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  • 1. Bacro, Fabien
    et al.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. SUF Resource Center, Region Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Children’s Multiple Attachment Relationships and Representations in Different Family Contexts2021Ingår i: Attachment Theory and Research: A Reader / [ed] Tommie Forslund; Robbie Duschinsky, Wiley-Blackwell, 2021, s. 228-239Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 2. Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Anknytningsteori2020 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anknytningsteorin är en av de viktigaste teorierna om nära relationer. Den beskriver betydelsen av tidiga anknytningserfarenheter för den fortsatta utvecklingen av nära känslomässiga relationer under barndom, tonår och vuxenliv.

    Denna andra utgåva av grundboken Anknytningsteori tar upp den senaste anknytningsforskningen och beskriver hur anknytningen utvecklas från vaggan till graven. Den är grundligt reviderad och utökad med bland annat flera uppdaterade kapitel från Anknytning i praktiken, exempelvis om desorganiserad anknytning, anknytningsbedömningar i olika åldrar samt anknytningsbaserade interventioner. Nya kapitel som tillkommit behandlar bland annat genetik och kultur. Boken ger således en heltäckande och aktuell presentation av anknytningsteorin och flera av dess tillämpningar.

    Anknytningsteori är skriven för studerande och yrkesverksamma inom psykologi, psykiatri, socialt arbete, pedagogik, medicin och till vidareutbildningar i psykoterapi.

  • 3. Cassibba, Rosalinda
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Costantini, Alessandro
    Mothers' attachment security predicts their children's sense of God's closeness2013Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 51-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research reports that mothers' security of attachment predicts their children's sense of God's closeness. A total of 71 mother–child dyads participated (children's M age = 7.5). Mothers' attachment organization was studied with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their religiosity and attachment to God were measured with questionnaires. Children were told stories about visually represented children in attachment-activating and attachment-neutral situations, and placed a God symbol on a felt board to represent God's closeness to the fictional children. Children of secure mothers placed the God symbol closer (d = .78) than children of insecure mothers across both types of situations, suggesting that children's experiences with secure-insecure mothers generalize to their sense of God's closeness. Also, girls (but not boys) placed the God symbol closer in attachment-activating than in attachment-neutral situations, giving partial support for an attachment normative God-as-safe-haven model. Finally, mothers' religiosity and attachment to God were unrelated to child outcomes.

  • 4.
    Cassibba, Rosalinda
    et al.
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Papagna, Sonia
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Calabrese, Maria T.
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Costantino, Elisabetta
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Paterno, Angelo
    Di Venere Hospital, Bari, Italy.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The role of attachment to God in secular and religious/spiritual ways of coping with a serious disease2014Ingår i: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 252-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the role of security in one's attachment to God in relation to both secular and religious/spiritual ways of coping with a serious illness. The main objective was to test whether attachment to God and type of disease were related to secular coping strategies, when controlling for the effects of religious/spiritual coping. Study participants (N = 105) had been diagnosed either with cancer (i.e., an acute disease) and were under chemotherapy/awaiting surgery or with renal impairment (i.e., a chronic disease) and were attending dialysis. Results showed that secure attachment to God was uniquely related to fighting spirit, whereas insecure attachment to God was uniquely linked to hopelessness, suggesting that security, unlike insecurity, in one's attachment to God may impact favourably on adjustment to the disease. The only coping strategy related to type of disease was cognitive avoidance, which was linked to chronic disease.

  • 5.
    Cherniak, Aaron D.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Östlind, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Carhart-Harris, Robin
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Psychedelic Science of Spirituality and Religion: An Attachment-Informed Agenda Proposal2023Ingår i: The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, ISSN 1050-8619, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 259-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we set an agenda for a psychedelic science of spirituality and religion based on attachment theory. Attachment theory proposes that people develop internal working models (IWMs) of interactions with others from their relational experiences with caregivers. Such IWMs then function as high-level priors or predictive models, enabling people, for better and for worse, to predict and organize their interpersonal and religious/spiritual relationships. One mechanism by which efficacious psychedelic interventions may work is by relaxing the grip of rigid, defensive priors (e.g. insecure IWMs with regard to others and God), further amplified by corrective relational experiences with the therapist, God, or others. We outline three key proposals to steer future research. First, individual differences in attachment security predict the phenomenology and integration of psychedelic experiences. Second, efficacious psychedelic therapy facilitates increased attachment security as a clinically relevant outcome. Third, attachment-related dynamics (e.g. a sense of connection to others/God/the universe, alleviation of attachment-related worries and defenses) are process-level mechanisms involved in the clinical utility of psychedelic treatment. Finally, we discuss the role of religion and spirituality in psychedelic experiences from an attachment perspective. 

  • 6.
    Cherniak, Aaron D.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Shaver, Pillip R.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Attachment theory and religion2021Ingår i: Current Opinion in Psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 40, s. 126-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment theory deals with the development and dynamics of interpersonal affectional bonds. It also provides a framework for understanding individuals’ relationship with God, which is central to religion. We review basic concepts of attachment theory and survey research that has examined religion both in terms of normative attachment processes and individual differences in attachment. We cite evidence from cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies showing that many religious individuals experience God as a source of resilience (e.g. a safe haven and secure base). We also summarize proposed attachment-related developmental pathways to religion. Finally, we review research on religion and mental health undertaken from an attachment viewpoint and discuss future directions.

  • 7.
    Cherniak, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Reichman University (IDC Herzliya), Israel.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Perceived attachment history predicts psychedelic experiences: A naturalistic study2024Ingår i: Journal of psychedelic studies, ISSN 2559-9283, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 82-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Emerging research indicates that psychedelics may have therapeutic potential by fostering meaningful experiences that act as in fl ection points in people ' s narratives of personal development. However, psychedelic research has largely failed to address pertinent developmental considerations. We investigated whether attachment -related variables were associated with psychedelic experiences and whether psychedelic experiences moderated expected links between perceived attachment history and current adult attachment orientations. Methods: We administered an online survey to an international Jewish sample ( N = 185) with psychedelic experience. The survey included measures about recollection of attachment interactions with parents (perceived attachment history), adult attachment orientations (anxiety, avoidance), and psychedelic phenomenology (mystical experiences, challenging experiences, emotional breakthrough, ego dissolution, sensed presence) associated with respondents ' most memorable psychedelic experiences. Results: Perceptions of an insecure attachment history were positively linked to all measures of psychedelic phenomenology ( r ' s = 0.19 - 32, p ' s mostly < 0.01). In contrast, adult attachment orientations were unrelated to psychedelic phenomenology. Also, psychedelic phenomenology mostly did not moderate the links observed between perceptions of an insecure attachment history and adult attachment orientations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that perceptions of early attachment experiences may be relevant to psychedelic phenomenology. However, subjective experiences associated with naturalistic psychedelic use do not typically attenuate links between a perceived insecure attachment history and attachment insecurity at present.

  • 8.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Skragge, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Hovey, Daniel
    Westberg, Lars
    Larsson, Marcus
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Mixed support for a causal link between single dose intranasal oxytocin and spiritual experiences: opposing effects depending on individual proclivities for absorption2018Ingår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 921-932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has previously been found to increase spirituality, an effect moderated by OT-related genotypes. This pre-registered study sought to conceptually replicate and extend those findings. Using a single dose of intranasal OT vs placebo (PL), we investigated experimental treatment effects, and moderation by OT-related genotypes on spirituality, mystical experiences, and the sensed presence of a sentient being. A more exploratory aim was to test for interactions between treatment and the personality disposition absorption on these spirituality-related outcomes. A priming plus sensory deprivation procedure that has facilitated spiritual experiences in previous studies was used. The sample (N = 116) contained both sexes and was drawn from a relatively secular context. Results failed to conceptually replicate both the main effects of treatment and the treatment by genotype interactions on spirituality. Similarly, there were no such effects on mystical experiences or sensed presence. However, the data suggested an interaction between treatment and absorption. Relative to PL, OT seemed to enhance spiritual experiences in participants scoring low in absorption and dampen spirituality in participants scoring high in absorption.

  • 9. Davis, Edward B.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Sharp, Carissa
    Theistic Relational Spirituality: Development, Dynamics, Health, and Transformation2021Ingår i: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, ISSN 1941-1022, E-ISSN 1943-1562, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 401-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the world's population identify as religious or spiritual, and most religiously affiliated believers identify with one of the world's major monotheistic traditions: Christianity, Islam, or Judaism. Within each of these traditions, especially Christianity, one important aspect of many believers' religion/spirituality is how they view and relate with God. The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of theistic relational spirituality (i.e., the ways monotheistic believers view and relate with God) that integrates theory and research from the fields of psychology, attachment, social cognition, and interpersonal neurobiology. We argue that theistic relational spirituality comprises two main types of God representations: doctrinal (primarily explicit and affect-light) and experiential (primarily implicit and affect-laden) representations. From an attachment perspective, we discuss the development and dynamics (e.g., context-dependence) of these God representations. We propose that doctrinal- experiential congruence forms the basis of a healthy theistic relational spirituality, when it is contextually adaptive, consistent across time and situations, and aligned with the theistic believer's behaviors. We also delineate potentially adaptive transformation of less healthy forms of theistic relational spirituality. Lastly, we discuss ways in which this model of theistic relational spirituality might direct future research.

  • 10. Davis, Edward B.
    et al.
    Kimball, Cynthia N.
    Aten, Jamie D.
    Andrews, Benjamin
    Van Tongeren, Daryl R.
    Hook, Joshua N.
    Davis, Don E.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Park, Crystal L.
    Religious meaning making and attachment in a disaster context: A longitudinal qualitative study of flood survivors2019Ingår i: Journal of Positive Psychology, ISSN 1743-9760, E-ISSN 1743-9779, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 659-671Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this longitudinal qualitative study was to develop a grounded theory of religious meaning making and attachment in a disaster context. At 1-month (T1; n = 36) and 6-months postdisaster (T2; n = 29), we conducted in-depth interviews with a highly religious sample of adult survivors of the 2016 Louisiana flood, using a disaster-adapted version of the Religious Attachment Interview. We utilized Corbin and Strauss's grounded-theory approach for data analysis. At both timepoints, results revealed that survivors who were theistic believers engaged in postdisaster religious meaning making in which they drew on benevolent God representations and theodicies to appraise the disaster's cause, purpose, and religious-attachment effects, thereby contributing to positive religious-attachment outcomes (religious meanings made; e.g. renewed beliefs and experiences of God's benevolence and providence). Findings are discussed in terms of theories and research on disasters, meaning making, and religious attachment, including implications for research and practice.

  • 11. Davis, Edward B.
    et al.
    Kimball, Cynthia N.
    Aten, Jamie D.
    Hamilton, Chase
    Andrews, Benjamin
    Lemke, Austin
    Hook, Jenn Ranter
    Captari, Laura
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hook, Joshua N.
    Davis, Don E.
    Van Tongeren, Daryl R.
    Cattrell, Emilie L.
    Cuthbert, Andrew D.
    Chung, Joyce
    Faith in the Wake of Disaster: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Religious Attachment Following a Catastrophic Flood2019Ingår i: Psychological Trauma, ISSN 1942-9681, E-ISSN 1942-969X, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 578-587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This longitudinal qualitative study explores the impact of natural disasters on religious attachment (perceived relationship with God). We sought to validate and conceptually extend the religion-as-attachment model in a postdisaster context.

    Method: At 4 weeks (T1; n = 36) and 6 months postdisaster (T2; n = 29), survivors of the 2016 Louisiana flood completed a disaster-adapted version of the Religious Attachment Interview (Granqvist & Main, 2017).

    Results: At T1 and T2. survivors emphasized God being a safe haven (source of protection, comfort, or nurturance). This emphasis was especially pronounced for survivors who were directly affected (their home or business flooded) or had previous disaster exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Overall, survivors consistently emphasized God serving as a stronger and wiser attachment figure, and it was rare for them to report experiencing perceived separation or loss of intimacy from God. At T1 and T2, around 85% of survivors described their current religious attachment as either having a positive affective quality (e.g., closer, stronger) or as no different from before the disaster; around 15% said it had a negative affective quality (e.g., disappointed, strained). In describing their postdisaster religion/spirituality, survivors highlighted (a) God being a source of love, comfort, strength, and hope; (b) actively putting trust/faith in God; and (c) experiencing God through family/community.

    Conclusion: Results support and conceptually extend the religion-as-attachment model in a postdisaster context. Findings suggest disasters activate the attachment system, and survivors commonly view and relate with God as an attachment figure, especially one who serves as a safe haven.

  • 12. Dewitte, Laura
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Dezutter, Jessie
    Meaning Through Attachment: An Integrative Framework2019Ingår i: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 122, nr 6, s. 2242-2265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an integrative framework, advancing attachment as a vital factor in the development and maintenance of meaning throughout life. First, early attachment experiences provide a foundation for recognizing patterns and acquiring a sense of order and coherence. Furthermore, interactions with sensitive attachment figures stimulate mentalization capacities and exploration of the inner and outer environment, enabling the formation of complex representations of self, others, and the world, ultimately also molding how individuals appraise meaning in their lives. Second, attachment security can serve as an enduring and powerful resource for handling threats to meaning. When confronted with disruptions to meaning, secure attachment provides a coherent set of representations to fall back on and maintain or regain a firm sense of order and meaning under challenging circumstances. Moreover, by promoting cognitive openness and tolerance of ambiguity, secure attachment facilitates flexible and realistic adjustment of meaning representations when encountering discrepant information.

  • 13. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment2016Ingår i: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 371-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.

  • 14. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Psychodynamic Foundations2016Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science / [ed] Viviana Weekes-Shackelford, Todd K. Shackelford, Springer, 2016, s. 1-5Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Westen (1998) has defined psychodynamic theories with five postulates: (1) much of mental life is unconscious; (2) mental processes operate in parallel so that people can have conflicting feelings that motivate them in opposing ways; (3) stable personality patterns begin to form in childhood, and childhood experiences play an important role in the developing personality, particularly in shaping social relationships; (4) mental representations of the self, others, and relationships guide people’s interactions with others and influence psychological symptomatology; and (5) personality development involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive feelings but also the move from an immature, socially dependent state to a mature, interdependent one. According to this definition, attachment theory is a psychodynamic theory. However, Bowlby explicitly demarcated his attachment theory from the drive principles.

  • 15.
    Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hammarlund, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Duschinsky, Robbie
    La prise en compte des liens d’attachement au tribunal: protection de l’enfance et décisions de résidence des enfants dans les situations de séparation parentale: [Attachment goes to court: Child protection and child custody issues]2022Ingår i: Devenir, ISSN 1015-8154, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 15-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fr]

    La théorie et les recherches sur l’attachement sont utilisées dans de nombreux cadres d’application, y compris dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale [1], mais les incompréhensions sont fréquentes et sources d’erreurs lorsqu’il s’agit de les mettre en pratique. L’objectif de cet article de consensus est donc d’accroître la compréhension, de lutter contre la désinformation et d’améliorer l’utilisation de la théorie de l’attachement dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale sur la base des données probantes, en particulier concernant la protection de l’enfance et les décisions relatives au mode de résidence des enfants de parents séparés. L’article est divisé en deux parties. Dans la première, nous abordons les problèmes liés à l’utilisation de la théorie et de la recherche sur l’attachement dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale, et nous évoquons les raisons qui en sont à l’origine. Pour cela, nous examinons les applications de la théorie de l’attachement dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale dans le contexte actuel de la norme relative à l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant ; nous discutons des incompréhensions concernant la théorie de l’attachement et nous identifions les facteurs qui ont pu entraver sa bonne utilisation. Dans la deuxième partie, nous formulons des recommandations pour une meilleure application de la théorie et de la recherche sur l’attachement. Dans ce but, nous énonçons trois principes fondamentaux à propos de l’attachement : le besoin de l’enfant d’avoir des caregivers [2]familiers et non abusifs ; la valeur de la continuité des soins suffisamment bons ; et les avantages inhérents à la construction d’un réseau de relations d’attachement. Nous discutons également de la pertinence des outils d’évaluation de la qualité de l’attachement et des comportements de caregiving [3] pour éclairer les décisions des tribunaux compétents en matière familiale. Nous concluons que l’évaluation des comportements de soin des parents ou de toute personne en position de donneur de soins à l’enfant (caregivers) devrait être au centre des préoccupations. Bien qu’il existe un désaccord entre nous concernant l’utilisation des outils d’évaluation de la qualité de l’attachement pour éclairer les décisions relatives à la résidence et à la protection des enfants, ces outils apparaissent actuellement comme les plus appropriés pour cibler et mettre en place des programmes de soutien à la parentalité. Pour conclure, nous fournissons quelques orientations afin de guider les chercheurs dans le développement de futures collaborations au niveau interdisciplinaire.

  • 16.
    Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Region Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
    Sagi-Schwartz, Avi
    Glaser, Danya
    Steele, Miriam
    Hammarlund, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Schuengel, Carlo
    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
    Steele, Howard
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Lux, Ulrike
    Simmonds, John
    Jacobvitz, Deborah
    Groh, Ashley M.
    Bernard, Kristin
    Cyr, Chantal
    Hazen, Nancy L.
    Foster, Sarah
    Psouni, Elia
    Cowan, Philip A.
    Cowan, Carolyn Pape
    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne
    Wilkins, David
    Pierrehumbert, Blaise
    Tarabulsy, George M.
    Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.
    Wang, Zhengyan
    Liang, Xi
    Kázmierczak, Maria
    Pawlicka, Paulina
    Ayiro, Lilian
    Chansa, Tamara
    Sichimba, Francis
    Mooya, Haatembo
    McLean, Loyola
    Verissimo, Manuela
    Gojman-de-Millán, Sonia
    Moretti, Marlene M.
    Bacro, Fabien
    Peltola, Mikko J.
    Galbally, Megan
    Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi
    Behrens, Kazuko Y.
    Scott, Stephen
    Fresno Rodriguez, Andrés
    Spencer, Rosario
    Posada, Germán
    Cassibba, Rosalinda
    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
    Palacios, Jesús
    Barone, Lavinia
    Madigan, Sheri
    Mason-Jones, Karen
    Reijman, Sophie
    Juffer, Femmie
    Fearon, R. Pasco
    Bernier, Annie
    Cicchetti, Dante
    Roisman, Glenn
    Cassidy, Jude
    Kindler, Heinz
    Zimmerman, Peter
    Feldman, Ruth
    Spangle, Gottfried
    Zeanah, Charles H.
    Dozier, Mary
    Belsky, Jay
    Lamb, Michael E.
    Duschinsky, Robbie
    El Apego Va a Juicio: Problemas de Custodia y Protección Infantil: [Attachment goes to court: Child protection and custody issues]2021Ingår i: Anuario de psicología jurídica, ISSN 1133-0740, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 115-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilisation of attachment theory in a supportive, evidence-based direction, especially with regard to child protection and child custody decision-making. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, we address problems related to the use of attachment theory and research in family courts, and discuss reasons for these problems. To this end, we examine family court applications of attachment theory in the current context of the best-interest-of-the-child standard, discuss misunderstandings regarding attachment theory, and identify factors that have hindered accurate implementation. In the second part, we provide recommendations for the application of attachment theory and research. To this end, we set out three attachment principles: the child's need for familiar, non-abusive caregivers; the value of continuity of good-enough care; and the benefits of networks of attachment relationships. We also discuss the suitability of assessments of attachment quality and caregiving behaviour to inform family court decision-making. We conclude that assessments of caregiver behaviour should take center stage. Although there is dissensus among us regarding the use of assessments of attachment quality to inform child custody and child-protection decisions, such assessments are currently most suitable for targeting and directing supportive interventions. Finally, we provide directions to guide future interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  • 17.
    Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. SUF Resource Center, Region Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
    Sagi-Schwartz, Avi
    Glaser, Danya
    Steele, Miriam
    Hammarlund, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Schuengel, Carlo
    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
    Steele, Howard
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Lux, Ulrike
    Simmonds, John
    Jacobvitz, Deborah
    Groh, Ashley M.
    Bernard, Kristin
    Cyr, Chantal
    Hazen, Nancy L.
    Foster, Sarah
    Psouni, Elia
    Cowan, Philip A.
    Pape Cowan, Carolyn
    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne
    Wilkins, David
    Pierrehumbert, Blaise
    Tarabulsy, George M.
    Carcamo, Rodrigo A.
    Wang, Zhengyan
    Liang, Xi
    Kázmierczak, Maria
    Pawlicka, Paulina
    Ayiro, Lilian
    Chansa, Tamara
    Sichimba, Francis
    Mooya, Haatembo
    McLean, Loyola
    Verissimo, Manuela
    Gojman-de-Millán, Sonia
    Moretti, Marlene M.
    Bacro, Fabien
    Peltola, Mikko J.
    Galbally, Megan
    Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi
    Behrens, Kazuko Y.
    Scott, Stephen
    Rodriguez, Andrés Fresno
    Spencer, Rosario
    Posada, Germán
    Cassibba, Rosalinda
    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
    Departament de Psicologia Clínica i de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma De Barcelona, Spain;Sant Pere Claver – Fundació Sanitària, Barcelona, Spain;Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain.
    Duschinsky, Robbie
    Attachment goes to court: child protection and custody issues2022Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 1-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilisation of attachment theory in a supportive, evidence-based direction, especially with regard to child protection and child custody decision-making. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we address problems related to the use of attachment theory and research in family courts, and discuss reasons for these problems. To this end, we examine family court applications of attachment theory in the current context of the best-interest-of-the-child standard, discuss misunderstandings regarding attachment theory, and identify factors that have hindered accurate implementation. In the second part, we provide recommendations for the application of attachment theory and research. To this end, we set out three attachment principles: the child’s need for familiar, non-abusive caregivers; the value of continuity of good-enough care; and the benefits of networks of attachment relationships. We also discuss the suitability of assessments of attachment quality and caregiving behaviour to inform family court decision-making. We conclude that assessments of caregiver behaviour should take center stage. Although there is dissensus among us regarding the use of assessments of attachment quality to inform child custody and child-protection decisions, such assessments are currently most suitable for targeting and directing supportive interventions. Finally, we provide directions to guide future interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  • 18.
    Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hammarlund, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Admissibility of attachment theory, research and assessments in child custody decision‐making? Yes and No!2021Ingår i: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, ISSN 1520-3247, E-ISSN 1534-8687, Vol. 2021, nr 180, s. 125-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment theory, research, and assessments have become increasingly applied to settle child custody cases. We discuss such applications in relation to admissibility criteria for scientific evidence and testimony proposed by Faigman et al. (2014). We argue that attachment theory and research can provide valid “framework evidence”; group-based attachment research has yielded general principles suitable as a frame of reference for pertinent court decisions. In particular, child custody decision-making should generally be guided by research indicating that children benefit from attachment networks. In contrast, assessments of attachment quality fall short of providing valid “diagnostic evidence”; information that a specific individual/dyad is a “true” instance of a general group-level principle. In particular, such assessments do not yield valid information about whether a particular caregiver has better caregiving skills than another caregiver and will better support child development. We conclude that attachment theory and research should be admissible for framework but not for diagnostic testimony.

  • 19. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Kenward, Ben
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Gredeback, Gustaf
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations2017Ingår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 20, nr 6, artikel-id e12465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions has long been suggested to be experience dependent, with parental caregiving as an important influencing factor. This study attempts to further this knowledge by examining disorganization of the attachment system as a potential psychological mechanism behind aberrant caregiving experiences and deviations in the ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Typically developing children (N=105, 49.5% boys) aged 6-7years (M=6years 8months, SD=1.8months) completed an attachment representation task and an emotion identification task, and parents rated children's negative emotionality. The results showed a generally diminished ability in disorganized children to identify facial emotional expressions, but no response biases. Disorganized attachment was also related to higher levels of negative emotionality, but discrimination of emotional expressions did not moderate or mediate this relation. Our novel findings relate disorganized attachment to deviations in emotion identification, and therefore suggest that disorganization of the attachment system may constitute a psychological mechanism linking aberrant caregiving experiences to deviations in children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Our findings further suggest that deviations in emotion identification in disorganized children, in the absence of maltreatment, may manifest in a generally diminished ability to identify emotional expressions, rather than in specific response biases.

  • 20. Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Hagekull, Berit
    Interlinkages between attachment and the Five-Factor Model of personality in middle childhood and young adulthood: a longitudinal approach2013Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 219-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine concurrent and prospective links between attachment and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality from middle childhood to young adulthood (n=66). At age 8.5 years, attachment was measured with the Separation Anxiety Test and at 21 years with the Adult Attachment Interview, whereas the personality dimensions were assessed with questionnaires at both time points. The results showed that attachment and personality dimensions are meaningfully related, concurrently and longitudinally. Attachment security in middle childhood was positively related to extraversion and openness, both concurrently and prospectively. Unresolved/disorganized (U/d) attachment was negatively related to conscientiousness and positively related to openness in young adulthood. U/d attachment showed a unique contribution to openness above the observed temporal stability of openness. As attachment security was also associated with openness, the duality of this factor is discussed together with other theoretical considerations regarding attachment theory in relation to the FFM.

  • 21. Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 108-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

  • 22. Gordon, Amy R.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vestbrant, Karolina
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Partner’s body odor lowers stress discomfort2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23. Gordon, Amy R.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vestbrant, Karolina
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Partner’s body odor lowers stress symptoms2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Attachment and religious development in adolescence: The implications of culture2012Ingår i: Values, religion, and culture in adolescent development / [ed] Gisela Trommsdorff & Xinyin Chen, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 1, s. 315-340Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Book information: Cultural values and religious beliefs play a substantial role in adolescent development. Developmental scientists have shown increasing interest in how culture and religion are involved in the processes through which adolescents adapt to environments. This volume constitutes a timely and unique addition to the literature on human development from a cultural-contextual perspective. Editors Gisela Trommsdorff and Xinyin Chen present systematic and in-depth discussions of theoretical perspectives, landmark studies and strategies for further research in the field. The eminent contributors reflect diverse cultural perspectives, transcending the Western emphasis of many previous works. This volume will be of interest to scholars and professionals interested in basic developmental processes, adolescent social psychology and the sociological and psychological dimensions of religion.

  • 25.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Attachment, culture, and gene-culture co-evolution: expanding the evolutionary toolbox of attachment theory2021Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 90-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I argue that attachment relationships, and particularly secure ones, are important contexts for social learning and cultural transmission. Bowlby originally treated the attachment-behavioral system as serving only one evolutionary function: protection, via physical proximity. Yet the time is ripe to consider learning, especially social learning, as an additional functional consequence of attachment. Updated accordingly, attachment theory has the potential to serve as a much-needed developmental anchor for models of cultural evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. To support my arguments, I review progress in evolutionary science since Bowlby's lifetime, highlighting the growing recognition of ecological flexibility and the cultural embeddedness of animal behavior. I also review research pointing to a facilitating role of secure attachment relationships for social learning from caregivers among humans. For illustrational purposes, I show how one important aspect of human culture - religion - is culturally transmitted within attachment relationships, and of how the generalization of attachment-related working models biases the cultural transmission of religion from parents to offspring. I end the paper with a call for empirical research to test the role of attachment in cultural transmission beyond religion.

  • 26.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Attachment, emotion, and religion2016Ingår i: Issues in Science and Theology: Do Emotions Shape the World? / [ed] M. Fuller, D. Evers, A. Runehov, & K.-W. Saether, Springer International Publishing AG , 2016, s. 9-26Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights how the development of emotion is intertwined with the development of attachment. I argue, also, that there are certain central emotions and affects associated with particular forms of attachment, which come to define the self in relation to others. Further, this emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in religion, especially in the religious individual’s perceived relationship with God. I describe pertinent findings from the scientific literature on the attachment-religion connection indicating that experientially based internal working models of self and other are generalized and lawfully expressed in the context of religion. Thus, attachment-related interactions will affectively color the individual’s perceived relationship with God. Yet, God and religion may also provide a source of surrogate attachments, which may aid in repairing negative working models of self and others. Finally, words of caution are offered to prevent misunderstandings of the implications arising from a consideration of how the emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in the context of religion.

  • 27.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Attachment in Religion and Spirituality: A Wider View2020Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesizing diverse strands of theory and research, this compelling book explores the psychology of religion and spirituality through an innovative attachment lens. Pehr Granqvist examines the connections between early caregiving experiences, attachment patterns, and individual differences in religious cognition, experience, and behavior. The function of a deity as an attachment figure is analyzed, as are ways in which attachment facilitates the intergenerational transmission of religion. The book also shows how the attachment perspective can aid in understanding mystical experiences, connections between religion and mental health, and cultural differences between more and less religious societies. Granqvist's conversational writing style, concrete examples, and references to popular culture render complex concepts accessible.

  • 28.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Introduction to the Special Issue: Advancements in the study of attachment and religion/spirituality2012Ingår i: The international journal for the psychology of religion, ISSN 1050-8619, E-ISSN 1532-7582, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 173-179Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent past, psychologists of religion frequently complained that their discipline was not sufficiently respected in mainstream academic psychology while acknowledging—at least in some cases—that one reason for this lack of respect was that their discipline did not really deserve it (e.g., Batson, 1997; Batson, Schoenrade, & Ventis, 1993). Why this discipline would not deserve respect might at first seem puzzling. After all, in its many different manifestations, religion is on the verge of being a historical and anthropological universal (e.g., Brown, 1991). Also, whereas members of other animal species keep themselves busy with the world of their senses, “man is [perhaps] by constitution a religious animal” (Burke, 1790/1909, p. 239). Relatedly, religion typically, and curiously, centers around the existence of unobservable others (i.e., gods and spirits). Finally, as illustrated by the opening quote from a “Christian-era” Bob Dylan song, these unobservable others become especially important as people struggle with utter despair and turmoil; that's when their dyin' voices are especially prone to reach out, somewhere. The song continues, “Sometimes I turn, there's someone there, other times it's only me” (Dylan, 1981). Thus, why would mainstream psychologists not view the topic of religion as worthy of their scientific attention and interest, and why would some psychologists of religion themselves attest that their discipline doesn't really deserve respect?

  • 29.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    La religione dal punto di vista della teoria e della ricerca sull'attaccamento: una panoramica con enfasi sulle attuali tendenze2009Ingår i: Psicologia della religione e teoria dell’attaccamento / [ed] Germano Rossi & Mario Aletti, Roma: Aracne , 2009, s. 29-44Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Mental health and religion from an attachment viewpoint: overview with implications for future research2014Ingår i: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 777-793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I argue in this article that attachment theoretical considerations provide insights into why certain moderators underlie the links observed between religion and mental health. Three sets of moderators are discussed. First, contextual factors associated with heightened attachment activation (e.g., stress, unavailability of one's secular attachment figures, low social welfare) increase the strength of the links observed between religion and mental health. Second, aspects of mental health that are most notably affected by having a safe haven to turn to and a secure base to depart from are particularly reliably linked to religion. Other attachment-related aspects of mental health that religion may promote concerns attenuation of grief and reparation of internal working models following loss of and/or experiences of having been insensitively cared for by other attachment figures. Finally, aspects of religion that are most consistently linked to mental health are partially those that express attachment-components, including belief in a personal, loving God with whom one experiences a close and secure relationship.

  • 31.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Observations of disorganized behaviour yield no magic wand: Response to Shemmings2016Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 529-533Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Religion and cognitive, emotional, and social development2014Ingår i: Religion, personality and social behavior / [ed] Vassilis Saroglou, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, s. 283-312Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: Psychological interest in religion, in terms of both theory and empirical research, has been constant since the beginning of psychology. However, since the beginning of the 21st Century, partially due to important social and political events and developments, interest in religion within personality and social psychology has increased. This volume reviews the accumulated research and theory on the major aspects of personality and social psychology as applied to religion. It provides a high quality integrative, systematic, and rigorous review of that work, with a focus on topics that are both central in personality and social psychology and have allowed for the accumulation of solid and replicated and not impressionist knowledge on religion. The contributors are renowned researchers in the field who offer an international perspective that is both illuminating, yet neutral, with respect to religion. The volume's primary audience are academics, researchers, and advanced students in social psychology, it but will also interest those in sociology, political sciences, and anthropology.

  • 33.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Religion as Attachment: The Godin Award Lecture2010Ingår i: Archive for the Psychology of Religion, ISSN 0084-6724, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 5-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, I delineate five refinements that I and my associates have introduced during the last decade to the literature on religion and spirituality from an attachment-theory perspective. First, I describe the principle of social correspondence as an addition to the idea that religiousness reflects generalizing working models of attachment. Second, I focus on what we have learned from studying implicit processes and utilizing experimental designs in religion-as-attachment research. Third, I describe results from research projects that have used developmentally validated attachment assessments, such as the Adult Attachment Interview. Fourth, I emphasize the need for engaging a wider developmental range in religion-as-attachment research and sum up what we have found using non-adult samples. Finally, I argue for employing a wider research perspective on the attachment-religion/spirituality connection than the central parameters of an attachment framework would suggest, by considering possible mediators between attachment and religious or spiritual outcomes.

  • 34.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    The God, the blood, and the fuzzy: reflections on Cornerstones and two target articles2021Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 412-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to Cornerstones of attachment research and the target articles, I reflect on three questions. First, what is attachment? Although a natural kind, I argue against an essentialist understanding (i.e. in terms of necessary/sufficient conditions for class membership). Instead, the attachment concept must be allowed to have fuzzy boundaries, partly because of how attachments transform in both phylogeny and ontogeny. Second, how to think about the normative (species-typical) features of the theory vis-a-vis dyadic/individual differences in attachment? Whereas the former are foundational, I argue that the latter largely reflect surface variation. Despite this, the lion's share of attachment research has horned in on variation and its measurement, to some detriment to the theory's potential and applications. Finally, what is encouraging and discouraging about recent developments? While applauding large-scale cooperative endeavors (e.g. individual participant meta-analyses, consensus statements) I caution the field not to lose sight of the value of smaller-scale, creative explorations of uncharted territories.

  • 35.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Tryggare kan ingen vara? anknytning, religion, andlighet och sekularitet2023Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    För miljarder människor är andliga erfarenheter den främsta källan till mening, tröst och trygghet. Trots att det finns många exempel på hur olika trosuppfattningar uttrycks på otrygga sätt och sår split mellan människor skänker de också gemenskap, socialt stöd och en fördjupad livskänsla.

    I Tryggare kan ingen vara? kartlägger religionspsykologen Pehr Granqvist sambanden mellan vårt behov av trygghet, anknytning och andlig törst. Genom att applicera anknytningsteorin på religion visar Granqvist hur religiositet och andlighet kan vara viktiga ingredienser till att uppleva trygghet. Han ger också tankeväckande exempel på hur olika samhällsinstitutioner tenderar att ersätta religiöst liv i moderna samhällen. Dessutom ger boken en första inblick i hur man kan förstå psykedelisk terapi utifrån kopplingen mellan anknytning, religion och andlighet.

  • 36.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Attachment, religiousness, and distress among the religious and spiritual links between religious syncretism and compensation2014Ingår i: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 17, nr 7, s. 726-740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the Adult Attachment Interview, we explored differences in attachment, distress, and religiousness among groups of traditionally religious, New Age spiritual, and religiously syncretistic (high on both) participants (Ps) (N = 75). Religiously syncretistic Ps showed a preponderance of insecure attachment and were raised by non-religious parents, who were estimated as relatively insensitive. Moreover, religiously syncretistic Ps perceived a personal relationship with God and had experienced increased religiousness/spirituality during difficult life periods, but did not suffer elevated distress. New Agers often mirrored the religiously syncretistic, but had a more even secure–insecure attachment distribution, typically did not perceive a personal relationship with God, and did suffer elevated distress. Traditionally religious Ps were low on distress and raised by religious parents, estimated as relatively sensitive. We conclude that religious syncretism may often express religion/spirituality as compensation. Finally, we speculate that a perceived relationship with God may attenuate distress among those at risk.

  • 37.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Fransson, Mari
    Springer, Lydia
    Lindberg, Lene
    Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment and their children’s attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study2014Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 417-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children’s attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (= 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers’ biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (= 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers’ experience than the comparison group mothers. Children’s (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status.

  • 38.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Department of Psychology , Uppsala University , Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Hegekull, Berit
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Disorganized attachment, absorption, and new age spirituality: a mediational model2009Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 385-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model and an empirical review linking disorganized attachment with New Age spiritual beliefs and activities via a proposed mediator; the propensity to enter altered states of consciousness (absorption/dissociation). Utilizing a prospective longitudinal design (N = 62), an empirical test of the mediational model is also provided for illustrational purposes. More specifically, we tested if unresolved/disorganized (U/d) attachment scores, as identified via the Adult Attachment Interview at the first assessment point, predicted New Age spirituality 3 years later, and whether this link was mediated by absorption. Results supported the mediational model, although the bivariate relation between U/d attachment and New Age spirituality was of modest strength. The discussion focuses on the general implications, clinical as well as non-clinical, of the proposed model. Finally, we argue that time is now ripe for attachment researchers to address additional non-pathological sequelae of disorganized attachment and the related propensity to experience altered states of consciousness.

  • 39.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Ivarsson, Tord
    Disorganized attachment promotes mystical experiences via a propensity for alterations in consciousness (absorption)2012Ingår i: The international journal for the psychology of religion, ISSN 1050-8619, E-ISSN 1532-7582, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 180-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors argue that mystical experiences are linked to disorganized attachment via a proposed mediator-the propensity to enter altered states of consciousness (absorption). Using a sample of predominantly religious/spiritual participants (N = 62), they report that disorganized attachment, as identified with the Adult Attachment Interview, predicted lifetime occurrence of mystical experiences and that this link was mediated by absorption. Alternative mediational models received less conclusive support. Also, more conventional aspects of religion (theistic beliefs and degree of general religiousness) were not related to disorganized attachment or absorption, supporting the discriminant validity of the mediational model. In the discussion, the authors argue that mystical experiences represent a nonpathological and potentially self-reparative outcome of disorganized attachment and the related propensity to experience alterations in consciousness. Experiences named mystical have played a conspicuous role at almost every level of culture; and yet, despite the vast literature devoted to them, the subject has remained.... as dark as it is fascinating.... Mysticism has suffered as much at the hands of its admirers as at the hands of its materialistic enemies. If the latter have been unable to see anything else than aberrations and abnormalities, the former have gone to the other and equally fatal extreme; no descriptive adjective short of sublime, infinite, divine has seemed to them at all sufficient.

  • 40.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hesse, Erik
    Fransson, Mari
    Main, Mary
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Prior participation in the strange situation and overstress jointly facilitate disorganized behaviours: implications for theory, research and practice2016Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 235-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We seek to understand why a relatively high percentage (39%; vs the meta-analytic average, 15-18%) of disorganized/disoriented (D) classifications has accrued in the low-risk Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS) study, using experienced D coders. Prior research indicates that D behaviours do not always indicate attachment disorganization stemming from a history of frightening caregiving. We examined the role of two other presumed factors: participation in a previous strange situation and overstress. Our findings indicate that both factors were highly prevalent in the ULS sample and that they jointly predicted higher rates of D. First, participation in a previous strange situation was associated with significantly higher distress displays during the second visit than occurred among previously untested children, suggesting that prior participation in the strange situation had a sensitizing effect on child distress during the second visit. Second, unless separations were cut short in lieu of high distress during the second visit, re-tested children were disproportionately likely (ca 60%) to be classified D. We argue that these findings have important implications for theory, research, and practice. In particular, we conclude that practitioners must refrain from misattributing the appearance of any D behaviors observed to a history of maltreatment.

  • 41.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Kirkpatrick, Lee A.
    Attachment and religious representations and behavior2016Ingår i: Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications / [ed] Jude Cassidy and Phillip R. Shaver, New York: Guilford Press, 2016, 3, s. 856-878Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is divided into five major sections. In the first, we argue that people’s perceived relationships with God meet the defining criteria of attachment relationships reasonably well, and hence function psychologically much as other attachments do. We examine in the second section lifespan maturational issues involved in the development of attachment and religion. These first two sections deal with normative/typical aspects of the attachment–religion connection. In the third section, we review empirical connections between religion and individual differences in attachment. This section is subdivided into two subsections—the first focusing on a “compensation” pathway and the second describing a “correspondence” pathway to religion. We address in the fourth major section research findings and implications of the religion-as-attachment model with respect to psychological outcomes. In the final major section, which is new to this edition, we address the current state of theory and research on the attachment–religion connection.

  • 42.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kirkpatrick, Lee A.
    Religion, Spirituality, and Attachment2013Ingår i: APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality: Volume 1: Context, Theory, and Research / [ed] Kenneth I. Pargament, Julie J. Exline, James W. Jones, Washington DC: American Psychological Association (APA), 2013, s. 129-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Handbook overview from publisher: 

    This two-volume handbook presents the most comprehensive coverage of the current state of the psychology of religion and spirituality. It introduces a new integrative paradigm for this rapidly growing and diverse field. This paradigm sheds light on the many purposes religion serves, the rich variety of religious and spiritual beliefs and practices, and the capacity of religion and spirituality to do both good and harm.

    The integrative paradigm encourages psychologists to attend to the ways religion and spirituality are expressed not only in individual lives, but also in the lives of couples, families, institutions, communities, and cultures. The handbook documents how the psychology of religion and spirituality is building on its theoretical and empirical foundation to encompass practice.

    The chapters in this handbook provide in-depth and varied perspectives of leading scholars and practitioners on the most vital questions in the field.

  • 43.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Gewirtz, Vered
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Experimental findings on God as an attachment figure: normative processes and moderating effects of internal working models2012Ingår i: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 103, nr 5, s. 804-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four studies examined implications of attachment theory for psychological aspects of religion among Israeli Jews. Study 1 replicated previous correlational findings indicating correspondence among interpersonal attachment orientations, attachment to God, and image of God. Studies 2-4 were subliminal priming experiments, which documented both normative and individual-difference effects. Regarding normative effects, findings indicated that threat priming heightened cognitive access to God-related concepts in a lexical decision task (Study 2); priming with God heightened cognitive access to positive, secure base-related concepts in the same task (Study 3); and priming with a religious symbol caused neutral material to be better liked (Study 4). Regarding individual differences, interpersonal attachment-related avoidance reduced the normative effects (i.e., avoidant participants had lower implicit access to God as a safe haven and secure base). Findings were mostly independent of level of religiousness. The present experiments considerably extend the psychological literature on connections between attachment constructs and aspects of religion.

  • 44.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Religion as Attachment: Normative Processes and Individual Differences2010Ingår i: Personality and Social Psychology Review, ISSN 1088-8683, E-ISSN 1532-7957, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 49-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors review findings from the psychology of religion showing that believers' perceived relationships with God meet the definitional criteria for attachment relationships. They also review evidence for associations between aspects of religion and individual differences in interpersonal attachment security and insecurity. They focus on two developmental pathways to religion. The first is a "compensation" pathway involving distress regulation in the context of insecure attachment and past experiences of insensitive caregiving. Research suggests that religion as compensation might set in motion an "earned security" process for individuals who are insecure with respect to attachment. The second is a "correspondence" pathway based on secure attachment and past experiences with sensitive caregivers who were religious. The authors also discuss conceptual limitations of a narrow religion-as-attachment model and propose a more inclusive framework that accommodates concepts such as mindfulness and "nonattachment" from nontheistic religions such as Buddhism and New Age spirituality.

  • 45.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Moström, Jakob
    There Are Plenty of Atheists in Foxholes-in Sweden2014Ingår i: Archive for the Psychology of Religion/ Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ISSN 0084-6724, E-ISSN 1573-6121, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 199-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the veracity of a famous aphorism that is often cited in the scientific study of religion: There are no atheists in foxholes. To provide a critical evaluation, the sample was drawn from one of the world's most secular spots, Sweden. We explored the prevalence of various religious beliefs/non-beliefs and prayer in a sample of parents (n = 57) living with a major threat: having a child with a life-threatening heart condition. For comparison purposes, the prevalence of such beliefs and prayer were explored also in a sample (n = 72) of parents with healthy children. Results showed that a majority of parents endorsed atheist or agnostic beliefs, whereas only a minority endorsed religious beliefs. Roughly half of the sample engaged in prayer. The group of parents with sick children was statistically indistinguishable from the comparison group parents on all variables. Also, between-group differences were generally negligible in terms of effect size; thus, the null results were not due to statistical power problems. We conclude that there may be plenty of atheists in some foxholes.

  • 46.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Nkara, Frances
    Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development2017Ingår i: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 142-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider nurture's (including culture's) sculpting influences on the evolved psychological predispositions that are expressed in religious and spiritual (R&S) development. An integrated understanding of R&S development requires a move away from the largely one-sided (nature-or-nurture) and additive (nature + nurture) accounts provided in the extant literature. R&S development has been understood as an expression of evolved cognitive modules (nature) on the one hand, and of socialization and social learning (nurture) on the other, or in similar albeit additive terms (e.g., nature produces the brain/mind, culture fills in the details). We argue that humans’ evolved psychological predispositions are substantially co-shaped by environmental/cultural input, such as relational experiences and modelling at the microlevel through belief and value systems at the macrolevel. Nurture's sculpting of nature is, then, expressed in R&S development. Finally, for heuristic purposes, we illustrate a fully integrated nature–nurture model with attachment theory and its application to R&S development.

  • 47.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reijman, S.
    Cardeña, E.
    Alterations in consciousness and human development2011Ingår i: Altering consciousness: A multidisciplinary perspective Vol 2, Biological and psychological perspectives / [ed] E. Cardeña and M. Winkelman, Praeger , 2011, s. 211-234Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: From prehistoric caves to current raves and virtual reality technology, humanity has always sought to alter its consciousness. Altered states of consciousness can be achieved through dreaming, drumming, dancing, meditation, hypnosis, fasting, sex, and a number of other human activities. These strategies affect consciousness by mimicking the natural responses of our nervous system.

  • 48.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Sroufe, L. Alan
    Dozier, Mary
    Hesse, Erik
    Steele, Miriam
    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus
    Solomon, Judith
    Schuengel, Carlo
    Fearon, Pasco
    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian
    Steele, Howard
    Cassidy, Jude
    Carlson, Elizabeth
    Madigan, Sheri
    Jacobvitz, Deborah
    Foster, Sarah
    Behrens, Kazuko
    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne
    Gribneau, Naomi
    Spangler, Gottfried
    Ward, Mary J.
    True, Mary
    Spieker, Susan
    Reijman, Sophie
    Reisz, Samantha
    Tharner, Anne
    Nkara, Frances
    Goldwyn, Ruth
    Sroufe, June
    Pederson, David
    Pederson, Deanne
    Weigand, Robert
    Siegel, Daniel
    Dazzi, Nino
    Bernard, Kristin
    Fonagy, Peter
    Waters, Everett
    Toth, Sheree
    Cicchetti, Dante
    Zeanah, Charles H.
    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
    Main, Mary
    Duschinsky, Robbie
    Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers2017Ingår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 534-558Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the individual in forensic/child protection settings and that disorganized attachment (2) reliably indicates child maltreatment, (3) is a strong predictor of pathology, and (4) represents a fixed or static trait of the child, impervious to development or help. This paper summarizes the evidence showing that these four assumptions are false and misleading. The paper reviews what is known about disorganized infant attachment and clarifies the implications of the classification for clinical and welfare practice with children. In particular, the difference between disorganized attachment and attachment disorder is examined, and a strong case is made for the value of attachment theory for supportive work with families and for the development and evaluation of evidence-based caregiving interventions.

  • 49.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Vestbrant, Karolina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    The scent of security: Odor of romantic partner alters subjective discomfort and autonomic stress responses in an adult attachment-dependent manner2019Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 198, s. 144-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When in a stressful situation, access to adult attachment figures (e.g., romantic partners) is an important means by which adults regulate stress responses. The practice of smelling a partner's worn garment is reported as a self-treatment against stress. Here, we experimentally determined whether exposure to a partner's body odor attenuates adults' subjective discomfort and psychophysiological responses, and whether such effects are qualified by adult attachment security. In a blocked design, participants (N = 34) were presented with their partner's body odor, their own body odor, the odor of a clean t-shirt and rose odor, while exposed to weak electric shocks to induce discomfort and stress responses. Results showed that partner body odor reduces subjective discomfort during a stressful event, as compared with the odor of oneself. Also, highly secure participants had attenuated skin conductance when exposed to partner odor. We conclude that partner odor is a scent of security, especially for attachment-secure adults.

  • 50. Greenwald, Yaakov
    et al.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Apostasy and Conversion: Attachment Orientations and Individual Differences in the Process of Religious Change2021Ingår i: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, ISSN 1941-1022, E-ISSN 1943-1562, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 425-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied attachment-related variations in the process of apostasy (abandonment of religion) and compared these variations to those occurring in religious conversion. A sample of 280 Israeli Jews who had undergone religious change (apostasy or conversion) completed scales assessing attachment orientations, themes/motives and other characteristics of religious change, and well-being. Attachment orientations had similar associations with the two forms of religious change. Specifically, attachment anxiety was associated with reports of more sudden changes, more rejection of parents' religiosity, and more emotional compensation themes. Attachment-related avoidance was associated with weaker exploration and socialization themes. Moreover, compensation themes, for both forms of religious change, were associated with lower well-being at present and a heightened link between attachment anxiety and distress. Socialization themes were related to greater well-being at present and a weakened link between attachment anxiety and distress. Implications for an attachment-theoretical approach to the study of life transformations are discussed.

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