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  • 1.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 146-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 2.
    Aradhya, Siddartha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Obućina, Ognjen
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Intermarriage and COVID-19 mortality among immigrants. A population-based cohort study from Sweden2021Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id e048952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate the role of language proficiency and institutional awareness in explaining excess COVID-19 mortality among immigrants.Design Cohort study with follow-up between 12 March 2020 and 23 February 2021.

    Setting Swedish register-based study on all residents in Sweden.

    Participants 3 963 356 Swedish residents in co-residential unions who were 30 years of age or older and alive on 12 March 2020 and living in Sweden in December 2019.

    Outcome measures Cox regression models were conducted to assess the association between different constellations of immigrant-native couples (proxy for language proficiency and institutional awareness) and COVID-19 mortality and all other causes of deaths (2019 and 2020). Models were adjusted for relevant confounders.

    Results Compared with Swedish-Swedish couples (1.18 deaths per thousand person-years), both immigrants partnered with another immigrant and a native showed excess mortality for COVID-19 (HR 1.43; 95%CI 1.29 to 1.58 and HR 1.24; 95%CI 1.10 to 1.40, respectively), which translates to 1.37 and 1.28 deaths per thousand person-years. Moreover, similar results are found for natives partnered with an immigrant (HR 1.15; 95%CI 1.02 to 1.29), which translates to 1.29 deaths per thousand person-years. Further analysis shows that immigrants from both high-income and low-income and middleincome countries (LMIC) experience excess mortality also when partnered with a Swede. However, having a Swedish-born partner is only partially protective against COVID-19 mortality among immigrants from LMIC origins.

    Conclusions Language barriers and/or poor institutional awareness are not major drivers for the excess mortality from COVID-19 among immigrants. Rather, our study provides suggestive evidence that excess mortality among immigrants is explained by differential exposure to the virus.

  • 3. Auguer, Nathalie
    et al.
    Le Serbon, Emelie
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Leaving Sweden behind: gains in life expectancy in Canada2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 340-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. Methods: We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. Results: During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. Conclusions: In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden.

  • 4. Axelsson Fisk, Sten
    et al.
    Alex-Petersen, Jesper
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Liu, Can
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social inequalities in the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age child in Sweden 2010–16: a cross-sectional study adopting an intersectional approach 2024Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 22-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Well-established associations exist between the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and unidimensional sociodemographic factors. We investigated social inequalities in SGA risk and adopted an intersectional approach that simultaneously considers different social categories. By doing so, we could assess heterogeneities in SGA risk within unidimensional sociodemographic categories.

    Methods: We included all live 679 694 singleton births in Sweden between 2010 and 2016. The outcome was SGA, and the exposures were age, maternal educational level, dichotomous migration status and civil status. Thirty-six possible combinations of these factors constituted the exposure in an intersectional model. We present odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)—a measurement of discriminatory accuracy (i.e. the ability to discriminate the babies born SGA from those who are not).

    Results: Women with low education and women born outside Sweden had ORs of 1.46 (95% CI 1.38–1.54) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.43–1.56) in unidimensional analyses, respectively. Among women aged under 25 with low education who were born outside Sweden and unmarried, the highest OR was 3.06 (2.59–3.63). The discriminatory accuracy was low for both the unidimensional model that included all sociodemographic factors (AUC 0. 563) and the intersectional model (AUC 0.571).

    Conclusions: The intersectional approach revealed a complex sociodemographic pattern of SGA risk. Sociodemographic factors have a low accuracy in identifying SGA at the individual level, even when quantifying their multi-dimensional intersections. This cautions against interventions targeted to individuals belonging to socially defined groups to reduce social inequalities in SGA risk.

  • 5.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Arat, Arzu
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental death during childhood and violent crime in late adolescence to early adulthood: a Swedish national cohort study2019Ingår i: Palgrave Communications, ISSN 2055-1045, Vol. 5, artikel-id 74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood parental death has been associated with adverse health, social and educational outcomes. Studies on long-term outcomes are in general scarce and there is little evidence on the long-term impact on anti-social behaviour. This study takes advantage of high-quality register data to investigate risk of violent crime in relation to childhood parental death in a large national cohort covering the entire Swedish population born in 1983–1993 (n = 1,103,656). The impact of parental death from external (suicides, accidents, homicides) and natural causes on risk for violent crime from age 15 to 20–30 years, considering multiple aspects of the rearing environment (including parental psychiatric disorders and criminal offending), was estimated through Cox regression. Unadjusted hazard ratios associated with parental death from external causes ranged between 2.20 and 3.49. For maternal and paternal death from external causes, adjusted hazard ratios were 1.26 (95% confidence intervals: 1.04–1.51) and 1.44 (95% confidence intervals: 1.32–1.57) for men, and 1.47 (95% confidence intervals: 1.05–2.06) and 1.51 (95% confidence intervals: 1.27–1.78) for women. With the exception of maternal death among women (hazard ratio 1.26, 95% confidence intervals: 1.03–1.53), parental death from natural causes was not associated with increased risks in adjusted models. The results underscore the importance of preventive interventions to prevent negative life-course trajectories, particularly when death is sudden and clustered with other childhood adversities.

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  • 6.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental death during childhood and depression in young adults – a national cohort study2016Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 57, nr 9, s. 1092-1098Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There are few prospective, population-based studies on childhood parental death and psychiatric disorders in adulthood, and previous findings are inconclusive. This study investigated the association between parental death from natural and external (suicides, accidents or homicides) causes before 18 years and the risk of clinical depression in young adults, in relation to age at loss and gender of both child and parent.

    Methods

    In this register-based study, a national cohort born in Sweden during 1973–1982 (n = 862,554) was followed with regard to hospital admissions and outpatient care for depression during 2006–2013. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of parental death, taking sociodemographic and parental psychosocial covariates into account.

    Results

    Maternal death from natural causes was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of outpatient care for depression of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.40] in men and 1.15 (1.01–1.31) in women, after adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, with similar effect sizes for paternal natural death. Death from external causes consistently had higher effect size compared with natural deaths, in particular in relation to risk of hospital admissions for depression where they were as high as HR 3.23 (2.38–4.38) for men, and 1.79 (1.30–2.47) for women after a loss of a mother. Losing a parent in preschool age, compared with losing a parent as a teenager, was associated with higher risks of both hospitalization (p = .006) and outpatient care (p = .001) for depression.

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that parental loss to death from natural causes during childhood is associated with a small increased risk of long-term consequences for psychological health. Children who lose their parents to death from external causes, that is suicides, accidents or homicides, and children losing a parent in young ages are, however, at particular risk and should be given priority in preventive interventions after parental loss.

  • 7.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental Death During Childhood and Subsequent School Performance2014Ingår i: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 133, nr 4, s. 682-689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Parental death during childhood has been linked to increased mortality and mental health problems in adulthood. School failure may be an important mediator in this trajectory. We investigated the association between parental death before age 15 years and school performance at age 15 to 16 years, taking into account potentially contributing factors such as family socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental substance abuse, mental health problems, and criminality.

    METHODS: This was a register-based national cohort study of 772117 subjects born in Sweden between 1973 and 1981. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze school performance as mean grades (scale: 1-5; SD: 0.70) and school failure (finished school with incomplete grades). Results are presented as -coefficients and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Parental death was associated with lower grades (ORs: -0.21 [95% CI: -0.23 to -0.20] and -0.17 [95% CI: -0.19 to -0.15]) for paternal and maternal deaths, respectively. Adjustment for SEP and parental psychosocial factors weakened the associations, but the results remained statistically significant. Unadjusted ORs of school failure were 2.04 (95% CI: 1.92 to 2.17) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.69) for paternal and maternal deaths. In fully adjusted models, ORs were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.31 to 1.49) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.32). The higher crude impact of death due to external causes (ie, accident, violence, suicide) (OR: -0.27 [90% CI: -0.28 to -0.26]), compared with natural deaths (OR: -0.16 [95% CI: -0.17 to -0.15]), was not seen after adjustment for SEP and psychosocial situation of the family.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parental death during childhood was associated with lower grades and school failure. Much of the effect, especially for deaths by external causes, was associated with socially adverse childhood exposures.

  • 8. Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Bondjers, Kristina
    Arnberg, Filip
    Nilsson, Doris
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Utvärdering av Barntraumateamet i Norrköping2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden .
    Aradhya, Siddartha
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden .
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. European University Institute, Italy .
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cederström, Agneta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Residential context and COVID-19 mortality among adults aged 70 years and older in Stockholm: a population-based, observational study using individual-level data2020Ingår i: The Lancet Healthy Longevity, E-ISSN 2666-7568, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. e80-e88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Housing characteristics and neighbourhood context are considered risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate how individual-level housing and neighbourhood characteristics are associated with COVID-19 mortality in older adults.

    Methods For this population-based, observational study, we used data from the cause-of-death register held by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to identify recorded COVID-19 mortality and mortality from other causes among individuals (aged ≥70 years) in Stockholm county, Sweden, between March 12 and May 8, 2020. This information was linked to population-register data from December, 2019, including socioeconomic, demographic, and residential characteristics. We ran Cox proportional hazards regressions for the risk of dying from COVID-19 and from all other causes. The independent variables were area (m2) per individual in the household, the age structure of the household, type of housing, confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the borough, and neighbourhood population density. All models were adjusted for individual age, sex, country of birth, income, and education.

    Findings Of 279 961 individuals identified to be aged 70 years or older on March 12, 2020, and residing in Stockholm in December, 2019, 274 712 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the study population. Between March 12 and May 8, 2020, 3386 deaths occurred, of which 1301 were reported as COVID-19 deaths. In fully adjusted models, household and neighbourhood characteristics were independently associated with COVID-19 mortality among older adults. Compared with living in a household with individuals aged 66 years or older, living with someone of working age (<66 years) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality (hazard ratio 1·6; 95% CI 1·3–2·0). Living in a care home was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (4·1; 3·5–4·9) compared with living in independent housing. Living in neighbourhoods with the highest population density (≥5000 individuals per km2) was associated with higher COVID-19 mortality (1·7; 1·1–2·4) compared with living in the least densely populated neighbourhoods (0 to <150 individuals per km2).

    Interpretation Close exposure to working-age household members and neighbours is associated with increased COVID-19 mortality among older adults. Similarly, living in a care home is associated with increased mortality, potentially through exposure to visitors and care workers, but also due to poor underlying health among care-home residents. These factors should be considered when developing strategies to protect this group.

  • 10.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Cederström, Agneta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholm University.
    Young people's labour market patterns and later mental health: A sequence analysis exploring the role of region of origin for young people's labour market trajectories and mental health2020Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, nr 11, artikel-id 100600Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study used Swedish longitudinal register data to identify clusters of trajectories in labour market positions from young adulthood to mid-life, analyse the trajectory cluster composition regarding region of origin, and to examine if the trajectories was associated with mid-life mental ill health.

    Method: A cohort of 98 634 individuals (at age 20, 1998) were followed yearly across 18 years, of whom 23.4% were foreign-born or second-generation migrants. Sequence Analysis with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis was used to map individual labour market trajectories (age 20–37) and identify clusters of trajectories, and logistic regression to assess the association between trajectories and mental ill health in mid-life (age 36 to 38). Labour market states were constructed by main source of income, while mental health was operationalised as hospital admission for psychiatric care or receiving a psychiatric diagnosis at a health centre. Early-life course factors and previous health status was included as covariates.

    Results: Four clusters of trajectories were identified, separately for women and men, reflecting a rapid labour market entry with stable employment (T1), higher education into stable employment (T2), turbulence with several transitions between states (T3), and turbulence into labour market exclusion (T4). Migrants and secondgeneration migrants were more often found in trajectory 3 and 4 than native-born, and these trajectories were also associated with poor mental health in mid-life.

    Conclusion: Migrants showed more turbulent transitions between labour market states than natives, and more often found in trajectories with long-term instability and labour market exclusion. Furthermore, the risk of mental ill health in mid-life were higher among trajectories more frequent among migrants.

  • 11.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social integration and mental health - a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between the foreign-born and native-born in Sweden2019Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, artikel-id 48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increasing mental health inequalities between native- and foreign-born persons in Sweden is an important public health issue. Improving social integration has been stressed as a key strategy to combat this development. While a vast amount of studies have confirmed the importance of social integration for good mental health, less is known about the role of different types of social integration, and how they relate to mental health inequalities. This study aimed to examine the extent to which indicators of social integration explained mental health inequalities between the native- and foreign-born. Methods: Based on the Health on Equal Terms survey from 2011/2015 in Vastra Gotaland, Sweden (n=71,643), a non-linear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis was performed comparing native- and foreign-born individuals from Nordic-, European- and non-European countries. The General Health Questionnaire was used to assess psychological distress, while 11 items assessed employment conditions and economic disparities, social relations, and experiences of discrimination to measure different aspects of social integration. Results: Differences in social integration explained large proportions of observed mental health differences between the native- and foreign-born. Important indicators included low levels of social activity (20%), trust in others (17%) and social support (16%), but also labour market disadvantages, such as being outside the labour market (15%), unemployment (10%) and experiencing financial strain (16%). In analyses stratified by region of origin, low trust in others and discrimination contributed to the mental health gap between the native-born and European-born (17 and 9%, respectively), and the native-born and non-European-born (19 and 10%, respectively). Precarious labour market position was a particularly important factor in the mental health gap between the native-born and Nordic-origin (22%), and non-European origin (36%) populations. Conclusion: Social integration factors play a central role in explaining the mental health inequality between natives and migrants in Sweden. Our findings suggest that public health actions targeting mental health gaps could benefit from focusing on inequalities in social and economic recourses between natives and migrants in Sweden. Areas of priority include improving migrants' financial strain, as well as increasing trust in othersand social support and opportunities for civic engagement.

  • 12. Chen, Hua
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Janszky, Imre
    László, Krisztina D.
    Death of a Parent During Childhood and the Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke in Adult Men2020Ingår i: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 82, nr 9, s. 810-816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The death of a parent during childhood is a severe life event with potentially long-term consequences. Earlier studies have shown an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) after the death of a spouse, child, or sibling. Whether parental death during childhood is associated with an increased risk of incident CVD is unknown and was investigated in this study.

    Methods

    We studied 48,992 men born 1949 to 1951 and enlisted for military conscription in 1969 to 1970. We obtained information on death of a parent during childhood, CVD up to 2008, and covariates by linking the questionnaire and the clinical examination data from conscription with nationwide socioeconomic and health registers.

    Results

    Men who lost a parent during childhood had an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30 [1.13-1.49]) but not of stroke during the 39-year follow-up (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 0.87 [0.66-1.15]). Maternal death was associated with IHD both when the loss was due to cardiovascular (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 2.04 [1.02-4.08]) and unnatural causes (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 2.50 [1.42-4.42]); in case of paternal death, an increased IHD risk was observed only when the loss was due to cardiovascular causes (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 1.82 [1.37-2.42]). There were no substantial differences in CVD according to the child's age at the loss.

    Conclusions

    Parental death during childhood was associated with an increased risk of IHD in men. If these associations are confirmed in future studies, the long-term effects of childhood bereavement may warrant attention.

  • 13. Chen, Hua
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Janszky, Imre
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Meng, Linghui
    Liang, Yajun
    László, Krisztina D.
    Death of a parent during childhood and blood pressure in youth: a population-based cohort study of Swedish men2021Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id e043657Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Compelling evidence suggests that childhood adversities are associated with an increased risk of hypertension in middle age and old age. The link between childhood adversities and blood pressure in youth is less clear. In this cohort study, we examined the association between death of a parent during childhood and blood pressure in early adulthood in men.

    Setting Sweden.

    Participants We studied 48 624 men born in 1949–1951 who participated in the compulsory military conscription in 1969/1970 in Sweden. Information on death of a parent during childhood was obtained from population-based registers. Information on covariates was obtained from the questionnaire and the clinical examination completed at conscription and from population-based registers.Outcome measures Blood pressure was measured at conscription according to standard procedures.

    Results The multivariable least square means of systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between bereaved (128.25 (127.04–129.46) and 73.86 (72.89–74.84) mm Hg) and non-bereaved study participants (128.02 (126.86–129.18) and 73.99 (73.06–74.93) mm Hg). Results were similar when considering the cause of the parent’s death, the gender of the deceased parent or the child’s age at loss. Loss of a parent in childhood tended to be associated with an increased hypertension risk (OR and 95% CI: 1.10 (1 to 1.20)); the association was present only in case of natural deaths.

    Conclusion We found no strong support for the hypothesis that stress following the loss of a parent during childhood is associated with blood pressure or hypertension in youth in men.

  • 14. Chen, Hua
    et al.
    Janszky, Imre
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Wei, Dang
    Yang, Fen
    Li, Jiong
    László, Krisztina D.
    Bereavement in childhood and young adulthood and the risk of atrial fibrillation: a population-based cohort study from Denmark and Sweden2023Ingår i: BMC Medicine, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 21, artikel-id 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adverse childhood life events are associated with increased risks of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke later in life. Limited evidence also suggests that stress in adulthood may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether childhood adversity may lead to the development of AF is unknown. We investigated whether the loss of a parent or sibling in childhood is associated with an increased risk of AF and compared this effect to that of similar losses in young adulthood.

    Methods We studied 6,394,975 live-born individuals included in the Danish (1973–2018) and Swedish Medical Birth Registers (1973–2014). We linked data from several national registers to obtain information on the death of parents and siblings and on personal and familial sociodemographic and health-related factors. We analyzed the association between bereavement and AF using Poisson regression.

    Results Loss of a parent or sibling was associated with an increased AF risk both when the loss occurred in childhood and in adulthood; the adjusted incident rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.24 (1.14–1.35) and 1.24 (1.16–1.33), respectively. Bereavement in childhood was associated with AF only if losses were due to cardiovascular diseases or other natural causes, while loss in adulthood was associated with AF not only in case of natural deaths, but also unnatural deaths. The associations did not differ substantially according to age at loss and whether the deceased was a parent or a sibling.

    Conclusions Bereavement both in childhood and in adulthood was associated with an increased AF risk.

  • 15. Chen, Hua
    et al.
    Li, Jiong
    Wei, Dang
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Janszky, Imre
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    László, Krisztina D.
    Death of a Parent and the Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke in Denmark and Sweden2022Ingår i: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 5, nr 6, artikel-id e2218178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence suggests that parental death is associated with unhealthy behaviors and mental ill-health. Knowledge regarding the link between parental death and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke remains limited.

    OBJECTIVES To investigate whether parental death is associated with an increased risk of IHD and stroke and whether these associations differ by the characteristics of the loss.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This population-based cohort study, involving linkages between several nationwide registers, included 3 766 918 individuals born between 1973 and 1998 in Denmark and between 1973 and 1996 in Sweden. Participants were followed up until 2016 in Denmark and 2014 in Sweden. Data were analyzed from December 2019 to May 2021.

    EXPOSURES Death of a parent.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Diagnosis with or death due to IHD or stroke. Poisson regression was used to analyze the associations between parental death and IHD and stroke risk.

    RESULTS Altogether, 48.8% of the participants were women, and 42.7% were from Denmark. A total of 523 496 individuals lost a parent during the study period (median age at loss, 25 years; IQR, 17-32 years). Parental death was associated with a 41% increased risk of IHD (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.33-1.51) and a 30% increased risk of stroke [IRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21-1.38). The associations were observed not only if the parent died because of cardiovascular or other natural causes but also in cases of unnatural deaths. The associations were stronger when both parents had died (IHD: IRR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.59-2.21; stroke: IRR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.35-1.98) than when 1 parent had died (IHD: IRR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28-1.47; stroke: IRR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36) but did not differ substantially by the offspring's age at loss or the deceased parents' sex. The risk of acute myocardial infarction was highest in the first 3 months after loss.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this cohort study, parental death in the first decades of life was associated with an increased risk of IHD and stroke. The associations were observed not only in cases of parental cardiovascular and other natural deaths but also in cases of unnatural deaths. Family members and health professionals may need to pay attention to the cardiovascular disease risk among parentally bereaved individuals.

  • 16. Chen, Hua
    et al.
    Wei, Dang
    Janszky, Imre
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    László, Krisztina D.
    Bereavement and Prognosis in Heart Failure: A Swedish Cohort Study2022Ingår i: JACC. Heart failure, ISSN 2213-1779, E-ISSN 2213-1787, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 753-764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of stress in the prognosis of heart failure (HF) is unclear. This study investigated whether the death of a close family member, a severe source of stress, is associated with mortality in HF.

    Objectives: This study assessed whether the death of a close family member is associated with mortality in HF.

    Methods: Patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry during 2000-2018 and/or in the Swedish Patient Register with a primary diagnosis of HF during 1987-2018 (N = 490,527) were included in this study. Information was obtained on death of family members (children, partner, grandchildren, siblings, and parents), mortality, sociodemographic variables, and health-related factors from several population-based registers. The association between bereavement and mortality was analyzed by using Poisson regression.

    Results: Loss of a family member was associated with an increased risk of dying (adjusted relative risk: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.27-1.30). The association was present not only in case of the family member's cardiovascular deaths and other natural deaths but also in case of unnatural deaths. The risk was higher for 2 losses than for 1 loss and highest in the first week after the loss. The association between bereavement and an increased mortality risk was observed for the death of a child, spouse/partner, grandchild, and sibling but not of a parent.

    Conclusions: Death of a family member was associated with an increased risk of mortality among patients with HF. Further studies are needed to investigate whether less severe sources of stress can also contribute to poor prognosis in HF and to explore the mechanisms underlying this association.

  • 17. Chilunga, Felix Patience
    et al.
    Appelman, Brent
    van Vugt, Michele
    Kalverda, Kirsten
    Smeele, Patrick
    van Es, Josien
    Wiersinga, Willem Joost
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Prins, Maria
    Stronks, Karien
    Norredam, Marie
    Agyemang, Charles
    Differences in incidence, nature of symptoms, and duration of long COVID among hospitalised migrant and non-migrant patients in the Netherlands: a retrospective cohort study2023Ingår i: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe, ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 29, artikel-id 100630Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Comprehensive data on long COVID across ethnic and migrant groups are lacking. We investigated incidence, nature of symptoms, clinical predictors, and duration of long COVID among COVID-19 hospitalised patients in the Netherlands by migration background (Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese origin, Others).

    Methods We used COVID-19 admissions and follow up data (January 2021–July 2022) from Amsterdam University Medical Centers. We calculated long COVID incidence proportions per NICE guidelines by migration background and assessed for clinical predictors via robust Poisson regressions. We then examined associations between migration background and long COVID using robust Poisson regressions and adjusted for derived clinical predictors, and other biologically relevant factors. We also assessed long COVID symptom persistence at one-yearpost-discharge.

    Findings 1886 patients were included. 483 patients had long COVID (26%, 95% CI 24–28%) at 12 weeks post-discharge.

    Symptoms like dizziness, joint pain, insomnia, and headache varied by migration background. Clinical predictors of long COVID were female sex, hospital admission duration, intensive care unit admission, and receiving oxygen, or corticosteroid therapy. Long COVID risk was higher among patients with migration background than Dutch origin patients after adjustments for derived clinical predictors, age, smoking, vaccination status, comorbidities and remdesivir treatment. Only 14% of long COVID symptoms persisted at one-year post-discharge.

    Interpretation There are significant differences in occurrence, nature of symptoms, and duration of long COVID by migration background. Studies assessing the spectrum of functional limitation and access to post-COVID healthcare are needed to help plan for appropriate and accessible health care interventions.

    Funding The Amsterdam UMC COVID-19 biobank is supported by the Amsterdam UMC Corona Research Fund and the Talud Foundation (Stichting Talud). The current analyses were supported by the Novo Nordisk Foundation[NNF21OC0067528]

  • 18.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Educational mismatch and health status among foreign-born workers in Sweden2016Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 154, s. 36-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign-born workers have been shown to experience poorer working conditions than native-born workers. Yet relationships between health and educational mismatch have been largely overlooked among foreign-born workers. This study uses objective and self-reported measures of educational mismatch to compare the prevalence of educational mismatch among native (n = 2359) and foreign born (n = 1789) workers in Sweden and to examine associations between educational mismatch and poor self-rated health. Findings from weighted multivariate logistic regression which controlled for social position and individual-level demographic characteristics suggested that over-educated foreign-born workers had greater odds ratios for poor-self rated health compared to native-born matched workers. This association was particularly evident among men (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39) and women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.12-4.03) from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand. Associations between under-education and poor-self rated health were also found among women from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27-3.18). These findings suggest that educational mismatch may be an important work-related social determinant of health among foreign-born workers. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of long-term versus short-term states of educational mismatch on health and to study relationships over time.

  • 19.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Juárez, Sol
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Employment status and risk of all-cause mortality among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden2018Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 891-897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between exposure to unemployment and increased risk of mortality is well established. Yet migrants and their children often experience a number of stressors in the country of residence which could exacerbate the negative effects of job loss or unemployment. This study examined the extent to which region of origin and generational status modified associations between employment status and risk of all-cause mortality.

    Methods: Using population-based registers, an open cohort of 2 178 321 individuals aged 25-64 years was followed from 1993 to 2008. Hazard ratios for mortality were calculated using Cox regression. Employment status and socio-demographic covariates were included as time-varying variables in all models.

    Results: Relative to employed native-origin Swedes, excess risk of mortality was found among most groups of unemployed persons. The excess risk of mortality found among African women exposed to long-term unemployment (HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 2.30-4.63), Finnish men exposed to short-and long-term unemployment (HR = 2.74, 95% CI: 2.32-3.24 and HR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.12-2.69), and second generation Swedish men exposed to short-term unemployment (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 2.06-2.64) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that found among their unemployed native-origin counterparts. Excess risk of mortality among the unemployed in other foreign-origin groups was of a similar or lower magnitude to that found in unemployed native-origin Swedes. A decreased risk of mortality was observed among the employed in nearly all foreign-origin groups.

    Conclusions: With some exceptions, mortality risk in foreign-origin individuals across all categories of employment status was generally similar to or lower than the risk observed in native-origin Swedes.

  • 20.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Juárez, Sol
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status2019Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 579-590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Prior research has documented an association between unemployment and elevated suicide risk. Yet, few Swedish studies have explicitly considered how such risk may vary by different migration background characteristics among persons of foreign-origin, who often experience diverse forms of labor market marginalization. This study examines the extent to which unemployment status may differentially influence suicide risk among the foreign-origin by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence.

    METHODS: Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25-64 years) from 1993 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: Elevated suicide risk observed among foreign-origin unemployed groups was generally of a similar or lower magnitude than that found in unemployed native-origin, although unemployed second-generation Swedish men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide than that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Unemployed foreign-born men with a younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence demonstrated an increased risk of suicide, while those who arrived as adults, and a shorter duration of residence did not show any increased risk. Among foreign-born women, excess suicide risk persisted regardless of age at arrival and duration of residence in the long-term unemployed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiple migration background characteristics should be considered when examining relationships between employment status and suicide among the foreign-origin.

  • 21.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?2013Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 2871-2887Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  • 22.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cederström, Agneta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol P.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Investigating the salmon bias effect among international immigrants in Sweden: a register-based open cohort study2022Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 226-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies of migration and health have hypothesized that immigrants may emigrate when they develop poor health (salmon bias effect), which may partially explain the mortality advantage observed among immigrants in high-income countries. We evaluated the salmon bias effect by comparing the health of immigrants in Sweden who emigrated with those who remained, while also exploring potential variation by macro-economic conditions, duration of residence and region of origin. Methods: A longitudinal, open cohort study design was used to assess risk of emigration between 1992 and 2016 among all adult (18+ years) foreign-born persons who immigrated to Sweden between 1965 and 2012 (n = 1 765 459). The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to measure health status, using information on hospitalizations from the Swedish National Patient Register. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for emigrating from Sweden. Results: Immigrants with low (RR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76-0.90) moderate (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.80) and high (RR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.82) levels of comorbidities had decreased risk of emigration relative to those with no comorbidities. There was no evidence of variation by health status in emigration during periods of economic recession or by duration of residence. Individuals with low to moderate levels of comorbidities from some regions of origin had an increased risk of emigration relative to those with no comorbidities. Conclusions: The study results do not support the existence of a salmon bias effect as a universal phenomenon among international immigrants in Sweden.

  • 23.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The impact of migration background characteristics on the relationship between employment status and suicide: a longitudinal study of native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden2018Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, s. 182-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Persons of foreign-origin have higher rates of unemployment than those of native-origin, yet few studies have explicitly assessed relationships between unemployment and mental health in persons of foreign-origin relative to those of native-origin. This study examines the extent to which generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence modify the relationship between employment status and suicide risk.

    Methods:

    Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25-64 years) from 1993-2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox regression models.

    Results:

    Elevated hazard ratios for suicide were observed among the majority of foreign-origin persons exposed to unemployment. Second generation Swedish men exposed to unemployment demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide (HR = 3.63, 95% CI: 2.90-4.54) than that observed among native-origin Swedish men exposed to unemployment (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.29-2.16). In unemployed foreign-born men, younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence were associated with increased risk of suicide, whereas unemployed foreign-born men who arrived as adults and had a shorter duration of residence did not demonstrate excess suicide risk.

    Conclusions:

    Suicide risk in most foreign-origin groups exposed to unemployment was of a similar magnitude to that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Yet there were notable differences in patterns of association by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence. The high excess risk observed in unemployed second generation men suggests that ensuring employment among this group may be of particular public health importance.

    Main messages:

    The mental health impact of unemployment varies by migration background characteristics.

    Unemployed second generation men had an elevated risk of suicide that was of a greater magnitude compared to the risk of suicide observed among unemployed native-origin men.

  • 24.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Unemployment status and risk of all-cause mortality among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: An open cohort study from 1993-2008Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between exposure to unemployment and increased risk of mortality is well established. Yet migrants and their children often experience a number of stressors in the country of residence which could exacerbate the negative effects of job loss or unemployment. This study examined the extent to which region of origin and generational status modified associations between employment status and risk of all-cause mortality.

    Methods: Using population-based registers, an open cohort study of 2,178,321 individuals aged 25-64 was followed from 1993-2008. Hazard ratios for mortality were calculated using Cox regression. Employment status and socio-demographic covariates were included as time-varying variables in all models.

    Results: Relative to employed native-origin Swedes, excess risk of mortality was found among most groups of foreign-origin persons exposed to unemployment. The excess risk of mortality found among African women exposed to long-term unemployment (HR=3.26, 95% CI: 2.30-4.63),  Finnish men exposed to short-and long-term unemployment (HR=2.74, 95% CI: 2.32-3.24 and HR=2.39, 95% CI: 2.12-2.69), and  second generation Swedish men exposed to short-term unemployment (HR=2.34, 95% CI: 2.06-2.64) was significantly greater (p<0.05) than that found among their unemployed native-origin counterparts. Decreased risk of mortality was observed among the employed in nearly all foreign-origin groups.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the mortality health advantage often observed among foreign-origin groups is most evident among the employed, while the magnitude of excess risk for mortality in the foreign-origin exposed to unemployment varies by generational status and region of origin.

  • 25.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Migration background characteristics and the association between unemployment and suicide2017Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl. 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Persons of foreign-origin have higher rates of unemployment compared to those of native-origin, yet few studies have assessed relationships between unemployment and mental health in persons of foreign-origin relative to the native-origin. This study aims to examine the extent to which generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence modify the relationship between employment status and suicide risk.

    Methods

    Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25-64 years) from 1993-2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models.

    Results

    Elevated hazard ratios for suicide were observed among the majority of foreign-origin persons exposed to unemployment. Second generation Swedish men exposed to unemployment demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide (HR = 3.63, 95% CI: 2.90-4.54) than that observed among native-origin Swedish men exposed to unemployment (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.29-2.16). In unemployed foreign-born men, younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence were associated with increased risk of suicide, whereas unemployed foreign-born men who arrived as adults and had a shorter duration of residence did not demonstrate excess suicide risk.

    Conclusions

    Analyses indicated that the majority of the foreign-origin exposed to unemployment demonstrated excess risk of suicide that was of a similar magnitude to that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Yet there were notable differences in patterns of association by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence. The high excess risk observed in unemployed second generation men suggests that ensuring employment among this group may be of particular public health importance.

  • 26.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Arbetsmiljön bland utrikesfödda anställda i Sverige2017Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 46-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel syftar till att utöka kunskapen kring arbetsmiljöförhållanden bland utlandsfödda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Studien undersöker hur exponering för bristfälliga psykosociala, strukturella och fysiska arbetsmiljöförhållanden varierar mellan olika grupper av anställda kvinnor och män beroende på födelseland. Resultaten visar skillnader när det gäller exponering för bristfälliga arbetsmiljöförhållanden mellan utlandsfödda och inrikes födda anställda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Dessa skillnader beror på den grupp som undersöks och det arbetsmiljöproblem som studeras.

  • 27. Engström, K.
    et al.
    Johnson, C.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Can social capital explain mental health inequalities between immigrant groups?2014Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, s. 57-58Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Nearly 15% of Sweden’s population are immigrants and research has shown them to be one of the most susceptible groups to mental ill-health. The variance in mental health status can to a large extent be explained by different post-migrant factors. Social capital has been suggested to partly explain health inequalities between social groups and may be specifically important with regard to health inequalities between immigrant groups, due to its affinity with the concept of integration. This study aims to explore to what extent social capital can help to explain mental health inequalities between Swedish born and different immigrant groups.

    Methods

    The project is based on data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC). The SPHC combines information from repeated self-administered questionnaires, 2002 an onwards, with information from national and regional registers on a randomized sample of the adult population in Stockholm County. We employed a cross-sectional design using baseline data from 51,715 individuals from the SPHC. Mental health was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Social capital was measured using indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Immigrant status was decided depending on reason for immigration (refugee/labor). Mediation was tested using step-wise logistic regression.

    Results

    The results show that refugees had greater risk of mental ill-health than labor immigrants. Among men both refugees and labor immigrants had greater risk of mental ill-health than Swedish born, which was true only for refugees among women. No significant differences in mental ill-health between Swedish born, labor immigrants and refugees remained after adjusting for social capital indicators.

    Conclusions

    Immigrants in Sweden have greater risk of mental ill-health than Swedish born, both among men and women. Social capital seemed to explain most of the differences in mental ill-health between Swedish born and different immigrant groups. Increased knowledge of how social capital might mediate the effect of immigration status on mental health may be of significance for a variety of policy measures taken in the public-health arena and a step towards identifying elements of improvement of the integration process.

  • 28. Finnas, Fjalar
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Divorce and parity progression following the death of a child: A register-based study from Finland2018Ingår i: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies that have examined whether a child's death influences parental relationship stability have used small-scale data sets and their results are inconclusive. A likely reason is that child loss affects not only the risk of parental separation, but also the risk of having another child. Hence parity progression and separation must be treated as two competing events in relation to child loss. The analysis in this paper used Finnish register data from 1971 to 2003, covering over 100,000 married couples whose durations of both first marriage and parenthood could be observed. We ran parity-specific Cox regressions in which process time started from the birth of each additional child. All marriages included women of childbearing age, none of whom had experienced any child death on entering the analysis. We find that child loss only modestly influences the divorce risk, whereas its effect on the risk of parity progression is considerable.

  • 29. Finnäs, Fjalar
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Separation and reproduction following the death of a child: a nationwide follow-up study from Finland2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Grotta, Alessandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Liu, Can
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Saarela, Jan
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Suicide Around the Anniversary of a Parent’s Death in Sweden2023Ingår i: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 6, nr 4, artikel-id e236951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance  Bereavement following parental death experienced in adulthood may be associated with suicide over many years, but this risk has received scant attention.

    Objective  To investigate whether the risk of suicide increases among adult children around the anniversary of a parent’s death.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  This case-crossover study used Swedish register-based longitudinal data from 1990 to 2016, based on the entire national population. Participants included all adults aged 18 to 65 years who experienced parental death and subsequently died by suicide. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the association between the anniversary (or preanniversary and postanniversary periods) and suicide, controlling for time-invariant confounding. All analyses were stratified by sex of the offspring. The analyses were also stratified by the sex of the deceased parent, time since parental death, age, and marital status. Data analyses were performed in June 2022.

    Exposures  Anniversary of a parent’s death (or preanniversary and postanniversary periods).

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Suicide.

    Results  Of 7694 individuals who died by suicide (76% intentional self-harm), 2255 (29%) were women, and the median (IQR) age at suicide was 55 (47-62) years. There was evidence of an anniversary reaction among women, with a 67% increase in the odds of suicide when exposed to the period from the anniversary to 2 days after the anniversary, compared with when not being exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62). The risk was particularly pronounced among maternally bereaved women (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.20-4.40) and women who were never married (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 0.99-4.37), although the latter was not statistically significant. An increased risk of suicide from the day before up to the anniversary was observed among women bereaved between the ages of 18 and 34 years (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.14-10.56) and between the ages of 50 and 65 years (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.15). Men had an attenuated suicide risk for the period from the day before up to the anniversary (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92).

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Miething, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social network characteristics and alcohol use by ethnic origin: An ego-based network study on peer similarity, social relationships, and co-existing drinking habits among young Swedes2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikel-id e0249120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores how social network determinants relate to the prevalence and frequency of alcohol use among peer dyads. It is studied how similar alcohol habits co-exist amongpersons (egos) and their peers (alters) when socio-demographic similarity (e.g., in ethnicorigin), network composition and other socio-cultural aspects were considered. Data was ego-based responses derived from a Swedish national survey with a cohort of 23-year olds.The analytical sample included 7987 ego-alter pairs, which corresponds to 2071 individuals(egos). A so-called dyadic design was applied i.e., all components of the analysis refer to ego-alter pairs (dyads). Multilevel multinomial-models were used to analyse similarity in alcohol habits in relation to ego-alter similarity in ethnic background, religious beliefs, age, sex, risk-taking, educational level, closure in network, duration, and type of relationship, as well as interactions between ethnicity and central network characteristics. Ego-alter similarity in terms of ethnic origin, age and sex was associated with ego-alter similarity in alcohol use. That both ego and alters were non-religious and were members of closed networks also had an impact on similarity in alcohol habits. It was concluded that network similarity might be an explanation for the co-existence of alcohol use among members of peer networks.

  • 32.
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden; University College London, United Kingdom; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Grotta, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Parental death in childhood and pathways to increased mortality across the life course in Stockholm, Sweden: A cohort study2021Ingår i: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikel-id e1003549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous studies have shown that the experience of parental death during childhood is associated with increased mortality risk. However, few studies have examined potential pathways that may explain these findings. The aim of this study is to examine whether familial and behavioural factors during adolescence and socioeconomic disadvantages in early adulthood mediate the association between loss of a parent at age 0 to 12 and all-cause mortality by the age of 63.

    Methods and findings

    A cohort study was conducted using data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study for 12,615 children born in 1953, with information covering 1953 to 2016. Familial and behavioural factors at age 13 to 19 included psychiatric and alcohol problems in the surviving parent, receipt of social assistance, and delinquent behaviour in the offspring. Socioeconomic disadvantage in early adulthood included educational attainment, occupational social class, and income at age 27 to 37. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models, combined with a multimediator analysis, to separate direct and indirect effects of parental death on all-cause mortality.

    Among the 12,582 offspring in the study (men 51%; women 49%), about 3% experienced the death of a parent in childhood. During follow-up from the age of 38 to 63, there were 935 deaths among offspring. Parental death was associated with an elevated risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic and household socioeconomic characteristics at birth (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.52 [95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 2.08, p-value = 0.010]). Delinquent behaviour in adolescence and income during early adulthood were the most influential mediators, and the indirect associations through these variables were HR 1.03 (1.00 to 1.06, 0.029) and HR 1.04 (1.01 to 1.07, 0.029), respectively. After accounting for these indirect paths, the direct path was attenuated to HR 1.35 (0.98 to 1.85, 0.066). The limitations of the study include that the associations may be partly due to genetic, social, and behavioural residual confounding, that statistical power was low in some of the subgroup analyses, and that there might be other relevant paths that were not investigated in the present study.

    Conclusions

    Our findings from this cohort study suggest that childhood parental death is associated with increased mortality and that the association was mediated through a chain of disadvantages over the life course including delinquency in adolescence and lower income during early adulthood. Professionals working with bereaved children should take the higher mortality risk in bereaved offspring into account and consider its lifelong consequences. When planning and providing support to bereaved children, it may be particularly important to be aware of their increased susceptibility to delinquency and socioeconomic vulnerability that eventually lead to higher mortality.

  • 33. Hiyoshi, Ayako
    et al.
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Saarela, Jan
    Fall, Katja
    Grotta, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Shebehe, Jacques
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Substance use disorder and suicide-related behaviour around dates of parental death and its anniversaries: a register-based cohort study2022Ingår i: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 7, nr 8, s. e683-e693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Parental death and its anniversaries, including anticipation of these dates, might cause distress andincrease the risk of substance use disorder and suicide-related behaviour in bereaved adolescents and young adults.We examined whether the risk of substance use disorder and suicide-related behaviour increases around the date ofparental death and subsequent anniversaries.

    Methods Using Swedish national registers, we conducted a cohort study of individuals aged 12–24 years. We includedindividuals aged 12–24 years between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2014, whose parents were alive at entry (n=1 858 327)and followed up with them until the end of age 24 years. We excluded individuals with a half-sibling, a history ofemigration, a previous record of the outcome events, a parental death before study entry, two parental deaths on thesame day during the follow-up, or missing data for relevant variables. Follow-up ended on the day of an outcomeevent or on Dec 31, 2014; at age 25 years, emigration, or death; or a year before the second parental death. We studiedsubstance use disorder and suicide-related behaviour outcomes separately and included non-fatal and fatal events inboth outcomes. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), controlling for baseline psychiatric,demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Parental death was modelled as a time-varying exposure over72 monthly periods, starting from 1 year before the parental death to the fifth year and later after the death.Unmeasured confounding was also addressed in within-individual comparisons using a case-crossover design.

    Findings During follow-up (median 7·5 [IQR 4·3–10·6] years), there were 42 854 substance use disorder events, witha crude rate of 3·1 per 1000 person-years. For suicide-related behaviour, there were 19 827 events, with a crude rate of1·4 per 1000 person-years. Most of the events studied were non-fatal. In the month of parental death, the HR forsubstance use disorder risk was 1·89 (95% CI 1·07–3·33) among male participants, and, for suicide-related behaviour,was 3·76 (1·79–7·89) among male participants and 2·90 (1·61–5·24) among female participants. In male participants,there was an increased risk around the first anniversary (substance use disorder: HR 2·64 [95% CI 1·56–4·46] duringthe anniversary month; 2·21 [1·25–3 ·89] for the subsequent month; and for suicide-related behaviour: 3·18[1·32–7·66] for the subsequent month). Among female participants, an increased risk of substance use disorderrecurred around every year consistently in the month before the anniversary of the death and there was an increasedrisk for suicide-related behaviour in the months of the first and second anniversaries.

    Interpretation Although effect sizes were large in this cohort study, the number of individuals who had the outcomeswas small. Nevertheless, adolescents and young adults, especially women and girls, who had the death of a parentshowed increased risk of substance use disorder and suicide-related behaviour around the first few death anniversaries.Adolescents and young adults, especially women and girls, who had the death of a parent could benefit from preventivemeasures to reduce distress around the first few years of death anniversaries

  • 34.
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Increasing income-based inequality in suicide mortality among working-age women and men, Sweden, 1990-2007: is there a point of trend change?2018Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, nr 11, s. 1009-1015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Income inequalities have risen from the 1990s to 2000s, following the economic recession in 1994, but little research has investigated socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality for working-age men and women (aged between 30 and 64 years) over the time using longitudinal data in Sweden. Methods Using Swedish national register data between 1990 and 2007 as a series of repeated cohort studies with a 3-year follow-up (sample sizes were approximately 3.7 to 4.0million in each year), relative and slope indices of inequality (RII and SII respectively) based on quintiles of individual disposable income were calculated and tested for temporal trends. Results SII for the risk of suicide mortality ranged from 27.6 (95% CI 19.5 to 35.8) to 44.5 (36.3 to 52.6) in men and 5.2 (0.2 to 10.4) to 16.6 (10.7 to 22.4) in women (per 100000 population). In men, temporal trends in suicide inequalities were stable in SII but increasing in RII by 3% each year (p=0.002). In women, inequalities tended to increase in both RII and SII, especially after the late-1990s, with 10% increment in RII per year (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite universal social security and generous welfare provision, income inequalities in suicide were considerable and have widened, especially in women. The steeper rise in women may be partially related to higher job insecurity and poorer working conditions in the female dominated public sector after the recession. To reduce health consequences following an economic crisis and widened income inequalities, additional measures may be necessary in proportion to the levels of financial vulnerability.

  • 35.
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden; University College London, UK; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fall, Katja
    Montgomery, Scott
    Grotta, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Caregiving and changes in health-related behaviour2023Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 322, artikel-id 115830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential health risks for informal caregivers have been hypothesised to be partly related to adverse changes in health-related behaviour, but evidence is limited. We examined whether smoking, drinking, eating, physical activity or leisure pursuits change in relation to co-resident or out-of-home caregiving (for someone outside the household), and if associations differ by sex, educational attainment, and welfare state typology. We conducted a longitudinal study using six waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, collecting data repeatedly from 2004 to 2017 for adults aged 50 years and older living in 17 European countries (57,962 individuals). To control for measured and unmeasured within-individual time-invariant confounders, we used fixed effects logistic models to analyse the repeated measures of caregiving, behaviour and covariates and estimated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Among male participants, unhealthy eating increased while smoking decreased [ORs 1.26 (95%CI 1.01–1.58) and 0.53 (0.36–0.78), respectively] in survey waves in which they provided co-resident care, compared with the waves that they did not. Among female participants, there was little change in behaviour between waves with and without co-resident caregiving. When providing out-of-home care, lacks of physical activity and leisure pursuits declined. But in the same time, drinking increased both men and women, and especially among individuals with lower educational attainment and residing in non-Nordic countries. To conclude, overall, increased drinking when providing out-of-home care was most consistent, especially among individuals with lower educational attainment and residing in non-Nordic countries. Otherwise, the associations varied by the type of care, behaviour and population subgroups. These findings indicated that not all caregivers are susceptible to behavioural changes, and that not all behaviour may be involved similarly in linking caregiving to health risks. This opens possibilities to target specific behaviour and groups to prevent adverse changes in health behaviour in caregivers.

  • 36.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Arat, Arzu
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Klöfvermark, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Manhica, Hélio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Children as next of kin in Sweden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Barn som anhöriga: hur går det i skolan?2015Ingår i: Att se barn som anhöriga: om relationer, interventioner och omsorgsansvar / [ed] Ulrika Järkestig Berggren, Lennart Magnusson, Elizabeth Hanson, Kalmar: NKA och Linnéuniversitetet , 2015, s. 117-132Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Barn som anhöriga: hur går det i skolan?2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bacchus-Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Mortality by country of birth in the Nordic countries – a systematic review of the literature2017Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, artikel-id 511Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Immigration to the Nordic countries has increased in the last decades and foreign-born inhabitants now constitute a considerable part of the region’s population. Several studies suggest poorer self-reported health among foreign-born compared to natives, while results on mortality and life expectancy are inconclusive. To date, few studies have summarized knowledge on mortality differentials by country of birth. This article aims to systematically review previous results on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by country of birth in the Nordic countries.Methods: The methodology was conducted and documented systematically and transparently using a narrative approach. We identified 43 relevant studies out of 6059 potentially relevant studies in August 2016, 35 of which used Swedish data, 8 Danish and 1 Norwegian.Results: Our findings from fully-adjusted models on Swedish data support claims of excess mortality risks in specific categories of foreign-born. Most notably, immigrants from other Nordic countries, especially Finland, experience increased risk of mortality from all causes, and specifically by suicide, breast and gynaecological cancers, and circulatory diseases. Increased risks in people from Central and Eastern Europe can also be found. On the contrary, decreased risks for people with Southern European and Middle Eastern origins are found for all-cause, suicide, and breast and gynaecological cancer mortality. The few Danish studies are more difficult to compare, with conflicting results arising in the analysis. Finally, results from the one Norwegian study suggest significantly decreased mortality risks among foreign-born, to be explored in further research.Conclusions: With new studies being published on mortality differentials between native and foreign-born populations in the Nordic countries, specific risk patterns have begun to arise. Regardless, data from most Nordic countries remains limited, as does the information on specific causes of death. The literature should be expanded in upcoming years to capture associations between country of birth and mortality more clearly.

  • 40.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Mental health by native-immigrant intermarriage in Sweden: a register-based retrospective cohort study2022Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 877-883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Native–immigrant intermarriage is often regarded as a proxy for integration, given that intermarried immigrants are more socioeconomically and culturally similar to natives than intramarried immigrants. This study aimed to assess whether integration affects mental health and care-seeking behaviours, examining prescription hazards for psychotropic medications by native–immigrant marital composition in Sweden.

    Methods: Total population register data were used to identify first-time married couples residing in Sweden between 31 December 2005 and 31 December 2016. Index persons were distinguished by gender and partners’ origin (native vs. immigrant), as well as by immigrants’ regions of origin, with intramarried natives as references. Using Cox regression, hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for antidepressant and anxiolytic prescriptions and adjusted for socioeconomic factors, presence of children and length and quality of marriage.

    Results: Intramarried immigrant women had higher psychotropic prescription hazards than intramarried native references (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.10–1.12), whereas intermarried immigrant women had equal hazards. Immigrant women’s hazards were lower than native references after adjustment. Intramarried immigrant men had the greatest prescription hazards (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.32–1.34), and intermarried immigrant men slightly higher hazards (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.10–1.13), than intramarried natives. All were partly attenuated after adjustment. Intermarriage hazards increased by similarities in regions of origin, especially among men.

    Conclusions: Integration indicated by intermarriage appears to be protective for the mental health of immigrants, especially for immigrant men. Future research should empirically disentangle the social, cultural and socioeconomic mechanisms underlying these health differences.

  • 41.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychiatric health by native-migrant intermarriage in Sweden: a register-based retrospective cohort studyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol Pía
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychological distress by age at migration and duration of residence in Sweden2020Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 250, artikel-id 112869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrants suffer from worse psychological health than natives in many countries, yet the extent to which this varies by age at migration and duration of residence in the receiving context remains unexplored in Sweden. Drawing on a life course approach, we investigate differences in psychological distress by age at migration and duration of residence in working-age migrants to Sweden, and examine the role of various social determinants of health in explaining these differences relative to Swedish-born.

    Using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2011/2015 Health on Equal Terms survey in Västra Götaland Region, Sweden (n = 58,428), we applied logistic regression analysis to calculate predicted probabilities and average marginal effects (AME) of migrant status, by age at migration and duration of residence, on psychological distress. Analyses were stratified by sex and region of origin and controlled for indicators of socioeconomic status (SES), social cohesion, and discrimination to assess their potential contribution to differences in migrants' and natives' psychological distress.

    All migrants except men from OECD-predominant regions had a greater probability of psychological distress than Swedish-born (ranging from AME 0.031 [95% Confidence Interval or CI 0.000–0.062] for OECD women to AME 0.115 [95% CI 0.074–0.156] for non-OECD men). Marginal effects of migration status on psychological distress probabilities generally increased with age at migration and duration of residence. Differences between migrants and natives were largely attenuated after controlling for social determinants, the greatest contribution coming from inequalities in social cohesion, followed by inequalities in discrimination and SES.

    Our results suggest a relative health advantage of early-life compared to later-life migration, albeit with worse outcomes with longer residence in Sweden. The predominance of integration opportunities in childhood strengthens calls for supportive policies to assist older migrants' integration directly upon arrival, which may ultimately improve their psychological wellbeing.

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  • 43.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol P.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychiatric consequences of a father’s leave policy by nativity: a quasi-experimental study in Sweden2022Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 76, nr 4, s. 367-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Parental leave use has been found to promote maternal and child health, with limited evidence of mental health impacts on fathers. How these effects vary for minority populations with poorer mental health and lower leave uptake, such as migrants, remains under-investigated. This study assessed the effects of a Swedish policy to encourage fathers’ leave, the 1995 Father’s quota, on Swedish-born and migrant fathers’ psychiatric hospitalisations.

    Methods We conducted an interrupted time series analysis using Swedish total population register data for first-time fathers of children born before (1992–1994) and after (1995–1997) the reform (n=198 589). Swedish-born and migrant fathers’ 3-year psychiatric hospitalisation rates were modelled using segmented negative binomial regression, adjusting for seasonality and autocorrelation, with stratified analyses by region of origin, duration of residence, and partners’ nativity.

    Results From immediately pre-reform to post-reform, the proportion of fathers using parental leave increased from 63.6% to 86.4% of native-born and 37.1% to 51.2% of migrants. Swedish-born fathers exhibited no changes in psychiatric hospitalisation rates post-reform, whereas migrants showed 36% decreased rates (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.86). Migrants from regions not predominantly consisting of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.33), and those with migrant partners (IRR 0.23, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.38), experienced the greatest decreases in psychiatric hospitalisation rates.

    Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that policies oriented towards promoting father’s use of parental leave may help to reduce native–migrant health inequalities, with broader benefits for family well-being and child development.Data availability statement

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  • 44.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Simultaneous parental leave and psychiatric health by nativity: a quasi-experimental study in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Kauppi, M.
    Virtanen, P.
    Lipiäinen, L.
    Pentti, J.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Vahtera, J.
    Trajectories of Antidepressant Use before and after the Loss of a Family Member: Evidence from the Finnish Public Sector Study2018Ingår i: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3190, E-ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 87, nr 4, s. 246-248Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Juárez, Sol Pía
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social hållbarhet i kollektivtrafiken2017Ingår i: Metoder och verktyg för sociala nyttoberäkningar i kollektivtrafiken / [ed] Thomas Wimark, Stockholm: Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2017, s. 9-53Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med skärpt fokusering på hållbar utveckling blir såväl politiskt ansvariga som akademiker allt mer sysselsatta inte enbart med infrastrukturens inverkan på ekonomi och miljö utan även dess sociala inverkan. Denna breda litteraturstudie har undersökt den sociala hållbarhetens roll i kollektivtrafikens infrastruktur. Den har siktat på att urskilja de olika komponenter i social hållbarhet som ingår i denna kontext, kvalitativa respektive kvantitativa analytiska metoder och deras krav på data samt tillämpbarheten av dessa rön i den svenska kontexten. Översikten utfördes med hjälp av indexeringstjänsten Web of Science, en kombinerad snöbollsmetod samt interna rekommendationer och analyser med hjälp av ett teoretiskt ramverk för hållbarhet anpassat från United Nations Environment Programme. Rönen ådagalade många kvantitativa tillvägagångssätt, däribland kostnads-/nyttoanalys [cost-benefit analyses (CBA)], tillämpningar av geografiska informationssystem (GIS), och jämlikhetsanalyser m.fl. Variabler för kollektivtrafik såsom tillgänglighet och rörlighet behandlades oftast tillsammans med sociala bestämningsfaktorer, liksom sociala utfallsvariabler däribland socialt utanförskap och socialt kapital. Kvalitativa infallsvinklar används däremot mer sällan i den här kontexten trots deras betydelse för att hjälpa till att fånga in användares erfarenheter och att urskilja nya sociala variabler. Utifrån dessa resultat och den rådande preferensen för kvantitativa metoder i svenska analyser av kollektivtrafik rekommenderar författarna mera fokus på de sociala utfallen av kollektivtrafikens infrastruktur genom att använda en blandning av kvantitativa och kvalitativa infallsvinklar.

  • 47.
    Hélio, Manhica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Mortality in adult offspring of immigrants: a Swedish national cohort study2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id e0116999.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48. Johnson, Charisse M.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Svensson, Anna C.
    Engström, Karin
    The role of social capital in explaining mental health inequalities between immigrants and Swedish-born: a population-based cross-sectional study2017Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, artikel-id 117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social capital may theoretically explain health inequalities between social groups, but empirical evidence is lacking. Some studies indicate that social capital may be particularly important for immigrant health. Nearly 16% of Sweden's population are foreign-born immigrants and research has shown them to be susceptible to psychological distress, though significant variation has been found between groups. In this study, we investigate the following hypotheses: 1) if non-refugees have better mental health than Swedish-born, and refugees experience worse mental health than Swedish-born; 2) if mental health status converges with that of Swedish-born with longer duration of residence; and 3) if social capital mediates the effect of immigrant status on psychological distress for different immigrant groups as compared to Swedish-born.Methods: This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and includes 50,498 randomly-selected individuals from Stockholm County in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Mental health was measured as psychological distress, using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Social capital was measured using indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Both cognitive and structural aspects were measured for the latter two indicators. Mediation was tested using logistic regression and the Sobel test.Results: The results show that refugees generally had greater odds of psychological distress than non-refugees compared to their respective Swedish-born counterparts. Among immigrant men, both refugees and non-refugees had significantly greater odds of psychological distress than Swedish-born men. Only refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more had significantly greater odds of psychological distress compared to Swedish-born women. The mediation analysis demonstrated that indicators of social capital mediated the association for all immigrant men (except non-refugees in Sweden 3-9 years) and for refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more. While bonding social capital showed the greatest mediatory role among the three social capital types, adding them together had the strongest explanatory effect.Conclusions: Social capital explains differences in mental health for some immigrant groups, highlighting its role as a potentially important post-migration factor. Increased investment from policy-makers regarding how social capital can be promoted among new arrivals may be important for preventing psychological distress.

  • 49. Johnson-Singh, Charisse M.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Engström, Karin
    Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden2018Ingår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 52, s. 70-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born.

    Methods

    This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances.

    Results

    Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual horizontal trust showed ethnic heterogeneity to be protective for respondents Swedish-background. There was no clear trend between ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress for respondents with foreign-background.

    Conclusion

    The association between ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress differs by ethnic background. There was no difference in this association based on the measure of ethnic heterogeneity used, nor in the explanatory role of social capital between ethnic heterogeneity measures. Socioeconomic indicators and some elements of individual and contextual social capital are important explanatory factors of the excess risk of psychological distress with regards to ethnic heterogeneity.

  • 50.
    Juárez, Sol
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    All-cause mortality, age at arrival, and duration of residence among adult migrants in Sweden: A population-based longitudinal study2018Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 6, s. 16-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A mortality advantage has been observed among recently arrived immigrants in multiple national contexts, even though many immigrants experience more social disadvantage compared to natives. This is the first study to investigate the combined influence of duration of residence and age at arrival on the association between region of origin and all-cause mortality among the adult immigrant population in Sweden.

    Methods: Using population-based registers, we conducted a follow-up study of 1,363,429 individuals aged 25-64 years from 1990 to 2008. Gompertz parametric survival models were fitted to derive hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality.

    Results: Compared to native Swedes, we observed a health advantage in all group of immigrants, with the exception of individuals from Finland. However, when information on age at arrival and duration of residence was combined, an excess mortality risk was found among immigrants who arrived before age 18, which largely disappeared after 15 years of residence in Sweden. Non-European immigrants over age 18 showed similar or lower mortality risks than natives in all categories of age at arrival, regardless of duration of residence.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that the mortality advantage commonly observed among immigrants is not universal. Combined information on age at arrival and duration of residence can be used to identify sensitive periods and to identify possible selection bias. The study also suggests that young immigrants are a vulnerable subpopulation. Given the increased number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Europe, targeted health or integration policies should be developed or reviewed.

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