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  • 1.
    Benson, Livia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG).
    Social and political aspects of urban ecology: Possibilities and constraints for civic actors to influence urban green area planning at Årstafältet, Stockholm2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Answers to fundamental questions about pattern and process in the ecological and human world often comes from within the boundaries of one discipline or another, neglecting the relationships between the ecological and social systems. One manifestation of these relationships, which also forms the focus of this study, is conflicts over how to use urban green areas. Various scholars imply that civil society organisations and individual citizens can play an important role in articulating the ecological and social values that exist in much disputed green areas, and can therefore create a “protective story” to prevent exploitation. Following these implications and using a social network or social capital perspective, this study investigates a current conflict concerning Årstafältet, or the Årsta field, in Stockholm, which is suggested for exploitation, and focuses on the civic actors’ ability to participate in influencing the future of this green area. Although the conflict is still ongoing, the actors in the case study have at the present stage not been successful in protecting their green area. The results from interviews and participatory observations show the importance of accessing useful artefacts to incorporate into a protective story, and being able to present the artefacts in appropriate social arenas something that has been a limitation for the actors of Årstafältet. The actor groups’ ability to balance bridging and bonding social capital is also a factor that can have affected their success. The study further reveals a lack of democracy in the decision making process and suggest that public actors impede the participation of civic actors in contributing in the planning of urban green areas rather than facilitate their participation. In addition to highlighting some of the social and political factors that affect the emergence of green spatial structures in urban landscapes this study also establishes that the ecological perspective has been neglected in the case of Årstafältet. Following the results of the study a contemporary approach of studying urban ecology which includes attention on the mixture of social, political and ecological perspectives is encouraged for future research.

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  • 2. Cimarelli, Giulia
    et al.
    Juskaite, Magdelena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria.
    Range, Friederike
    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah
    Free-ranging dogs match a human's preference in a foraging task2023Ingår i: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning is a mechanism used by many species to efficiently gain information about their environment. Although many animals live in an environment where members of other species are present, little is known about interspecific social learning. Domesticated and urbanized species provide the opportunity to investigate whether nonhuman animals can learn from heterospecifics such as humans, who are integral parts of their social landscape. Although domestic dogs Canis familiaris have been intensively researched for their ability to learn from humans, most studies have focused on dogs living as pets. However, free-ranging dogs represent the majority of the world’s dog population, they live alongside humans, scavenge on human refuse, and are subject to natural and sexual selection. Thus, free-ranging dogs with extensive exposure to humans and their artifacts provide the opportunity to investigate interspecific social learning in a naturalistic setting, where learning from humans might be a benefit for them. Here we tested individual free-ranging dogs in a between-subject design: Dogs in the control group could spontaneously choose between two novel and differently patterned food-delivering boxes. In the experimental group, instead, dogs could first observe an unfamiliar human approaching and eating from 1 of the 2 boxes. We provide the first evidence that free-ranging dogs match the choice of an unfamiliar human. These results show that at least simple forms of interspecific social learning might be involved in dogs’ success in living alongside humans in a complex urbanized environment. 

  • 3.
    Elliot, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG).
    The Influence of Macrophytes on Aquatic Microclimate2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur landvegetation påverkar mikroklimatet och vilka effekter detta har på associerade ekosystem är väl studerat, men det är mindre känt om, och i så fall hur, akvatiska makrofyter påverkar sitt mikroklimat. I denna studie syftar jag därför till att undersöka frågan om hur akvatiska makrofyter påverkar sitt mikroklimat, och hur dessa effekter vidare kan påverka associerade vattenlevande organismer och ekosystem. Detta genom att göra en litteratursökning och granskning av relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar. Jag fann att akvatiska makrofyter påverkar mikroklimatet på flera sätt. För det första kan deras fotosyntetiska aktivitet påverka vatten- och sedimentkemin genom att ändra koldioxid- och syrenivåerna, vilket också påverkar pH. För det andra kan lokal temperatur också påverkas av makrofyter genom skuggning och värmebevarande, vilket i sin tur även kan påverka vattenrörelsen via densitetsskillnader. För det tredje kan akvatiska makrofyter påverka ljusnivåerna i vattenpelaren, både negativt genom skuggning, och positivt genom minskning av partiklar i vattnet. Jag drar slutsatsen att akvatiska makrofyter har starkt inflytande på mikroklimatet. Detta inflytande kan förändra den lokala miljön och därmed också påverka associerade organismer och ekosystem. Dessa slutsatser är viktiga för framtida forskning om vattenmiljöer när man tittar på utmaningar som klimatförändringar, bevarande, samt skydd av biologisk mångfald och hela ekosystem.

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  • 4.
    Flodin, Veronica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Slove Davidson, Jessica
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG).
    Criteria-Based Assessment of Knowledge in Biology in Higher Education2019Ingår i: ESERA 2019 The Beauty and Pleasure of Understanding: Engaging with Contemporary Challenges Through Science Education (Proceedings of ESERA 2019) / [ed] Olivia Levrini, Giulia Tasquier, University of Bologna , 2019, s. 1976-1982Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of knowledge is a key part of all programs. In higher education, the assessment process since 2006 also has had an ambition to be equivalent in Europe through a joint agreement in Bologna. Standards and guidelines for quality assurance are made, for example that criteria for and method of assessment are published in advance to enhance transparency. Course objectives are formulated as student-centered learning outcomes coupled with assessment criteria that describe what the learner is expected to do and to what level. At some Swedish universities, the reform was completed in 2007. A question is thus, how learning outcomes and assessment criteria are expressed in biology courses of today. All course plans and course documents from the academic year 2015/2016 in biology at one university have been collected and categorized according to type of assessment criteria. This study focuses qualitatively expressed assessment criteria, i.e. differences in quality are expressed with words. Three different categories were found. The quality of student answers are assessed as different levels of abilities, different levels of relational complexity or different levels of attributes. Possible knowledge taxonomies affecting the criteria are discussed as well as the lack of critical analysis of assessment practice in higher education courses. The influence of view of knowledge is highlighted and differences in preconditions for knowing in different sub disciplines. Consequences for teaching and learning and possible solutions are raised.

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  • 5.
    Hasnat, Md. Abul
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh.
    Reproductive Potential Difference of Artificially Inseminated and Naturally Mated Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Apis mellifera L. is the only commercially cultivated bee species in Bangladesh nowadays and has been practicing for migratory beekeeping since 1990. Notably, without taking initiatives to improve the bee stocks, intensified beekeeping has been making the species vulnerable to different threats of diseases, pests and inbreeding depression. Reproductive potentiality of the queens has been declining severely. The investigation was carried out to diagnose present problems regarding reproductive potentiality of the queen bees and finding out the possible solutions. Firstly, 56 numbers of naturally mated queens (Apis mellifera L.) were collected from problematic and non-problematic hives from three districts of Bangladesh. Samples were weighed, body length and thorax width were measured, and dissected to study spermathecae appearance. Average queen body weight (160.75±3.65 mg) was found much lower than the earlier studies in different countries. Moreover, 32.33% spermathecae of the queens were found poor in appearance. Again, 3 different queen rearing and mating procedures were applied in 12 replications each: naturally mated queen (NM), grafted and naturally mated queen (GNM) and grafted and artificially inseminated queen (AIQ). NM and GNM queens were allowed to mate naturally where AIQ queens were inseminated artificially in the laboratory. Interestingly, GNM (196.65±3.13 mg) and AIQ(196.55±2.41 mg) queens were significantly heavier than the NM (159.07±6.94 mg) queens. Likewise, their spermathecae radius, respective workers, drones, brood occupation area showed much better strength than the NM queens, though, latency period of AIQ queens were higher. Since grafted queens were reared with good larvae and implemented in artificial queen cups with increased brood support, hence that could make the queens heavier and reproductively more potential, whereas NM queens were left to grow naturally and found less potential. The findings will encourage beekeepers for practicing grafting procedure as the better queen rearing procedure in field condition. However, the procedure of AIQ queens also could be used for stock improvement and bee research because of its control mating system.

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  • 6. Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    et al.
    Maher, Sarah J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lopez, Zeltia
    Lintott, Paul R.
    Bailey, Sallie A.
    Dent, Daisy
    Park, Kirsty J.
    Bat use of commercial coniferous plantations at multiple spatial scales: Management and conservation implications2017Ingår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 206, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial plantations are primarily managed for timber production, and are frequently considered poor for biodiversity, particularly for mammalian species. Bats, which constitute one fifth of mammal species worldwide, have undergone large declines throughout Europe, most likely due to widespread habitat loss and degradation. Bat use of modified landscapes such as urban or agricultural environments has been relatively well studied, however, intensively managed plantations have received less attention, particularly in Europe. We assessed three of the largest, most intensively managed plantations in the UK for the occurrence of bats, activity levels and relative abundance in response to environmental characteristics at multiple spatial scales, using an information theoretic approach. We recorded or captured nine species; Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus were the most commonly recorded species on acoustic detectors and female P. pygmaeus were the most commonly captured. The influence of environmental characteristics on bat activity varied by species or genus, although all bat species avoided dense stands. Occurrence and activity of clutter and edge adapted species were associated with lower stand densities and more heterogeneous landscapes whereas open adapted bats were more likely to be recorded at felled stands and less likely in areas that were predominantly mature conifer woodland. In addition, despite morphological similarities, P. pipstrellus and P. pygmaeus were found foraging in different parts of the plantation. This study demonstrates that with sympathetic management, non-native conifer plantations may have an important role in maintaining and supporting bat populations, particularly for Pipistrellus spp.

  • 7.
    Plowey, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    A multi-scale approach to monitoring the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea: A comparison of satellite, mooring, and ship-based monitoring of water quality2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie var utformad för att undersöka de egenskaper  Europeiska rymdorganisationens OLCI, på satelliten Sentinel-3A, har att övervaka rumsliga och temporära färgparametrar i havet. Specifikt undersöktes klorofyll-a, turbiditet och CDOM (humusämnen/brunifiering ) i Östersjön och jämfördes med mer traditionella övervakningstekniker såsom bojar med mätstationer och övervakning från båt. Mätfrekvensen för OLCI/Sentinel-3A-data jämförs också med frekvensen av data från MERIS/ENVISAT från 2008 och 2010.

     

    Nivå 2 bilder från OLCI, specifikt från 2017 och 2018 med full upplösning, av nordvästra egentliga Östersjöns kust granskades för att ta bort pixlar samt bilder med förutbestämda egenskaper. Efter att antalet giltiga bilder per år kartlagts så beräknades klorofyll-a (chl_NN), turbiditet (härlett från TSM_NN) och CDOM (genom att använda ADG_443_NN som en proxy) för dessa bilder. Det gjordes genom att ta ett medelvärde för nio pixlar som inkluderade en provtagningsplats och dess omgivande pixlar. Dessa mätningar jämfördes sedan med parade in situ- mätningar tagna samma dag ±3 timmar av satellitens passering för att undersöka variationen mellan metodernas mätningar. Mätningar från Wetlabs WQM-boj analyserades också, och jämfördes med in situ-mätningar. För att bestämma kovarians mellan mätningar från OLCI och in situ användes Pearsons korrelation. Medelvärden av MNB (mean normalized bias), RMSE (root mean square error) och APD (absolute percentage difference) användes för att analysera prestandan för OLCI och mätboj jämfört med in situ-mätningar.

     

    OLCI producerade ett högre antal giltliga observationer per månad än sin föregångare MERIS för både station B1 och BY31. Den producerade även fler giltliga observationer per månad vid både B1 och BY31 än vad övervakningsteam från båt gjorde. Den nuvarande bildbehandlingen av OLCI underskattade koncentrationen av klorofyll-a (RMSE = 40%, MNB = -7%, APD = 49%, r = 0,48, p < 0,00001, N = 156) speciellt om koncentrationen av klorofyll-a mättes under perioderna med störst produktion. Mätbojen visade en betydligt högre korrelation, men med en större error och bias (RMSE = 43%, MNB = -39%, APD = 39%, r = 0,94, p < 0,00001, N = 12), och även den underskattade koncentrationen av klorofyll-a. Den nuvarande metoden att analysera havets färgparametrar via OLCI överskattade drastiskt turbiditet (RMSE = 1011%, MNB = 189%, APD = 214%, r = 0,55, p = 0,000097, N = 45) medan mätbojen hade en lägre varians (RMSE = 26%, MNB = 21%, APD = 21%, r = 0,69, p = 0,0132, N = 17). Slutligen var OLCI starkt korrelerad med in situ CDOM-värden (RMSE = 37%, MNB = -5%, APD = 51%, r = 0,82, p < 0,00001, N = 36).

     

    Ytterligare studier behövs för att avgöra om den mer specifika  rumsliga och temporära data som erbjuds av OLCI på Sentinel-3A är värda de fel som skapas av variationen i värdena av klorofyll-a och CDOM. Mätningarna för turbiditet är för närvarande oanvändbara och analysmetoden behöver omvärderas för Östersjön.

  • 8.
    Sanchez Garcia, Paula Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Political Economy of Deforestation of the Northwestern Colombian Amazon2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Amazon has experienced rapid forest loss in the past decades due to the growing colonization, infrastructure development and commercial agriculture expansion. Understanding the underlying social, political and economic drivers of deforestation is key to curb deforestation of the Amazon basin. However, analysis of deforestation has primarily been conducted in Brazil and there is a need to study this phenomenon in other countries such as Colombia. This research intends to contribute to this growing body of knowledge to better understand drivers and processes of deforestation in the Northwestern Colombian Amazon by unpacking the causal mechanism underpinning deforestation. To achieve this, I a used Theory-building Process-tracing approach to conceptualize the underlying logics of deforestation in the region. Data collection included qualitative text analysis of policy documents, articles, reports, and grey literature, and virtual semi-structured interviews with key national, regional and local actors. Interviews’ format was adapted due to current travelling and social restrictions. Findings indicate that the power vacuum resulting from FARC guerrilla demobilization acted as a window of opportunity for peasants, squatters, narco-traffickers, cattle ranchers, landlords and other investors to access public lands and capitalize from converting forests to coca crops and pastures for cattle ranching. Capital accumulation has increased actors’ ability to reshape the landscape and societal organization by accumulating different forms and sources of power. Traditional elites, and old and emerging narco-bourgeoisie have capitalized on preexisting power asymmetries by disproportionally accumulating different social power seeking to consolidate territorial hegemony. Powerful actors exercise attained sources and forms of power to dispose historically marginalized groups – such as indigenous communities, peasants, and squatters – from their means of subsistence and production, resulting in the instauration of a capitalist economy based on land rent and drug trafficking. All this has deepened forest loss, inequalities and conflict over land access between actors.

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  • 9.
    Skoogh, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Motivations for setting science-based targets for environmental impacts in eight Swedish sustainability frontrunner companies2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out if, how and in particular why companies are setting science-based goals and targets related to the Planetary boundaries framework (PBs), the Science-Based Target initiative (SBTi) and the Science-Based Targets Network (SBTN) guidelines, or science-based targets more broadly, for environmental impacts. A sub-question was what role culture, in particular values of people and companies, might play for that. A sample of eight sustainability frontrunner companies with awareness of the Planetary boundaries framework was investigated with a predominantly qualitative method.

    The results showed that the companies have several motivations for setting science-based targets, mostly related to the fact that they are, want to be and want to be seen as leaders in tackling sustainability issues and that science-based targets can contribute to that. The most important motives were related to the company's identity, brand and core values, expectations from stakeholders, to be strategic and focus on what is important, to focus on actions and follow them up, trustworthiness/credibility and ethical considerations.

    The connection to values was quite clear as suggested by the two most important motivations of 'identity, brand, and core values' and 'expectations from stakeholders'. The most important stakeholder group in this regard are employees, consumers, and owners, in that order. Expectations from stakeholders is connected to changing values in society. In a few cases, sustainability has been part of the companies' core values from the vary beginning, albeit not always labelled as such, or in most cases for a very long time and is considered as a 'part of the DNA'.

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  • 10.
    Thiel, Hannah
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring youth’s nature values and desirable future visions of the Royal National City Park in Stockholm2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As human activity continues to cause significant global issues, such as the decline of biodiversity, there is an increasing demand to engage with desirable visions of the future. Sustainability research emphasizes the significance of participatory approaches prioritizing nature and incorporating diverse human-nature relationships to promote more inclusive and sustainable paths to a positive future. However, the involvement of youth in current future studies is limited. Urban national parks provide valuable opportunities to investigate people-nature relations and their future. This study conducted a participatory futures workshop that combined the Natures Futures Framework and the Three Horizons Framework with fifteen young individuals living in Stockholm to capture their diverse nature relationships and positive future visions of the Royal National City Park in Stockholm. The workshop identified several aspects of nature in the park appreciated by the group, such as biodiversity, calmness, and the opportunity for recreation and connection to nature. If those values are projected onto a desirable future, this group of youth envisions the park to include reduced pollution, increased biodiversity, stronger protection and regulation, and prioritization of nature, with societal involvement and better accessibility. To support value-inclusive decision-making for the sustainable future of the Royal National City Park, collected values and visions were shared with park stakeholders. By collecting diverse nature value perspectives on a local scale using the Nature Futures Framework, this work contributes to the generation of a global perspective of desirable nature futures. While the Natures Futures Framework proved effective in generating rich value perspectives, a reflection survey revealed that not all participants found the framework easy to understand, particularly the difference between the different value perspectives presented in the framework. In conclusion, this study provides insights into possible futures and inspires actions toward a sustainable future where humans and nature coexist in harmony. 

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