.e. cross-sectional). Furthermore, the results suggest that individuals adapt to negative work-nonwork interactions over time, but that sleep disturbances impair an individual's work-nonwork interactions 2 years later.

  • 36.
    Griep, Yannick
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, the Netherlands.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Geurts, Sabine A. E.
    Feeling stressed and depressed? A three-wave follow-up study of the beneficial effects of voluntary work2023Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, ISSN 1697-2600, E-ISSN 2174-0852, Vol. 23, nr 3, artikel-id 100363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While symptoms of stress are a major risk factor in the onset of depressive symptoms and major depression, a better understanding of intervening mechanisms in breaking down this positive association is urgently required. It is within this literature that we investigate (1) how symptoms of stress are associated with depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression, and (2) the buffering effect of hours spent on voluntary work on the stress-depression relationship. Using 3-wave longitudinal data, we estimated a direct and reverse auto-regressive path model. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal support for the positive association between symptoms of stress and depressive symptoms. Next, we found that individuals who experienced more symptoms of stress at T1, T2, and T3 were 1.64 (95%CI [1.46;1.91]), 1.49 (95%CI [1.24;1.74]), and 1.40 (95%CI [1.21;1.60]) times more likely to be prescribed an anti-depression treatment at T3, respectively. Moreover, we found that the number of hours spent volunteering mitigated the (1) longitudinal-but not cross-sectional-stress-depression relationship, and (2) cross-sectional but not the longitudinal-association between symptoms of stress at T3 and the likelihood of being prescribed an anti-depression treatment. These results point toward the pivotal role of voluntary work in reducing the development of depressive symptoms and major depression in relation to the experience of symptoms of stress.

  • 37. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Marklund, Staffan
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 61, nr 6, s. 453-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine how presenteeism affects the risk of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants (assistant nurses, hospital ward assistants, home-based personal care workers, and child care assistants). A specific objective was to compare health and social care employees with all other occupations.

    Methods: The study was based on a representative sample of working women and men (n = 43 682) aged 16-64 years, who had been interviewed between 2001 and 2013 for the Swedish Work Environment Survey conducted every second year since 1989. Information on disability pension was obtained from the Social Insurance Agency's database (2002-2014). The studied predictors were related to disability pension using Cox's proportional hazard regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and selected confounders were controlled for. The follow-up period was 6.7 years (SD 4.2).

    Results: Health and social care employees with frequent presenteeism showed a particularly elevated risk of future disability pension after adjusting for sex, sociodemographic variables, physical and psychosocial working conditions, and self-rated health symptoms. In the amalgamated occupational group of nursing professionals and care assistants, the impact on disability pension of having engaged in presenteeism four times or more during the prior year remained significant (HR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.43-5.68).

    Conclusions: The study suggests that frequent presenteeism contributes to an increased risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants as well as among all other occupations.

  • 38. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Interaction effects of physical and psychosocial working conditions on the risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden: A prospective study2020Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 102, artikel-id 103484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nursing professionals and care assistants are often subject to a combination of negative physical and psychosocial work environment factors, but most disability pension studies on such occupations have focused on one or the other of these factors. As they often coexist, there are reasons to assume that simultaneously being exposed to both types of exposures will increase the risk of disability more than being exposed to either. Objectives: The study examined combinations of physical and psychosocial work conditions as predictors of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden. Participants: The study was based on a random and representative sample of 79,004 participants in any of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys from 1993 to 2013. A total of 2576 nursing professionals, 10,175 care assistants, and 66,253 workers in other occupations were included. Methods: Information on background factors and disability pension was obtained from population registers. Cox proportional hazard regressions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed to study if pairs of combinations of physical and psychosocial factors were related to an increased risk of disability pension. Additionally, measures of synergistic effects were estimated. The analyses were stratified on occupation group, with adjustment for selected confounders. Results: The results indicated increased hazard ratios (HR) for disability pension for most combinations of physical and psychosocial working conditions. The hazard ratios for joint exposure to high demands and heavy physical work were high among both nursing professionals (HR 1.91; CI 1.06-3.44) and care assistants (HR 2.09; CI 1.63-2.69). Also, the combination of high demands and strenuous postures resulted in significantly elevated risks of disability pension among nursing professionals (HR 1.95; CI 1.20-3.16) and care assistants (HR 2.18; CI 1.71-2.77). The HRs for joint exposure to low control and both heavy physical work and strenuous postures were significant among all other occupations (HR 2.30; CI 2.052.58 and HR 2.24; CI 2.01-2.51), and among care assistants (HR 1.52; CI 1.26-1.85 and HR 1.61 CI 1.341.93), but not significant among nursing professionals. The synergistic effects on disability pension from combined exposures were generally positive among all three occupational groups. Conclusion: Nursing professionals and care assistants exposed to both negative physical and psychosocial conditions had an increased risk of disability pension. A synergistic effect with respect to disability pension was found among care assistants who reported low control and strenuous postures at work. 

  • 39. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Presenteeism, Psychosocial Working Conditions and Work Ability among Care Workers: A Cross-Sectional Swedish Population-Based Study2020Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 7, artikel-id 2419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Presenteeism, attending work while ill, has been examined in different contexts in the last few decades. The aim was to examine whether poor psychosocial working conditions and perceived work ability are associated with increased odds ratios for presenteeism, focusing on nursing professionals and care assistants. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted. The selected individuals were extracted from representative samples of employees, aged 16-64, who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Surveys between 2001 and 2013 (n = 45,098). Three dimensions of psychosocial working conditions were measured: job demands, job control, and job support. Presenteeism and perceived work ability was measured. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for presenteeism with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. While nurses (n = 1716) showed the same presenteeism level as all the other occupation groups (n = 37,125), it was more common among care assistants (n = 6257). The odds ratio for presenteeism among those with high job demands (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 2.21-2.53), were higher among women than among men. For nursing professionals and care assistants, the odds ratios for presenteeism were highest among those with the lowest work ability level. The problems of presenteeism and low work ability among many health and care workers may be lessened by a reduction in psychosocial demands.

  • 40. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Marlkund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Physical work environment factors affecting risk for disability pension due to mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses among nursing professionals, care assistants and other occupations: a prospective, population-based cohort study2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikel-id e026491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the influence of physical work factors on the risks of future disability pension (DP) due to mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses among nursing professionals, care assistants and all other occupations in the general working population in Sweden.

    Methods: The prospective population study was based on representative samples of working individuals (n=79 004) aged 16–64, interviewed in the Swedish Work Environment Survey between 1993 and 2013. Information on diagnosed DP in 1994–2014 was gathered from the Social Insurance Agency’s database. The focus was on nursing professionals (registered nurses and midwives) and care assistants, for example, assistant nurses and hospital ward assistants. The outcome was DP, classified into two diagnostic groups. Associations between physical work factors and risk of DP were calculated using Cox regression with HR and 95% CI.

    Results: Physical work factors were associated with future DP after adjusting for sociodemographic conditions and psychosocial work factors among care assistants (n=10 175) and among all other occupations (n=66 253), but not among nursing professionals (n=2576). The increased risk among care assistants (n=197) exposed to heavy physical work was 66% (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.97), and for those exposed to strenuous work postures (n=420) it was 56% (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.80). Physical work indicators were mainly associated with musculoskeletal DP diagnoses among care assistants, but two indicators were significant also for mental diagnoses. An increased risk of DP was found among nursing professionals (n=102) exposed to detergents or disinfectants (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.05), but not among care assistants.

    Conclusions: Heavy physical work and strenuous postures are predictors of future DP, particularly among care assistants and in the general working population. In order to reduce early exit from the workforce, efforts should be made to improve physical and ergonomic working conditions.

  • 41.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lidwall, Ulrik
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Is work-life interference a risk factor for sickness absence? A longitudinal study of the Swedish working population2022Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 398-401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While there is increasing literature on the health effects of work–life interference, few studies have investigated the relationship between a direct measure of work–life interference and objective sickness absence measures. The aim of this study is to investigate whether work–life interference is a risk factor for subsequent long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016. Data were linked to register data on LTSA (having at least one continuous period of medically certified sick leave exceeding 14 days) the following 2 years after each data collection wave. We applied generalized estimating equations, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The sample included 15 244 individuals (43.1% men and 56.9% women). Nearly a fifth of the sample (18.7%, n = 1110) started at least one period of LTSA at any point between 2010 and 2018. Results: Work–life interference was found to be a risk factor for subsequent LTSA (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.44–1.67) even when adjusting for relevant factors including general health (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.29–1.51). We found no significant moderating effect of gender. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that work–life interference is a risk factor for subsequent LTSA for working men and women in Sweden.

  • 42.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    A Theoretical Development of the Gender Embodiment of Enrichment: A Study of Gender Norms in Enrichment and Factors Related to Enrichment in a Sample of the Swedish Working Population2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 6, artikel-id 669789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enrichment is a phenomenon described as the synergistic and beneficial effects of participating in both work and private life. Far too few studies have acknowledged the role of gender in enrichment. By applying a gender theoretical approach, this article has two aims; first, we aim to study the role of gender in enrichment by examining the factorial structure of enrichment in men and women; secondly, we aim to study the relationship between enrichment and work and private life factors in an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis with measurement in variance was performed and this resulted in a two-factor solution for enrichment for both men and women, representing the two directions of enrichment: work-to-life enrichment (WLE) and life-to-work enrichment (LWE). Factor loadings differ across genders, indicating that men and women construct and value items of enrichment differently. Next, linear mixed models were used to answer the second aim. Results show that gendered cultural norms in work and private life manifest in the relationship between factors in the work and home sphere and enrichment. Factors in work and private life with more or less masculine or feminine epithets relate differently to WLE and LWE for men and women. The main conclusion is that masculine and feminine norms are embodied in the values and experiences of enrichment and factors related to enrichment.

  • 43. Hall, A. L.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Work schedule and prospective antidepressant prescriptions in the swedish workforce: a 2-year study using national drug registry data2018Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, Vol. 75, s. A482-A483Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Mood disorders affect millions of individuals worldwide and contribute to substantial morbidity and disability. A better understanding of modifiable work-related risk factors for depression could inform and advance prevention efforts in this area. This study used a large Swedish longitudinal occupational survey to prospectively examine the effect of self-reported work schedule on registry-based antidepressant prescriptions over a two-year period.

    Methods The analytic sample (n=8643) was obtained from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sex-stratified and unstratified analyses were conducted using logistic regression. For exposure, 8 categories were used to describe work schedule in 2008: ‘regular days’ (3 categories: night work history=none,≤3 years, or 4+years) ‘night work (regular, rostered, or rotating)’, ‘regular shift work (no nights)’, ‘rostered work (no nights)’, ‘flexible/non-regulated hours’, and ‘other’. For the outcome, all prescriptions coded N06A according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical System were obtained from the Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register and dichotomized into ‘any’ or ‘no’ prescriptions between 2008 and 2010. Estimates were adjusted for potential sociodemographic, health, and work confounders, and for prior depressive symptoms.

    Results In unadjusted analyses, an increased odds ratio for depression was observed for ‘Other’ work hours in unstratified (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.51) and female (OR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.51) models; in adjusted models effects persisted but confidence intervals widened to non-significance at the p=0.05 level. In models adjusted for previous depressive symptoms, females in ‘flexible/non-regulated’ schedules showed an increased odds ratio for depression (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.76), while a decreased odds ratio was observed for the unstratified model ‘regular shift work (no nights)’ category (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.97).

    Discussion This study’s findings support prospective relationships between work schedule and antidepressant prescriptions in the Swedish workforce. Future research should continue to assess sex-stratified relationships, using detailed shift work exposure categories and objective registry data where possible.

  • 44.
    Hall, Amy L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Effect of work schedule on prospective antidepressant prescriptions in Sweden: a 2-year sex-stratified analysis using national drug registry data2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id e023247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Depression-related mood disorders affect millions of people worldwide and contribute to substantial morbidity and disability, yet little is known about the effects of work scheduling on depression. This study used a large Swedish survey to prospectively examine the effects of work schedule on registry-based antidepressant prescriptions in females and males over a 2-year period. Methods The study was based on an approximately representative sample (n= 3980 males, 4663 females) of gainfully employed participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sex-stratified analyses were conducted using logistic regression. For exposure, eight categories described work schedule in 2008: ` regular days' (three categories of night work history: none, <= 3 years, 4+ years), 'night shift work', 'regular shift work (no nights)', 'rostered work (no nights)', 'flexible/non-regulated hours' and 'other'. For the primary outcome measure, all prescriptions coded N06A according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical System were obtained from the Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register and dichotomised into 'any' or 'no' prescriptions between 2008 and 2010. Estimates were adjusted for potential sociodemographic, health and work confounders, and for prior depressive symptoms. Results In 2008, 22% of females versus 19% of males worked outside of regular daytime schedule. Registered antidepressant prescription rates in the postsurvey period were 11.4% for females versus 5.8% for males. In fully adjusted models, females in 'flexible/non-regulated' schedules showed an increased OR for prospective antidepressant prescriptions (OR= 2.01, 95% CI= 1.08 to 3.76). In males, odds ratios were most increased in those working 'other' schedules (OR= 1.72, 95% CI= 0.75 to 3.94) and 'Regular days with four or more years' history of night work' (OR= 1.54, 95% CI= 0.93 to 2.56). Conclusions This study's findings support a relationship between work schedule and prospective antidepressant prescriptions in the Swedish workforce. Future research should continue to assess sex-stratified relationships, using detailed shift work exposure categories and objective registry data where possible.

  • 45.
    Halonen, Jaana I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Rod, Naja H.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Associations between onset of effort-reward imbalance at work and onset of musculoskeletal pain: analyzing observational longitudinal data as pseudo-trials2018Ingår i: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 159, nr 8, s. 1477-1483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing evidence of an association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and musculoskeletal pain is limited, preventing reliable conclusions about the magnitude and direction of the relation. In a large longitudinal study, we examined whether the onset of ERI is associated with subsequent onset of musculoskeletal pain among those free of pain at baseline, and vice versa, whether onset of pain leads to onset of ERI. Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study. We used responses from 3 consecutive study phases to examine whether exposure onset between the first and second phases predicts onset of the outcome in the third phase (N = 4079). Effort-reward imbalance was assessed with a short form of the ERI model. Having neck-shoulder and low back pain affecting life to some degree in the past 3 months was also assessed in all study phases. As covariates, we included age, sex, marital status, occupational status, and physically strenuous work. In the adjusted models, onset of ERI was associated with onset of neck-shoulder pain (relative risk [RR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.89) and low back pain (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97-1.50). The opposite was also observed, as onset of neck-shoulder pain increased the risk of subsequent onset of ERI (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.74). Our findings suggest that when accounting for the temporal order, the associations between ERI and musculoskeletal pain that affects life are bidirectional, implying that interventions to both ERI and pain may be worthwhile to prevent a vicious cycle.

  • 46.
    Hasson, Dan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell, Töres
    Benka Wallén, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Canlon, Barbara
    Stress and prevalence of hearing problems in the Swedish working population2011Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, s. 130-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Current human and experimental studies are indicating an association between stress and hearing problems; however potential risk factors have not been established. Hearing problems are projected to become among the top ten disabilities according to the WHO in the near future. Therefore a better understanding of the relationships between stress and hearing is warranted. Here we describe the prevalence of two common hearing problems, i.e. hearing complaints and tinnitus, in relation to different work-and health-related stressors. METHODS: A total of 18,734 individuals were invited to participate in the study, out of which 9,756 (52 %) enrolled. RESULTS: The results demonstrate a clear and mostly linear relationship between higher prevalence of hearing problems (tinnitus or hearing loss or both) and different stressors, e.g. occupational, poorer self-rated health, long-term illness, poorer sleep quality, and higher burnout scores. CONCLUSIONS: The present study unambiguously demonstrates associations between hearing problems and various stressors that have not been previously described for the auditory system. These findings will open new avenues for future investigations.

  • 47. Heikkila, Katriina
    et al.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Lallukka, Tea
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland; University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob
    Borritz, Marianne
    Brunner, Eric
    Burr, Hermann
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskinen, Aki
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pietilainen, Olli
    Rahkonen, Ossi
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Vaananen, Ari
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Peripheral Artery Disease: A Multi-Cohort Study2020Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikel-id e013538Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD, using individual-level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom.

    Methods and Results: Job strain (high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline (1985-2008). PAD records were ascertained from national hospitalization data. We used Cox regression to examine the associations of job strain with PAD in each study, and combined the study-specific estimates in random effects meta-analyses. We used tau(2), I-2, and subgroup analyses to examine heterogeneity. Of the 139 132 participants with no previous hospitalization with PAD, 32 489 (23.4%) reported job strain at baseline. During 1 718 132 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 12.8 years), 667 individuals had a hospital record of PAD (3.88 per 10 000 person-years). Job strain was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) increased average risk of hospitalization with PAD. The study-specific estimates were moderately heterogeneous (tau(2)=0.0427, I-2: 26.9%). Despite variation in their magnitude, the estimates were consistent in both sexes, across the socioeconomic hierarchy and by baseline smoking status. Additional adjustment for baseline diabetes mellitus did not change the direction or magnitude of the observed associations.

    Conclusions: Job strain was associated with small but consistent increase in the risk of hospitalization with PAD, with the relative risks on par with those for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

  • 48. Heikkilä, Katriina
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Marmot, Michael G.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Pentti, Jaana
    Salo, Paula
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vaananen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University College London, United Kingdom.
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Hamer, Mark
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job Strain and Alcohol Intake: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 140 000 Men and Women2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. e40101-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: > 20, men: > 27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

  • 49. Heikkilä, Katriina
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Marmot, Michael G.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Pentti, Jaana
    Salo, Paula
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vaananen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University College London, UK.
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Hamer, Mark
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikel-id e35463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  • 50. Helgesson, Magnus
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Psychosocial and organisational work factors as predictors of sickness absence among professionally active adults with common mental disorders2023Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe incidence of sickness absence (SA) due to common mental disorders (CMDs) has increased in recent decades. It is hence important to elucidate how individuals with CMDs can maintain work. The aim was to analyse the relationship between psychosocial and organisational workplace factors and a spell of > 14 days of SA among persons with CMDs.MethodsIncluded were respondents of the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES) 1993-2013, diagnosed with a CMD up to five years before the interview in the SWES (n = 3,795). Relative Risk (RR) regression models with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) analysed associations between psychosocial-, and organisational workplace factors and a subsequent spell of SA > 14 days.ResultsLow control over work (RR:1.16; CI:1.01-1.35), job strain (RR:1.25; CI:1.04-1.49), no flexible working hours (RR:1.25; CI:1.08-1.45) or no possibility to work from home (RR:1.37; CI:1.13-1.66) were significantly related to an increased risk of SA. Persons diagnosed with depression experiencing job strain had the highest increased risk of SA (RR:1.55; CI: 1.07-2.25).ConclusionsA sustainable work-life among working individuals with CMDs can be provided by reducing job strain, and if possible, by increasing flexibility regarding workplace and working hours. This may prevent spells of SA, and hereby increase productivity.

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